Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the most air sacs, with their extinct dinosaurian relatives showing a great increase in the pneumatization in their bones. Theropods, like Aerosteon, have many air sacs in the body that are not just in bones, they can be identified as the more primitive form of modern bird airways. Sauropods are well known for the amount of air pockets in their bones, although one theropod, shows a rivalling amount of air pockets. From about 1870 onwards scientists have agreed that the post-cranial skeletons of many dinosaurs contained many air-filled cavities (postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in the vertebrae. Pneumatization of the skull is found in both synapsids and archosaurs, but postcranial pneumatization is found only in birds, non-avian saurischian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. For a long time these cavities were regarded as weight-saving devices, but Bakker proposed that they were connected to air sacs like those that make birds' respiratory systems the most efficient of all animals'.
John Ruben et al. disputed this and suggested that dinosaurs had a "tidal" respiratory system powered by a crocodile-like hepatic piston mechanism – muscles attached to the pubis pull the liver backwards, which makes the lungs expand to inhale. They presented this as a reason for doubting that birds descended from dinosaurs. Critics have claimed that, without avian air sacs, modest improvements in a few aspects of a modern reptile's circulatory and respiratory systems would enable the reptile to achieve 50% to 70% of the oxygen flow of a mammal of similar size, that lack of avian air sacs would not prevent the development of endothermy. Few formal rebuttals have been published in scientific journals of Ruben et al.’s claim that dinosaurs could not have had avian-style air sacs. Some recent papers note without further comment that Ruben et al. argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in sauropods, "prosauropods", coelurosaurs and the theropods Aerosteon and Coelophysis.
In advanced sauropods the vertebrae of the lower back and hip regions show signs of air sacs. In early sauropods only the cervical vertebrae show these features. If the developmental sequence found in bird embryos is a guide, air sacs evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in forms. Evidence of air sacs has been found in theropods. Studies indicate that fossils of coelurosaurs and the theropods Coelophysis and Aerosteon exhibit evidence of air sacs. Coelophysis, from the late Triassic, is one of the earliest dinosaurs whose fossils show evidence of channels for air sacs. Aerosteon, a Late Cretaceous allosaur, had the most bird-like air sacs found so far. Early sauropodomorphs, including the group traditionally called "prosauropods", may have had air sacs. Although possible pneumatic indentations have been found in Plateosaurus and Thecodontosaurus, the indentations are small. One study in 2007 concluded that prosauropods had abdominal and cervical air sacs, based on the evidence for them in sister taxa.
The study concluded that it was impossible to determine whether prosauropods had a bird-like flow-through lung, but that the air sacs were certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ventilation comes from a reconstruction of the air exchange volume of Plateosaurus, which when expressed as a ratio of air volume per body weight at 29 ml/kg is similar to values of geese and other birds, much higher than typical mammalian values. So far no evidence of air sacs has been found in ornithischian dinosaurs, but this does not imply that ornithischians could not have had metabolic rates comparable to those of mammals, since mammals do not have air sacs. Three explanations have been suggested for the development of air sacs in dinosaurs: Increase in respiratory capacity; this is the most common hypothesis, fits well with the idea that many dinosaurs had high metabolic rates. Improving balance and maneuvrability by lowering the center of gravity and reducing rotational inertia.
However this does not explain the expansion of air sacs in the quadrupedal sauropods. As a cooling mechanism, it seems that air feathers evolved at about the same time in coelurosaurs. If feathers retained heat, their owners would have required a means of dissipating excess heat; this idea needs further empirical support. Calculations of the volumes of various parts of the sauropod Apatosaurus’ respiratory system support the evidence of bird-like air sacs in sauropods: Assuming that Apatosaurus, like dinosaurs' nearest surviving relatives crocodilians and birds, did not have a diaphragm, the dead-space volume of a 30-ton specimen would be about 184 liters; this is the total volume of the mouth and air tubes. If the animal exhales less than this, stale air is not expelled and is sucked back into the lungs on the following inhalation. Estimates of its tidal volume – the amount of air moved into or out of the lungs in a single breath – depend on the type of respiratory system the animal
Karlheinz Zöller was a German flutist, principal in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra between 1960–1969 and 1976–1993. Karlheinz Zöller was born in Höhr-Grenzhausen, Germany, he began his studies in Frankfurt and studied with Kurt Redel in Detmold. While in Detmold, he met his wife-to-be Gertrud, herself a flautist studying under Hans-Peter Schmitz. After World War II, at the age of 17, he obtained a position in the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra, he had not yet attended college but the experience was invaluable. After engagements in Cologne and Herford, he joined the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra as solo flautist in 1960. In 1968, Zöller was appointed professor at the Hamburg Music Academy, he taught at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin and at the Hamburg Music Academy. Zöller and his wife became renowned as a teaching team and one of their students recalled, "extensive technical training from her, music and tone, from him." Many of his former students played with orchestras all over Europe or became music professors themselves.
Zöller was a tremendous supporter of new music and commissioned flute concerti from several composers. These included new works by Diether de la Motte, Manfred Trojahn and Isang Yun. In 1968, while travelling in a taxi from the hotel to the concert hall in Buenos Aires, Zöller was critically injured in an accident; the cab driver died and Zöller’s lung was pierced by a piece of metal. This limited his lung capacity and as a result he was replaced by James Galway as principal flautist with the Berlin Philharmonic. However, he remained active as a chamber and solo player and maintained a busy teaching and concert schedule. In the 1970s, he had an operation to reattach his non-functional lung; the operation was a success and Zöller regained his position as principal flautist with the Philharmonic, when Galway left to teach at the Eastman School of Music. After Gertrud's death, Karlheinz married Anna-Luise some years later, she had children and grandchildren from a former marriage and Karlheinz took them to heart as his own.
Zöller died of cancer in Berlin on July 29, 2005
A K Khan & Co. Ltd. is one of the largest Bangladeshi conglomerate headquartered in Chittagong. It was established in 1945 by Abul Kashem Khan during the Second World War. Salahuddin Kasem Khan is the CEO of the company; the Company is setting up a tyre plant in joint collaboration with Indian company CEAT. The company is building a private sector Special Economic Zone in Narsingdi, Bangladesh; when completed it would be the first private one. The company was fined 10 million Taka for illegally removing soil from hills. A. K. Khan, founder Chairman A. M. Zahiruddin Khan, Chairman 1991-2005 Aktel, predecessor of Robi telecom Official website
Passion Made Possible is the destination brand of Singapore, jointly launched on 24 August 2017 by Singapore Tourism Board and Economic Development Board. Passion Made Possible marks the rebranding of the Singaporean brand, replacing the previous YourSingapore campaign; the brand strategy will be adopted by other statutory boards and agencies under the Ministry of Trade and Industry and incorporated into their marketing campaigns and tradeshows when reaching out to international audiences. Since the launch of the Uniquely Singapore destination brand, Singapore witnessed a 16.8% growth in visitor arrivals and a 55.1% growth in its tourism receipts. In order to keep tourism in Singapore competitive and relevant to its visitors, STB hopes to establish its digital presence given the high internet penetration in its key markets, hence embarking on the 2004 YourSingapore campaign to drive users to its online website and social media accounts. YourSingapore was positioned as Singapore's ability to promise travelers a personal travel experience, given the degree of efficiency and comfort in the country.
Such a promise further offers an emotional reward of liberation to its visitors. With a different approach from previous STB brand slogan YourSingapore and EDB's Future Ready Singapore, Passion Made Possible was derived in 2017 in the hope of showcasing the country's entrepreneurial and innovative strengths to the world, under a joint branding campaign between its tourism and business government agencies to market the country to tourists, consumers and businesses; the Passion Made Possible rebranding campaign continues to employ a drive-to-web strategy, driving visitors to VisitSingapore.com where they can explore Singapore online, plan their itineraries and share their travel experiences. The VisitSingapore website is managed by TBWA Singapore, it has two different sites. In line with the brand strategy, STB continues to engage users on social media; the unified brand features a logo coined as the'Singapore Mark'. It an emblem, meant to represent Singapore's attributes as a place, trusted to deliver, resembling a trust stamp that connotes quality.
The new logo was developed by TSLA Design, the branding and design practice of The Secret Little Agency. TSLA was tasked with developing the new unified business and tourism brand identity, as well as the global branding guidelines for Singapore. Reactions to the brand slogan were mixed, with some online internet users and academics describing the slogan as vague and not representative of Singapore, while some suggest it is "generic enough to use in different contexts". Others contend that the slogan was identical to the title of a self-help book by Celeste Tomasulo, was not worth the millions spent on branding and market research; the shared branding between the EDB and the STB was deemed "ambitious" but could have a "synergistic effect" if the campaign is well-executed. Singapore Tourism Board Tourism in Singapore YourSingapore Singapore YourSingapore.com
Joshua T. Bassett is an American actor and songwriter, he is known for starring as Ricky in High School Musical: The Musical: The Series. Bassett was born and raised in Oceanside, California to parents Taylor and Laura, he has five sisters, he was home-schooled. His first introduction to musical theater was at age 8, over a decade before he starred as Ricky in High School Musical: The Musical: The Series, when he was in a community theater production of High School Musical as J. V. Jock No. 2. Since he has starred in over 30 musical productions. Bassett sings and plays piano and drums. Bassett's first substantial role was in 2018 when he played the recurring role of Aidan Peters on the Disney Channel television series series Stuck in the Middle. Bassett was cast in his first starring role at age 17 as the male lead Ricky Bowen in High School Musical: The Musical: The Series. According to Playbill, Bassett co-wrote "Just a Moment" with co-star Olivia Rodrigo for the series' soundtrack. Joshua Bassett on IMDb
The 1985 Oklahoma Sooners football team represented the University of Oklahoma in the 1985 NCAA Division I-A football season. This year was Barry Switzer's 13th season as head coach; the Sooners ended this season with 11 wins and a sole loss coming to the Miami Hurricanes in Norman, in a game in which the Sooners lost starting quarterback Troy Aikman for the season. The Sooners were forced to place their trust in lightning-quick true freshman quarterback Jamelle Holieway and a physical defense featuring three All-Americans, who led them to a Big 8 Conference title and a national championship; this was Oklahoma's sixth national championship and 34th conference championship in school history. After struggling in the 1985 Orange Bowl to a scrappy Washington Huskies football team and letting any National Championship aspirations for that year disappear in a puff of smoke, the defending Big 8 Champion Sooners came into the 1985 season on a mission. Led by an aggressive and punishing defense and budding superstar quarterback sophomore Troy Aikman, the Sooners seemed poised for a run at the Orange Bowl and the National Championship.
Nothing seemed to indicate otherwise, as the Sooners rolled past Minnesota and Kansas State before beating the Longhorns in the annual Red River Shootout. The Sooners' offense didn't have a banner day in the 80th edition of the Red River Rivalry although they still rolled up 220 yards rushing and Troy Aikman completed four of nine passes for 67 yards. Lydell Carr led all rushers with 80 yards on 23 carries, Patrick Collins added 61 yards on four carries. Keith Jackson had 49 yards on his two receptions. On the game's third play, Oklahoma's All-American nose guard Tony Casillas went down with a sprained right knee; the Oklahoma defense without Casillas, manhandled Texas. The Sooners held the Longhorns to just 70 yards in total offense, 17 on the ground for an average of less than half a yard per their 35 carries, just four first downs, they got into Oklahoma territory only three times, twice to the 49-yard line and once to the 46, one of those trips was thanks to another fumble. In addition, the Sooners picked off three passes, Texas was held to no first downs in the second half.
Brian Bosworth finished the game with 14 tackles, 11 of them unassisted, a leaping interception of quarterback Todd Dodge. The third-ranked Sooners returned home to play their first game in Norman; the game made local headlines as a homecoming for Hurricanes coach Jimmy Johnson, an Oklahoma defensive line coach with Switzer from'70-'72 and went 0-5 against the Sooners as the Oklahoma State head coach. Oklahoma came into the contest with the nation's most aggressive defense, which got better each week, was led up front by All-American nose tackle Tony Casillas, whose injury against Texas forced him to miss the game; the line featured sophomore tackle Troy Johnson, sophomore end Darrell Reed, senior end Kevin Murphy, himself an All-American candidate. Lining up behind the group was the menacing Brian Bosworth, with fellow linebackers Paul Migliazzo and Dante Jones; this group had permitted an average of only 32 yards rushing per game. Juniors Tony Rayburn and Sonny Brown, sophomores Rickey Dixon and Derrick White, patrolled the secondary, allowing only 91 yards passing per game.
In three games, the defense had allowed only 16 first downs and had permitted an average of 6.6 points per game. Miami had lost their'85 opener to Florida, 35-23, before reeling off four straight wins against unranked opponents; the Hurricanes were the nation's top offensive team, they were sporting a pro-style passing attack, orchestrated by junior quarterback Vinny Testaverde, who had backed up Bernie Kosar the last time the Hurricanes had won the National Championship. Alonzo Highsmith and Melvin Bratton lined up in the backfield, the acrobatics of top-flight wide receivers Michael Irvin and Brian Blades helped the team average 36.2 points per game. The Hurricane defense came in after a shutout of Cincinnati, permitting an average of only 16 points per game, featuring junior tackle Jerome Brown and cornerback Bennie Blades. In front of a sellout crowd of 75,008 at Memorial Stadium, Miami's Jerome Brown broke through and sacked Aikman on the 29-yard line with 9:18 left in the first half and broke his ankle.
Aikman, six of eight passing for 131 yards, would be lost for the season. Testaverde and company took over, scorching the Oklahoma secondary with 270 yards passing and the'Canes rambled for 105 on the ground, they didn't give up any turnovers. Brown led the Miami defensive effort with 16 tackles, a blocked field goal, the sack on Aikman, and on the other side, pressed into duty as a true freshman, Holieway had rushed for only 57 yards on 17 carries and attempted just six passes. Furious about the loss, both of the game and their starting quarterback, Oklahoma proceeded to go on a rampage, pasting Iowa State, Kansas and Colorado by a combined score of 189-26, before playing host to Nebraska in a game that would decide the Big 8 Championship. Nebraska came into Norman ranked second in the nation, with the nation's highest scoring offense and the best rushing attack in the country with 395 yards per game; this high-powered offense was led by fullback Tom Rathman, one of the best in Nebraska history who had rushed for over 800 yards that season.
Together with quarterback McCathorn Clayton and junior I-back Doug DuBose, whose 1,115 rushing yards made 1985 his second straight season over 1,000, the