SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Air Ministry

The Air Ministry was a department of the Government of the United Kingdom with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force, that existed from 1918 to 1964. It was under the political authority of the Secretary of State for Air. On 13 April 1912, less than two weeks after the creation of the Royal Flying Corps, an Air Committee was established to act as an intermediary between the Admiralty and the War Office in matters relating to aviation; the new Air Committee was composed of representatives of the two war ministries, although it could make recommendations, it lacked executive authority. The recommendations of the Air Committee had to be ratified by the Admiralty Board and the Imperial General Staff and, in consequence, the Committee was not effective; the increasing separation of army and naval aviation from 1912 to 1914 only exacerbated the Air Committee's ineffectiveness and the Committee did not meet after the outbreak of the First World War. By 1916 the lack of co-ordination of the Army's Royal Flying Corps and the Navy's Royal Naval Air Service had led to serious problems, not only in the procurement of aircraft engines, but in the air defence of Great Britain.

It was the supply problems. The War Committee meeting on 15 February 1916 decided to establish a standing joint naval and military committee to co-ordinate both the design and the supply of materiel for the two air services; this committee was titled the Joint War Air Committee, its chairman was Lord Derby. It was at the meeting on 15 February that Curzon proposed the creation of an Air Ministry; as with the pre-war Air Committee, the Joint War Air Committee lacked any executive powers and therefore was not effective. After only eight sittings, Lord Derby resigned from the Committee, stating that "It appears to me quite impossible to bring the two wings closer together... unless and until the whole system of the Air Service is changed and they are amalgamated into one service." The Joint War Air Committee was composed as follows: Chairman – Lord Derby Director of Air Services – Rear Admiral C L Vaughn Lee Superintendent of Aircraft Design – Commodore M F Sueter Squadron Commander W Briggs Director of Military AeronauticsMajor-General Sir David Henderson Lieutenant-Colonel E L EllingtonAdvisory Members were appointed as required.

The next attempt to establish effective co-ordination between the two air services was the creation of an Air Board. The first Air Board came into being on 15 May 1916 with Lord Curzon as its chairman; the inclusion of Curzon, a Cabinet Minister, other political figures was intended to give the Air Board greater status than the Joint War Air Committee. In October 1916 the Air Board published its first report, critical of the arrangements within the British air services; the report noted that although the Army authorities were ready and willing to provide information and take part in meetings, the Navy were absent from Board meetings and refused to provide information on naval aviation. In January 1917 the Prime Minister David Lloyd George replaced the chairman Lord Curzon with Lord Cowdray. Godfrey Paine, who served in the newly created post of Fifth Sea Lord and Director of Naval Aviation, sat on the board and this high level representation from the Navy helped to improve matters. Additionally, as responsibility for the design of aircraft had been moved out of single service hands and given to the Ministry of Munitions, some of the problems of inter-service competition were avoided.

Despite attempts at reorganization of the Air Board, the earlier problems failed to be resolved. In addition, the growing number of German air raids against Great Britain led to public disquiet and increasing demands for something to be done; as a result, Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, established a committee composed of himself and General Jan Smuts, tasked with investigating the problems with the British air defences and organizational difficulties which had beset the Air Board. Towards the end of the First World War, on 17 August 1917, General Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power; because of its potential for the'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. The new air service was to receive direction from a new ministry and on 29 November 1917 the Air Force Bill received Royal Assent and the Air Ministry was formed just over a month on 2 January 1918.

Lord Rothermere was appointed the first Air Minister. On 3 January, the Air Council was constituted as follows: Lord Rothermere, Air Minister and President Lieutenant-General Sir David Henderson, Additional Member and Vice-President Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard, Chief of the Air Staff Major-General Mark Kerr, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Major-General Godfrey Paine, Master General of Personnel Major-General Sefton Brancker, Controller-General of Equipment Sir William Weir, Director-General of Aircraft Production in the Ministry of Munitions Sir John Hunter, Administrator of Works and Buildings Major J L Baird Permanent Under-SecretaryThe Air Ministry met in the Hotel Cecil on the Strand. In 1919, it moved to Adastral House on Kingsway; the creation of the Air Ministry resulted in the disestablishment of the Army Council's post of Director-General of Military Aeronautics. In 1919 the RAF and the Air Ministry came under immense political and inter service pressure for their existence in a cli

Health Service Executive

The Health Service Executive is responsible for the provision of health and personal social services for everyone living in Ireland, with public funds. The Executive was established by the Health Act, 2004 and came into official operation on 1 January 2005, it replaced the ten regional Health Boards, the Eastern Regional Health Authority and a number of other different agencies and organisations. The Minister for Health retained overall responsibility for the Executive in Government; the HSE adopted a regional structure. A new grouping of hospitals was announced by the Irish Minister for Health, Dr. James Reilly TD in May 2013, as part of a restructure of Irish public hospitals and a goal of delivering better patient care: Dublin North East Dublin Midlands Dublin East South/South West West/North West Mid West A new arrangement of 90 primary care networks was announced in October 2014; the HSE is portrayed by the Irish media as an inefficient, top-heavy and excessively bureaucratic organisation.

The Irish health system has been involved in a number of serious health scandals, for example relating to cancer misdiagnoses in 2008. The HSE has been the subject of criticism for cutbacks, service cancellations etc. but has indicated that it is making good progress in saving costs and achieving its required'break-even' budget position for 2010. In the same month, the Irish Medical Organisation stated that patients awaiting a HSE medical card were waiting up to six months to receive their card, that their health was being put at risk as they could not afford medicines that they would have otherwise obtained had they received their card; the HSE has since announced a new online system for medical card applications that will reduce turnaround time for routine applications to 15 days. In May 2011, key forensic evidence in up to 25 sexual-assault cases may be challenged in court because of a major administrative blunder by the HSE; the victims – some as young as 14 – were told by Gardaí about the incident, in which a nurse who carried out their forensic tests was unregistered.

This could lead to the evidence being challenged. In May 2018, in the midst of the CervicalCheck misdiagnoses controversy, Tony O'Brien announced his resignation as director-general of the HSE with effect from close of business on 11 May. Department of Health Health Information and Quality Authority Maev-Ann Wren, health services analyst and critic Health Service Executive Health Information and Quality Authority Health Protection Surveillance Centre

Carnoy's solution

Carnoy's solution is a fixative composed of 60% ethanol, 30% chloroform and 10% glacial acetic acid, 1 gram of ferric chloride. Carnoy's solution is a fixation composed of glacial acetic acid. Methanol refer of harrison and robbins Some of the uses of Carnoy's solution are: Enhancing lymph node detection during dissection of cadavers. Immunohistochemical fixation and detection of NMDA receptors within the murine hippocampus. Applied directly following enucleation for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Direct application following enucleation for certain kinds of unicystic ameloblastomas; this appears to decrease the likelihood of recurrence over enucleation alone. Protein coagulation is thought to limit uptake of these toxic materials by surrounding tissues, however it is this fact that limits its usefulness as a treatment agent in general; as a fixative for pap smear samples. As a fixative agent for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in various tissues; as a fixative agent to preserve mucus, useful for tissue preparation before staining with periodic acid-Schiff base