A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline, operated with an high emphasis on minimizing operating costs and without some of the traditional services and amenities provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts. To make up for revenue lost in decreased ticket prices, the airline may charge extra fees – such as for carry-on baggage; as of July 2014, the world's largest low-cost carrier is Southwest Airlines, which operates in the United States and some surrounding areas. The term originated within the airline industry referring to airlines with a lower operating cost structure than their competitors. While the term is applied to any carrier with low ticket prices and limited services, regardless of their operating models, low-cost carriers should not be confused with regional airlines that operate short flights without service, or with full-service airlines offering some reduced fares; some airlines advertise themselves as low-cost, budget, or discount airlines while maintaining products associated with traditional mainline carrier's services—which can increase operational complexity.
These products include preferred or assigned seating, catering other items rather than basic beverages, differentiated premium cabins, satellite or ground-based Wi-Fi internet, in-flight audio and video entertainment. More the term "ultra low-cost carrier" differentiates some low-cost carriers in North America where traditional airlines offer a similar service model to low-cost carriers. Low-cost carrier business model practices vary widely; some practices are more common in certain regions, while others are universal. The common theme among all low-cost carriers is the reduction of cost and reduced overall fares compared to legacy carriers. Traditional airlines have reduced their cost using several of these practices. Most low-cost carriers operate aircraft configured with a single passenger class, most operate just a single aircraft type, so cabin and ground crew will only have to be trained to work on one type of aircraft; this is beneficial from a maintenance standpoint as spare parts and mechanics will only be dedicated to one type of aircraft.
These airlines tend to operate short-haul flights that suit the range of narrow-body planes. As of however there is a rise in demand for long range low-cost flights and the availability of next generation planes that make long haul routes more feasible for LCCs. In the past, low-cost carriers tended to operate older aircraft purchased second-hand, such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and older models of the Boeing 737. Since 2000, fleets consist of the newest aircraft the Airbus A320 family and Boeing 737. Although buying new aircraft is more expensive than second-hand, new planes are cheaper to operate in the long run since they are efficient in terms of fuel, training and crew costs per passenger. In 2013, ch-aviation published a study about the fleet strategy of low-cost carriers, they summarized that major LCCs that order aircraft in large numbers get large discounts for doing so, due to this they can sell their aircraft just a few years after delivery at a price high enough to keep their operating costs low.
Of course, the strategies of negotiating discounts for large orders and reselling planes are available to higher-cost carriers as well. Aircraft operate with a minimum set of optional equipment, further reducing costs of acquisition and maintenance, as well as keeping the weight of the aircraft lower and thus saving fuel. Ryanair seats do not have rear pockets, to reduce cleaning and maintenance costs. Others have no window shades. Pilot conveniences, such as ACARS, may be excluded. No in-flight entertainment systems are made available, though many US low-cost carriers do offer satellite television or radio in-flight, it is becoming a popular approach to install LCD monitors onto the aircraft and broadcast advertisements on them, coupled with the traditional route–altitude–speed information. Most do not offer reserved seating, hoping to encourage passengers to board early and thus decreasing turnaround times; some allow priority boarding for an extra fee instead of reserved seating, some allow reserving a seat in an emergency exit row at an extra cost.
Like the major carriers, many low-cost carriers develop one or more bases to maximize destination coverage and defend their market. Many do not operate traditional hubs, but rather focus cities. LCCs formed alliance themselves for example:U-FLY Alliance Airlines offer a simpler fare scheme, such as charging one-way tickets half that of round-trips. Fares increase as the plane fills up, which rewards early reservations. In Europe luggage is not transferred from one flight to another if both flights are with the same airline; this is thought to encourage passengers to take direct flights. Tickets are not sold with transfers, so the airline can avoid responsibility for passengers' connections in the event of a delay. Low-cost carriers have a sparse schedule with one flight per day and route, so it would be hard to find an alternative for a missed connection. Modern US-based low-cost carriers transfer baggage for continuing flights, as well as transferring baggage to other airlines. Many airlines opt to have passengers board via stairs, since jetways cost more to lease.
Low-cost carriers fly to smaller, less congested secondary airports and/or fly to airports during off-peak hours to avoid air traffic delays
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the southeasternmost county on the U. S. mainland. According to a 2017 census report, the county had a population of 2,751,796, making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States, it is Florida's third largest county in terms of land area, with 1,946 square miles. The county seat is the principal city in South Florida. Miami-Dade County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the county is home to 34 incorporated many unincorporated areas. The northern and eastern portions of the county are urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including South Florida's central business district, Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the region. Agricultural Redland makes up one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban northern portion of the county.
The county includes portions of two national parks. To the west it extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. East of the mainland, in Biscayne Bay, is Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves; the earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region came from about 12,000 years ago. The first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks; the inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled much of southeastern Florida, including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, the southern part of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did not practice agriculture, they buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay.
His journal records he reached Chequescha, a variant of Tequesta, Miami's first recorded name. It is unknown whether he made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés' missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier. Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year but it was short-lived. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, to ask if they could migrate there; the Cubans sent two ships to help them. The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef; some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River.
At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas, it was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing a total loss of population in Miami. After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River, he charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, six years a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area; the Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Dade County was created on January 1836, under the Territorial Act of the United States; the county was named after Major Francis L. Dade, a soldier killed in 1835 in the Second Seminole War, at what has since been named the Dade Battlefield.
At the time of its creation, Dade County included the land that now contains Palm Beach and Broward counties, together with the Florida Keys from Bahia Honda Key north and the land of present-day Miami-Dade County. The county seat was at Indian Key in the Florida Keys; the Florida Keys from Key Largo to Bahia Honda were returned to Monroe County in 1866. In 1888 the county seat was moved to Juno, near present-day Juno Beach, returning to Miami in 1899. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed from the northern portion of what was Dade County, in 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County. There have been no significant boundary changes to the county since 1915; the third-costliest natural disaster to occur in the United States was Hurricane Andrew, which hit Miami in the early morning of Monday, August 24, 1992. It struck the southern part of the county from due east, south of Miami and near Homestead and Cutler Ridge. Damages numbered over US$25 billion in the county alone, recovery has taken years in these areas where the destruction was greatest.
This was the costliest natural disaster in US history until Hurricane Katrina st
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
American Airlines, Inc. is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle. American operates out with Dallas/Fort Worth being its largest. American operates its primary maintenance base in Tulsa in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs; as of 2017, the company employs over 122,000 people. Through the airline's parent company, American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a market capitalization of about $25 billion as of 2017, included in the S&P 500 index.
American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines. The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport; the former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001. American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft.
The prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935. Its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3. American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey and Chicago, Illinois. In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better recognized brand internationally; as of December 2018, American Airlines flies to 95 domestic destinations and 95 international destinations in 55 countries in five continents. American operates ten hubs. Charlotte – American's hub for the Southeast. About 42 million passengers fly through CLT on about 115,000 people per day. American has about 91% of the market share at CLT, making it the airport's largest airline.
Chicago–O'Hare – American's hub for the Midwest. About 28 million passengers fly on American through O'Hare every year, or about 77,000 people per day. American has about 35% of the market share at O'Hare making it the airport's second-largest airline after United. Dallas/Fort Worth – American's hub for the South. American has about 84% of the market share and flies 57 million passengers through DFW every year, about 156,000 people per day making it the busiest airline at the airport. American's corporate headquarters are in Fort Worth near the airport. DFW serves as American's primary gateway to Mexico, secondary gateway to Latin America. Los Angeles – American's hub for the West Coast and its transpacific gateway. About 16.5 million passengers fly through LAX on American every year, or about 45,000 people per day. American has about 19 % of the market share at LAX. Miami – American's primary Latin American hub. About 30 million passengers fly through MIA every year on American, about 79,000 people per day.
American has about 68% of the market share at Miami International, making it the largest airline at the airport. New York–JFK – American's secondary transatlantic hub. About 7 million passengers fly through JFK on American every year, or about 19,000 people per day. American has about 12% of the market share at JFK, making it the third-largest carrier at the airport behind Delta and JetBlue. Since 2017, American has been reducing its international operations at JFK, opting to expand its Philadelphia hub instead. JFK serves as a major connecting point for other Oneworld carriers. New York–LaGuardia – American's second New York hub. About 8.5 million passengers fly through LGA on about 23,000 people per day. The airport serves as a base for American Airlines Shuttle. American has about 27% of the market share at LGA, is the second-largest carrier behind Delta. Philadelphia – American's primary transatlantic hub. Americ
The Boeing 727 is an American midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from the early 1960s to 1984. It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use short runways at smaller airports, it has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is the only Boeing trijet, as a commercial design entering production; the 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design. The 727-100 first flew in February 1963 and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in February 1964; the 727 became a mainstay of airlines' domestic route networks and was used on short- and medium-range international routes. Passenger and convertible versions of the 727 were built; the highest production rate of the 727 was in the 1970s.
As of July 2018, a total of 44 Boeing 727s were in commercial service with 23 airlines, plus a few more in government and private use. Airport noise regulations have led to 727s being equipped with hush kits. Since 1964, there have been 118 fatal incidents involving the Boeing 727. Successor models include variants of the 737 and the 757-200; the last commercial passenger flight of the type was in January 2019. The Boeing 727 design was a compromise among United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines. United Airlines requested a four-engine aircraft for its flights to high-altitude airports its hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. American Airlines, operating the four-engined Boeing 707 and Boeing 720, requested a twin-engined aircraft for efficiency. Eastern Airlines wanted a third engine for its overwater flights to the Caribbean, since at that time twin-engine commercial flights were limited by regulations to routes with 60-minute maximum flying time to an airport.
The three airlines agreed on a trijet design for the new aircraft. In 1959, Lord Douglas, chairman of British European Airways, suggested that Boeing and de Havilland Aircraft Company work together on their trijet designs, the 727 and D. H.121 Trident, respectively. The two designs had a similar layout, the 727 being larger. At that time Boeing intended to use three Allison AR963 turbofan engines, license-built versions of the Rolls-Royce RB163 Spey used by the Trident. Boeing and de Havilland each sent engineers to the other company's locations to evaluate each other's designs, but Boeing decided against the joint venture. De Havilland had wanted Boeing to license-build the D. H.121, while Boeing felt that the aircraft needed to be designed for the American market, with six-abreast seating and the ability to use runways as short as 4,500 feet. In 1960, Pratt & Whitney was looking for a customer for its new JT8D turbofan design study, based on its J52 turbojet, while United and Eastern were interested in a Pratt & Whitney alternative to the RB163 Spey.
Once Pratt & Whitney agreed to go ahead with development of the JT8D, Eddie Rickenbacker, chairman of the board of Eastern, told Boeing that the airline preferred the JT8D for its 727s. Boeing had not offered the JT8D, as it was about 1,000 lb heavier than the RB163, though more powerful. Boeing reluctantly agreed to offer the JT8D as an option on the 727, it became the sole powerplant. With high-lift devices on its wing, the 727 could use shorter runways than most earlier jets. 727 models were stretched to carry more passengers and replaced earlier jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, as well as aging propeller airliners such as the DC-4, DC-6, DC-7, the Lockheed Constellations on short- and medium-haul routes. For over a decade, more 727s were built per year than any other jet airliner; the airliner's middle engine at the rear of the fuselage gets air from an inlet ahead of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct. This S-duct proved to be troublesome in that flow distortion in the duct induced a surge in the centerline engine on the take-off of the first flight of the 727-100.
This was fixed by the addition of several large vortex generators in the inside of the first bend of the duct. The 727 was designed for smaller airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement; this led to one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in airstair that opens from the rear underbelly of the fuselage, which could be opened in flight. Hijacker D. B. Cooper used this hatch when he parachuted from the back of a 727, as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. Boeing subsequently modified the design with the Cooper vane so that the airstair could not be lowered in flight. Another innovation was the auxiliary power unit, which allowed electrical and air-conditioning systems to run independently of a ground-based power supply, without having to start one of the main engines. An unusual design feature is that the APU is mounted in a hole in the keel beam web, in the main landing gear bay; the 727 is eq
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Lockheed L-188 Electra
The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed. First flown in 1957, it was the first large turboprop airliner built in the United States. Initial sales were good, but after two fatal crashes that led to expensive modifications to fix a design defect, no more were ordered. With its unique high power-to-weight ratio, huge propellers and short wings, large Fowler flaps which increased effective wing area when extended, four-engined design, the airplane had airfield performance capabilities unmatched by many jet transport aircraft today—particularly on short runways and high field elevations. Jet airliners soon supplanted turboprops for many purposes, many Electras were modified as freighters; some Electras are still being used in various roles into the 21st century. The airframe was used as the basis for the much more successful Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft. Lockheed had established a strong position in commercial airliner production with its piston-engine Constellation series.
Further development brought turboprop engines to the Constellation airframe with the Lockheed L-1249 Super Constellation. In 1951, Lockheed was approached by Capital Airlines to develop a new turboprop airliner, designated the YC-130, however there was no interest from any other carriers, so the design was dropped. Subsequently, Capital Airlines went on to order 60 British Vickers Viscounts. In 1954, as a result of American Airlines' interest in developing a twin engine aircraft, the idea resurfaced and the company offered a twin-engine design now designated the CL-303; this newer design would allow for 60 to 70 passengers. This design was shelved for lack of interest from other carriers; the following year, American Airlines revised its requirement to a four-engine design for 75 passengers with 2,000 miles range. Lockheed proposed a new design, the CL-310 with a low wing and four Rolls-Royce Darts or Napier Elands; the CL-310 design met the American Airlines requirements, but failed to meet those of another interested carrier, Eastern Air Lines.
Its requirements were for a longer range. Lockheed redesigned the CL-310 to use the Allison 501-D13, a civilian version of the T56 developed for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules military transport; the airframe was stretched to handle the increased performance. This design was launched as the Model 188 with an order for 35 by American Airlines on June 8, 1955; this was followed by Eastern Air Lines with an order for 40 on September 27, 1955. The first aircraft took 26 months to complete and by that time Lockheed had orders for 129; the prototype, a Model 188A, first flew on December 1957, two months ahead of schedule. Lockheed was awarded a type certificate by the Civil Aeronautics Administration on 22 August 1958; the first delivery – to Eastern Air Lines – was on October 8, 1958, but it did not enter service until January 12, 1959. In 1957 the United States Navy issued a requirement for an advanced maritime patrol aircraft. Lockheed proposed a development of the Electra, placed into production as the P-3 Orion, which saw much greater success — the Orion has been in continual front-line service for more than 50 years.
The Model 188 Electra is a low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by four wing-mounted Allison 501-D13 turboprops. It has a conventional tail, it has a cockpit crew of three and can carry 66 to 80 passengers in a mixed-class arrangement, although 98 could be carried in a high-density layout. The first variant was the Model 188A, followed by the longer-range 188C with room for 1,000 US gallons more fuel and maximum take-off weight 3,000 pounds higher. American Airlines was the launch customer. Eastern Air Lines, Braniff Airways and Northwest Airlines followed; the Electra suffered a troubled start. Passengers of early aircraft complained of noise in the cabin forward of the wings, caused by propeller resonance. Lockheed redesigned the engine nacelles; the changes were incorporated on the production line by mid-1959 or as modification kits for the aircraft built, resulted in improved performance and a better ride for passengers. Three aircraft were lost in fatal accidents between February 1959 and March 1960.
After the third crash, the FAA limited the Electra's speed. After an extensive investigation, two of the crashes were found to be caused by an engine mount problem; the mounts were not strong enough to damp a phenomenon called "whirl mode flutter" that affected the outboard engine nacelles. When the oscillation was transmitted to the wings and the flutter frequency decreased to a point where it was resonant with the outer wing panels, violent up-and-down oscillation increased until the wings would tear off; the company implemented an expensive modification program in which the engine mounts and the wing structures supporting the mounts were strengthened, some of the wing skins were replaced with thicker material. All Electras were modified at Lockheed's expense at the factory, the modifications taking 20 days for each aircraft; the changes were incorporated in aircraft as they were built. However, the damage had been done, the public lost confidence in the type; this and the smaller jets that were being introduced relegat