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Air Force One

Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the president of the United States. In common parlance, the term is used to denote U. S. Air Force aircraft used to transport the president; the aircraft are prominent symbols of its power. The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor to the U. S. Air Force, became concerned about using commercial airlines for presidential travel. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as the first dedicated VIP-and-presidential transport aircraft and named Guess Where II, but the Secret Service rejected it because of its safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was converted for presidential use; the "Air Force One" call sign was created in 1953, after a Lockheed Constellation named Columbine II carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower entered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same flight number.

Other Air Force Ones have included another Lockheed Constellation, Columbine III, two Boeing 707s, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1990, the presidential fleet has consisted of two Boeing VC-25As: customized Boeing 747-200B aircraft; the U. S. Air Force has ordered two Boeing 747-8s to serve as the next Air Force Ones. On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U. S. president to fly in an aircraft, an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field near St. Louis, Missouri, he was no longer in office at the time. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a county fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel. Before World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare; the lack of wireless telecommunication and available modes of transportation made long-distance travel impractical, as it took too much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D. C. Railroads were a more reliable option if the president needed to travel to distant states.

By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U. S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel for longer trips. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office; the first aircraft obtained for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933, designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the naval base at Anacostia D. C; the Dolphin was modified with luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. There are no reports, however, on whether the president flew in the aircraft.

During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles in three legs. The threat from the German submarines throughout the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation. Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the commander-in-chief; the first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87A VIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service. However, after a review of the C-87's controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage.

As the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, it presented strong offensive impressions to enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign destinations visited, an issue not present with airplanes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries; the C-87 was scrapped in 1945. The Secret Service subsequently reconfigured a Douglas C-54 Skymaster for presidential transport duty; the VC-54C aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow, included a sleeping area, radio telephone, retractable elevator to lift Roosevelt in his wheelchair. As modified, the VC-54C was used by President Roosevelt only once before his death, on his trip to the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Sacred Cow is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. After Roosevelt's death in April 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman became president.

The legislation that created the U. S. Air Force, the National Security Act of 1947, was signed by Truman while on board the VC-54C, he replaced the VC-54C in 1947 with a modified C-118 Liftmaster, calling it the Independence after his Missouri hometown. It was given a distinctive exterior, as its nose wa

Spanish immigration to Peru

A Spanish Peruvian is a Peruvian citizen of Spanish descent. Among European Peruvians, the Spanish are the largest group of immigrants to settle in the country. In 1532, the Spanish conquistadores arrived in Peru; as they began to conquer the country, their culture and influence spread throughout the nation. Not only did their ideology spread, their population did as well. Over the period of the Peruvian colonial era, hundreds of thousands of Spanish immigrants flooded into Peruvian ports; these Spanish-born immigrants, called Peninsulares, caused much friction between themselves and the locally born Spanish criollos or creoles. The peninsulares had a distinctly higher social rank than the criollos though their only difference was their place of birth; the peninsulares were given the highest governing positions, while the criollos, although much more wealthy than the mestizos and amerindians, did not receive all of the privileges given to the Spain-born Spanish. This would lead to the independence movement in the early 19th century.

During the colonial period, the Spanish crown disallowed the immigration of other Europeans to Peru. For this reason, throughout the entire colonial period, up until independence, the European population in Peru was made up of Spaniards. Around the time of independence the rate of immigration was low and not many Europeans were entering the country; the nation was, in essence, in a state of chaos, for the reason that the government was still in the process of deciding how it would rule the newly independent country. At this time, many caudillos, or dictators, attempted to assume control of the nation; some of these attempts, such as that of Simón Bolívar, were met with approval from the public, while others were not. Spanish immigration did not resume until the 1840s at the beginning of the Guano era, one of Peru's most prosperous time periods. During this era, immigration from Spain increased and the economy was booming and standard of living was high; this era ended in 1866 with the Spanish-Peruvian War.

After the war, immigration decreased although the influx of immigrants remained steady until the 1930s. During the Spanish Civil War, thousands of Spaniards fled from Spain to Peru. Over the course of General Francisco Franco's dictatorship many thousands more fled in fear of the regime; the Spanish republicans fled Franco's regime as well, seeking to escape retribution from the new government. World War II brought the end of Spanish immigration to Peru. Many Spanish Peruvians left the nation in 1960s and 1970s to flee from excessive poverty and dictatorship of Gen. Juan Velasco Alvarado and most of these moved to United States and Spain, while most of the rest to Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom; the second wave of Spanish and other white Peruvians left during the Alan Garcia regime that led Peru to extreme poverty and hyperinflation. Immigration from Spain began again in considerable numbers throughout the 20th century due to many Spanish tourists settling in Peru; the regions from which most Spanish immigrants originated were Extremadura, Galicia and Andalucía.

Most of the colonial immigrants, in consequence, went from the southern regions of Spain to what now is considered the coastal Peruvian region. These immigrants departed from the ports of Cadiz and Sevilla and arrived in the ports of Callao and Pimentel. Many of these immigrants made a stopover in a Caribbean port before arriving in Peru. Before the development of the Panama Canal ships were forced to go around Cape Horn to reach Peruvian ports. Although not many, a few travelers made their way from Europe to Peru via the Amazon River; these immigrants would seek passage on the many commercial ships going to retrieve rubber in Peru to bring back to Europe. These immigrants would arrive at the river port of Iquitos. All of them stayed there; these immigrants numbered no more than a few thousand. There are a group of Hebrew origin, although most emigrated in the Colonial era; the Sephardim who emigrated to different countries to late nineteenth and twentieth centuries were from North Africa and the Balkans, not from Spain or Portugal.

As a result of Alhambra Decree and the conversions due to the Inquisition in Spain and its respective colonies since the late fifteenth century until early nineteenth emigrated to North Africa, regions of the Ottoman Empire and to a lesser extent Italy, although to the Netherlands and its colonies. However, many migrated to the Spanish or Portuguese colonies in the Americas in Colonial times, most of them marranos, their descendants are mixed people with local population and profess Christianity Catholicism. Around 44% of Peruvians are mestizos, more than 7% are mulattoes, making a total of 51% mixed segment, Fondo de Cooperación Hispano Peruano Centro Hispano-Peruano Cooperacion Hispano Peruano Federación de Asociaciones de Peruanos en España Embajada De España en Peru Centro Cultural Hispano Americano Asociación Hispano-Peruano Asociación de Genealogía Hispana Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud Asociacion de medicos Hispano-Peruanos Peru–Spain relations

Dhiraj Bhattacharya

Dhiraj Bhattacharya was an actor of Bengali and Hindi cinema who began in silent films. He was a theater personality and writer. Bhattacharya was born near Jessore, in British India, his father name was Lalit Mohan Bhattacharya. He entered Mitra Institution and passed matriculation in 1923, he could not finish his studies. He joined the police service before becoming an actor. Bhattacharya started his acting career after joining Madan Theatre, his first film Sati Lakhsmi was released in 1925 but he first gained recognition from Charu Roy's movie Bengalee. He worked with Madhu Basu in Giribala, acted in several detective and thriller films of Premendra Mitra. Bhattacharya was popular for hisvromantic performances as well as his innovative skills in portraying villainous characters. After becoming established as a film actor he turned to the theatre. Sati Lakshmi Giribala Kal Parinaya Mrinalini Nauka Dubi Radha Krishna Dakinir Char Neela Chole Mahaprabhu Krishnakanter Will Chand Saudagar Mandir Chandragupta Chand Sadagar Daksha Yagna Satya Pathe Moyla Kagaj Basabdatta Adarsha Hindu Hotel Kankal Ora Thake Odhare Bangalee Hanabari Kalo Chhaya Bardidi Wapas Irada Kumkum The Dancer Bhattacharya published his autobiographical story in two parts, He wrote a few story books: Jakhan Police Chilam Jakhan Nayak Chilam Mahua Milan Sajano Bagan Mon Nie Khela Dhiraj Bhattacharya on IMDb