Carl Andrew Spaatz, nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general. As commander of Strategic Air Forces in Europe in 1944, he pressed for the bombing of the enemy's oil production facilities as a priority over other targets, he became Chief of Staff of the newly formed United States Air Force in 1947. He added the second "a" to his surname in 1937 at the request of his wife and three daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name, as many pronounced it "spats." The second "a" was added, as it was in the European branch of his family, to draw out the sound like an "ah", similar to the "a" in "father." The result was intended to suggest a Dutch rather than a German origin. However, he was of German ancestry. Spaatz received his nickname "Tooey" at West Point because of his resemblance to another red-headed cadet named F. J. Toohey, he graduated as a second lieutenant of Infantry 12 June 1914, ranked 97th out of a class of 107. He served with the 25th Infantry at Schofield Barracks, until his assignment to the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, between 13 October 1915 and 15 May 1916, for pilot training.
He was detailed to the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps in Mexico on 8 June 1916 after earning his Junior Military Aviator rating. Spaatz served in the First Aero Squadron, attached to General John J. Pershing during the Punitive Expedition. Spaatz was promoted to first lieutenant on 1 July 1916 and to captain on 15 May 1917. Following America's entry into World War I, Spaatz was sent with the American Expeditionary Forces in command of the 31st Aero Squadron. Spaatz was appointed Officer in Charge, American Aviation School at Issoudun, France but after receiving orders to return to the United States, he saw three weeks of action during the final months of the war with the 13th Aero Squadron as a supernumerary pilot. In this brief period, Spaatz shot down three enemy planes and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. In early 1919, Spaatz was appointed to lead one of the three "troupes" of the U. S. Army Air Service Victory Loan Flying Circus, his group fifty enlisted men. His airplanes included on the tour included five JN6 Jennies, five Fokker D VIIs, four RAE SE-5s and five Spad VIIs.
The team gave promotional rides and flew aerial demonstrations across the Western and Southwestern United States from early April through mid-May 1919 to raise money to retire the World War I debt. Spaatz served in California and Texas and became assistant department air service officer for the Western Department in July 1919. Spaatz experienced the chaotic ups and downs in rank common to Regular officers in 1920, when the National Defense Act of 1920 reorganized the military, he first reverted to his permanent rank of captain of Infantry on 27 February 1920. On 1 July, when the Air Service became a combatant arm of the line, he transferred to the Air Service as a captain was promoted to major on the same date by virtue of a provision in the National Defense Act that allowed officers who earned their rank in service with the AEF to retain it; this made him senior to a number of officers, including Henry H. Arnold, with greater longevity of service. On 18 December 1922, Spaatz was discharged when Congress set a new ceiling on the number of majors authorized the Air Service, reappointed as a captain promoted again to major on 1 February 1923.
As a major, Spaatz commanded Kelly Field, from October 5, 1920 to February 1921, served at Fort Sam Houston as air officer of the Eighth Corps Area until November 1921, was commanding officer of the 1st Pursuit Group, first at Ellington Field, at Selfridge Field, until September 24, 1924. He graduated from the Air Corps Tactical School, Langley Field, Virginia, in June 1925, served in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps at Washington, D. C; that year he testified for the defence at the court-martial of Colonel Billy Mitchell. From January 1 to January 7, 1929, Spaatz along with fellow Air Corps officers, Captain Ira Eaker and Lieutenant Elwood Quesada, both of whom would become senior United States Army Air Forces generals, established an aviation record by keeping the airplane Question Mark in the air over the Los Angeles vicinity for over 150 hours. From May 8, 1929, to October 29, 1931, Spaatz commanded the 7th Bombardment Group at Rockwell Field and the 1st Bombardment Wing at March Field, until June 10, 1933.
He served in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps and became chief of the Training and Operations Division. In August 1935, he enrolled in the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth and while there was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 16 September, he graduated in June 1936, served at Langley Field on the staff of Major General Frank M. Andrews, commander of General Headquarters Air Force, until January 1939, when he returned to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps at Washington as assistant executive officer. On 7 November 1939, Spaatz received a temporary promotion to colonel, during the Battle of Britain in 1940, spent several weeks in England as a special military observer. In August, he was assigned in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps, two months was appointed assistant to the chief of Air Corps, General Arnold, with the temporary rank of brigadier general, he became chief of the Plans Division of the Air Corps in November 1940, the following July was named chief of the air staff at Army Air Forces Headquarters.
Army Chief of Staff
Air Force Systems Command
The Air Force Systems Command is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command. It was established in April 1951; the mission of AFSC was Development for new weapons systems. AFSC took on engineering functions which resided in the Air Materiel Command, the Army Air Forces Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command as a separate research and development command in 1950, it incorporated Air Proving Ground Command in 1957. On 1 July 1992, AFSC and Air Force Logistics Command were merged to form the Air Force Materiel Command, located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. In the reorganization of 1961, Air Force Systems Command acquired the materiel procurement function from Air Force Logistics Command, it was re-integrated with Air Force Logistics Command in 1992. The origins of Air Force Systems Command date at least to the establishment of the Airplane Engineering Department by the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, on 13 October 1917 at McCook Field, Ohio. Re-designated the Engineering Division of the U.
S. Army Air Service in March 1919, this organization carried out the research and testing of military aircraft, engines and accessories. Renamed the Materiel Division of the newly established Army Air Corps in October 1926, it undertook the procurement and maintenance activities of Army aviation. American aviation development fell behind its European rivals after the mid-1930s when Germany started a continental arms race; the threat of war at the decade's end began to change the situation. During the late 1930s American industry spent over $100 million annually on aviation research. University grants grew and military personnel enrollment in science courses increased. Leaders of the Army Air Forces were alarmed by many of the new weapons that would revolutionize air warfare which had emerged from foreign laboratories. Radar, jet aircraft and ballistic missiles had all either originated or been perfected outside the United States. Congress increased funds for R&D. Subsequently, the engineering function resided in the Materiel Command, the AAF Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command, the Air Materiel Command.
The war had shown the destructiveness of aerial attack and made Arnold an aggressive advocate for aeronautical research. On 7 November 1944, General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, directed the AAF Scientific Advisory Group to study the technological achievements of America's wartime allies and provide a blueprint for large-scale research and development of science and advanced technology for the Air Force. However, the Army Air Forces needed to achieve independence, which it did on 18 September 1947, with its transition into an independent United States Air Force; the role of the Air Force in the postwar world had to be defined. The 1948 Finletter Commission published its report, Survival in the Air Age, in January 1948, it set forth a new concept of airpower, i.e. a powerful peacetime force able to counter any enemy air attack. The Finletter Report inspired a group of senior USAF officers with backgrounds in engineering and related fields to analyze the existing R&D organization.
Their findings, the salesmanship of Generals Jimmy Doolittle and Donald Putt, convinced Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt S. Vandenberg to put the R&D mission on a more equal footing with the operational Air Force. Accordingly, in the face of intense Air Staff opposition, on 23 January 1950, the Research and Development Command came into being. Eight months it was re-designated the Air Research and Development Command as a separate organization devoted to research and development. Research and Development Command was redesignated the Air Research and Development Command on September 16, 1950, the Arnold Engineering Development Center was dedicated by President Harry S. Truman on June 25, 1951. During the 1950s, the new command began to make its mark. ARDC developed many ambitious missile prototypes. Among the successes of this period were the North American F-86 Sabre swept wing fighter, the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress intercontinental bomber, the Lockheed C-130 Hercules turboprop transport and the Lockheed U-2 high-altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft.
In addition, ARDC played a major contribution in the development of Intercontinental ballistic missiles, which became a priority after the world learned that the Soviet Union had detonated a thermonuclear bomb on 23 August 1953. A crash program was employed which developed America's first ICBM, that became operational in 1959. In terms of importance and success, the ICBM program was rivaled only by the famed Manhattan Project of World War II. AIMACO, the "Supply Control Command compiler" for Air Materiel Command, began circa 1959 with the definition of a high level programming language influenced by the UNIVAC Flow-Matic and COMTRAN programming languages; the draft AIMACO language definition was developed by an AMC-chaired committee of industry representatives from IBM, United States Steel, AMC Programming Services. AIMACO had two compilers specified/designed, AMC intended all programming for AMC systems would be in AIMACO and compiled on a UNIVAC at the AMC headquarters at Wright-Patterson AFB for operation on UNIVAC or IBM computers.
An alternative compiler was designed by AMC Programming Services to compile systems on IBM computers for operation on IBM computers. AIMACO, along with COMTRAN, influenced development of the COBOL programming language; the Atlas program led to the
Brookley Air Force Base
For the civil use of Brookley AFB after 1969, see: Mobile Downtown AirportBrookley Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in Mobile, Alabama. After it closed in 1969, it became. Brookley Air Force Base had its aeronautical beginnings with Mobile's first municipal airport, the original Bates Field. However, the site itself had been occupied from the time of Mobile's founding, starting with the home of Mobile's founding father, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, in the early 18th century. In 1938 the Army Air Corps took over the 1,000-acre Bates Field site and established the Brookley Army Air Field; the military was attracted to the site because of the area's good flying weather and the bay-front location, but Alabama Congressman Frank Boykin's influence in Washington was important in convincing the Army to locate the new military field in Mobile instead of Tampa, Florida. However that year, Tampa was chosen for a military flying installation of its own, which would be named MacDill Field, home of present-day MacDill Air Force Base.
During World War II, Brookley Army Air Field became the major Army Air Forces supply base for the Air Material Command in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean. Many air depot personnel, logisticians and other support personnel were trained at Brookley during the war. Both Air Materiel and Technical Services Command organized mobile Depot Groups at Brookley once trained were deployed around the world as Air Depot Groups, Depot Repair Squadrons, Quartermaster Squadrons, Ordnance Maintenance, Military Police, many other units whose mission was to support the front-line combat units with depot-level maintenance for aircraft and logistical support to maintain their operations. Air Transport Command operated large numbers of cargo and passenger aircraft from the base as part of its Domestic Wing. During the war, Brookley became Mobile's largest employer, with about 17,000 skilled civilians capable of performing delicate work with fragile instruments and machinery. In 1944, the Army decided to take advantage of Brookley's large, skilled workforce for its top-secret "Ivory Soap" project to hasten victory in the Pacific.
The project required 24 large vessels to be re-modeled into Aircraft Repair and Maintenance Units that had to be able to accommodate B-29 bombers, P-51 Mustangs, R-4B Sikorsky helicopters, amphibious vehicles. The Air Force delivered all 24 vessels to Alabama, in spring 1944 to start remodeling; some 5,000 men underwent a complex training process that prepared them to rebuild the vessels and operate them once on the water. By the end of the year, the vessels departed Mobile. One of the keys to Allied victory in Europe was the Norden Bomb Sight, which enabled bomber squadrons to target Germany's war-making industry and infrastructure much more accurately; the military repaired and calibrated the bombsights at Brookley in a secret facility, still standing and in use today. In 1944 with the closure of the Army contract flying school at nearby Bates Army Airfield, Air Transport Command operations were shifted to Bates to alleviate runway traffic at Brookley. Late in 1945 Bates Field was returned to civil ATC operations returned to Brookley.
Following World War II and the creation of an independent United States Air Force, the installation became Brookley Air Force Base. In 1947 with the closure of Morrison Field, the C-74 Globemaster project was moved to Brookley; the C-74 was, at the time, the largest military transport aircraft in the world. It was developed by Douglas Aircraft after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the long distances across the Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean to the combat areas indicated a need for a transoceanic heavy-lift military transport aircraft. The "C-74 squadron", Air Transport Command operated two squadrons of C-74 Globemasters from Brookley from 1947 until their retirement in 1955; the eleven aircraft were used extensively for worldwide transport of personnel and equipment, supporting United States military missions. They saw extensive service supporting the Berlin Airlift and the Korean War being used on scheduled MATS overseas routes though the late 1940s and mid-1950s. Additionally, logistic support flights for Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command saw the Globemaster in North Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, within the United States.
Two C-74s were used to support the first TAC Republic F-84 Thunderjet flight across the Pacific Ocean to Japan. SAC continued to use the Globemasters to rotate Boeing B-47 Stratojet Medium Bombardment Groups on temporary duty in England and Morocco as part of their REFLEX operation; the C-74s were retired in 1955 due to lack of logistical support. The 1701st ATW flew strategic airlift missions on a worldwide scale with its C-124 Globemaster II fleet after the retirement of the C-74 until 1957 when Military Air Transport Service moved out of Brookley AFB and the base came under the full jurisdiction of Air Material Command. In 1962, the Air Material Command was renamed as the Air Force Logistics Command and Brookley AFB became an AFLC installation and the host base of the modification and repair center's successor organization, the Mobile Air Materiel Area. After an immediate end to many of the wartime jobs of World War II, the base's civilian workforce again expanded to around 16,000 people by 1962, a result of both the Cold War and other USAF base closings in other areas of the country.
During this time, AFLC's Mobile Air Materiel Area provided depot-level maintenance for various USAF aircraft of the period, to include the C-119 Flying Boxcar
McClellan Air Force Base
McClellan Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in the North Highlands area of Sacramento County, 7 miles northeast of Sacramento, California. For the vast majority of its operational lifetime, McClellan was a logistics and maintenance facility for a wide variety of military aircraft and supplies; the depot went through several name changes, finishing its life in 1995 as the Sacramento Air Logistics Center. The SALC reported to the Air Force Logistics Command and the Air Force Materiel Command. In 1986, the U. S. Air Force established the McClellan Aviation Museum on what was McClellan Air Force Base; the museum was chartered by the National Museum of the United States Air Force. The United States Coast Guard operated Coast Guard Air Station Sacramento at McClellan AFB as a tenant activity and maintaining several HC-130 Hercules aircraft. CGAS Sacramento continues to operate at McClellan following its closure as an Air Force Base and is the only remaining military aviation unit and installation on the airfield.
In 1993, the base was selected by the Pentagon for closure. At first, McClellan was scratched from a list of bases to be closed, but that decision was faced with allegations that the Clinton administration was playing politics; the base was selected for closure, there were plans to offset the expected loss of $1.5 billion, 11,000 jobs, to the California economy. The plan relied on other investment to offset the economic and employment losses. In 2005 the McClellan Aviation Museum changed its name to the Aerospace Museum of California. Various military aircraft sit on display inside one of the hangars, many more are outside on the flightline; the museum has displays which highlight the mission of the base when it was active, as well as neighboring bases such as Beale AFB, Travis AFB and the since closed Mather AFB. The museum hosts educational programs to schools in the local area. In 2015 the Sacramento Bee reported that McClellan Airfield had been designated as a Superfund site, because the Environmental Protection Agency has identified 326 waste areas on the base.
Water wells closest to the base in the Rio Linda-Elverta district, have had the highest levels of hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen. Water from six of 11 wells tested above the state’s maximum contaminant levels for chromium-6, 10 parts per billion. Pacific Air Depot, 1935 - 1 February 1937 Sacramento Air Depot 1 February 1937 - 1 December 1939 McClellan Field, 1 December 1939 - 13 January 1948 McClellan Air Force Base Materiel Division, United States Army Air Corps, 24 August 1938 - 11 December 1941 Air Service Command, 11 December 1941 - 17 July 1944 Army Air Forces Materiel and Services Command, 17 July 1944 - 31 August 1944 Army Air Forces Technical Service Command, 31 August 1944 - 1 July 1945 Air Technical Service Command, 1 July 1945 - 9 March 1946 Air Materiel Command, 9 March 1946 - 1 April 1961 Air Force Logistics Command, 1 April 1961 - 1 July 1992 Air Force Materiel Command, 1 July 1992 - 13 July 2001 California World War II Army Airfields Western Air Defense Force 8th Air Division Doolittle Raid McClellan AFB Annex California Military History Museum, McClellan Air Force Base Aerospace Museum of California website Oroville Mercury Register re: Aero Union move to McClellan
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
The Boeing GA-1 was an armored triplane. Designed in 1919, it was powered by a pair of modified Liberty engines driving pusher propellers; the first of the Engineering Division's armored GAX series aircraft, the ponderous airplane was intended to strafe ground troops while remaining immune to attack from the ground as well as from other enemy aircraft. It was so well armored. Soon after the end of World War I, the US Army sought to explore armored and armed specialist ground-attack aircraft; this was a pet project of General William Mitchell. The Army Air Service Engineering Division issued requests for proposals to U. S. aircraft producers on 15 October 1919. There were no designs offered, so the Engineering Division ordered one of its engineers, Isaac M. Laddon, to attempt what the aviation industry considered impossible, his design, designated GAX, first flew at McCook Field on 26 May 1920. The GAX was McCook Field Project P129 and wore AAS serial number 63272. Aerodynamic cleanliness was sacrificed to fields of fire for its eight machine guns.
The sturdy structure was able to carry a heavy load of ammunition along with about 2,200 lb of armor plate. The result was an angular machine of wire-braced wooden construction with plywood and fabric covering. A rectangular-section fuselage carried the forward gunner in an open nose position, the pilot in a semi-enclosed cockpit with armored shutters for forward vision, the rear gunner in an open dorsal position; the engines were carried in mid-wing nacelles. As designed, the armament was comprehensive; the pilot was in control of a 37 mm cannon, four fixed Lewis guns fired forward and down, a machine gun fired forward and upward over the wings. A further two Lewis guns fired to the rear and downwards and a single machine gun up and over the wings. A gunner's position was in the nose; the armor covered the front half of the engine housings. The top wing was of larger span than the lower ones. Span decreased from 65 ft 6 in to 58 ft 6 in between lower wings. On 7 June 1920, Boeing was awarded a contract for 20 production models designated GA-1.
Before the first was delivered in May 1921, the order had been reduced to ten. The production aircraft wore Boeing constructors' numbers 200-209 and AAC serial numbers 64146-64155. Number 64146 was evaluated at McCook as project P187; the follow-on GA-2 was flown at McCook field in December 1921 with orders to construct two more aircraft. The GA-1 were sent to Kelly Field, Texas, in early 1923 for service tests with the only US aerial attack formation, the 3rd Attack Group; these tests showed the aircraft to be unacceptable. They had poor visibility and performance in rate of climb and range; the aircraft suffered from noise and vibrations caused by the 3/16-inch -thick armor. Takeoff runs were long by the standards of the day; the GA-1s were unpopular with the pilots conducting the evaluation. As a result, in 1925 the entire country's attack air force consisted of fourteen Airco DH-4 machines, inadequate for training, let alone for combat, it was rumored that the GA-1s survived until surveyed on 14 January 1926, so that Kelly Field pilots could be threatened with being forced to fly them for disciplinary infractions.
All were scrapped in April 1926. GA-1 armored triplane, one pilot and two gunners, two Liberty L-12A Vee pusher engines of 435 hp, ten built GA-2 biplane, one pilot and two gunners, 750 hp Engineering Division W-18 engine, one 37mm cannon and 6 0.3 in machine guns, two built United StatesUnited States Army Air Service Data from "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft"General characteristics Crew: three Length: 33 ft 7 in Wingspan: 65 ft 6 in Height: 14 ft 3 in Wing area: 1016 ft2 Empty weight: 7,834 lb Gross weight: 10,426 lb Powerplant: 2 × Liberty L-12A Pusher, 435 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 105 mph Cruise speed: 95 mph Range: 350 miles Service ceiling: 11,500 ft Rate of climb: 600 ft/min Armament 1 x 37 mm Baldwin cannon 8 x.30 cal. Browning machine guns With some machine guns removed, 10 small fragmentation bombs could be carried. Related lists List of Ray. American Combat Planes. Garden City, NY: Hanover House, 1968. ISBN 0-385-04134-9 Eden, Paul, & Moeng, editors; the Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft.
London: Amber Books Ltd. 2002. ISBN 0-7607-3432-1 https://web.archive.org/web/20070311012905/http://www.ascho.wpafb.af.mil/REMARKABLE/CHAP2. HTM http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/academic/history/marshall/military/airforce/usaf_descriptions/bombers.txt http://www.aerofiles.com/_boe2.html https://web.archive.org/web/20081013113730/http://home.att.net/~jbaugher/1908-1920.html "The U. S. "G. A. X." Ground Attack Triplane" Flight 1921
88th Air Base Wing
The United States Air Force's 88th Air Base Wing is a base support unit located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The wing has been stationed at Wright-Patterson, known familiarly as'Wright-Patt', since its activation in 1944 AS the 4000th Army Air Forces Base Unit in 1944, from 1944 to 1994 undergone six redesignations; the wing's mission c. 2012 is to operate the airfield, maintain all infrastructure and provide security, medical, personnel, finance, air traffic control, weather forecasting, public affairs and chaplain services for more than 60 associate units on Wright-Patterson AFB. The unit was organized by Air Service Command to provide custodial and support functions for Wright Field; the mission of both the unit and the AAF Technical Base expanded by early 1946, gaining full support responsibility for Patterson Field. The 2750th became host wing for Wright-Patterson AFB in October 1949, exercising command jurisdiction over the base, providing services to Headquarters of Air Force Logistics Command and numerous tenant units.
It supported regional humanitarian missions, such as the Xenia tornado relief in April 1974. It provided logistical support and served as a port of embarkation during contingency deployments, most notably the Vietnam War in 1965–1973, as well as to the Middle Eat in 1990-1991, it deployed personnel to Saudi Arabia for'Operation Desert Shield'/Desert Storm in August 1990-May 1991. After 1 July 1992 it provided logistic and administrative support for Headquarters, Air Force Materiel Command and the Aeronautical Systems Center, now known as the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, as well as on-base and off-base tenant units in a five-state area and managed base facilities and resources, it provided airfield operations, services and logistical support to the Balkans Proximity Peace Talks conducted at the base in late 1995. Designated as the 4000th Army Air Forces Base Unit and organized on 1 April 1944 Redescribed 4000th Army Air Forces Base Unit on 21 February 1945 Redesignated 4000th Air Force Base Unit on 26 September 1947 Redesignated 2750th Air Force Base on 28 August 1948 Redesignated 2750th Air Base Wing on 5 October 1949Redesignated 645th Air Base Wing on 1 October 1992 Redesignated 88th Air Base Wing on 1 October 1994 Army Air Forces Technical Service Command, 1 April 1944 Aeronautical Systems Center, 1 July 1992 Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, 1 October 2012 88th Communications Group 88th Maintenance Group 88th Medical Group, 20 October 2004 – present 88th Mission Support Group 645th Communications-Computer Support Group 645th Logistics and Operations Group 645th Support Group, 1 October 1992 – present 2046th Communications Group, c. 1 September 1990 – present 2750th Logistics and Operations Group, c.
1990-c. 2012 88th Operations Support Squadron 88th Comptroller Squadron 88th Communications Squadron 47th Airlift Flight, 1 October 1994 – 1 July 1995 Patterson Field, Ohio, 1 April 1944 Wright Field, Ohio, 18 August 1944 – present C-12 Huron Explanatory notes Citations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Mueller, Robert. Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. Retrieved December 17, 2016. Wright-Patterson AFB Homepage