An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
A warbird is any vintage military aircraft now operated by civilian organizations and individuals or, in some instances, by historic arms of military forces, such as the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, the RAAF Museum Historic Flight or the South African Air Force Museum Historic Flight. Restored warbirds are a frequent attraction at airshows. Modified as well as "stock" warbirds can frequently be seen at air races, since World War II-era fighters are among the fastest propeller-driven airplanes built; some of the most popular warbirds for races are the North American P-51 Mustang, the Hawker Sea Fury, the Grumman F8F Bearcat and the North American T-6 Texan. Although the term implied piston-driven aircraft from the World War II era, it is now extended to include all airworthy former military aircraft, including jet-powered aircraft. Vintage jet aircraft in airworthy condition, are much rarer due to technical complexity. Sometimes, modern production aircraft such as Allison V-1710-powered Yakovlev Yak-9s from Yakovlev and replicas and reproductions of vintage aircraft are called "warbirds", such as Messerschmitt Me 262s built by the Me 262 Project and Focke-Wulf Fw 190s by Flug + Werk.
Such replicated warbirds may be powered by vintage engines from the era of the aircraft design being flown, as Cole Palen and others associated with his institution did at Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome aviation museum with accurate and airworthy reproductions of the Fokker Dr. I, Fokker D. VII, Fokker D. VIII, Sopwith Camel and Sopwith Dolphin World War I aircraft. Alpine Fighter Collection of New Zealand Fighter Pilots Museum Amicale Jean-Baptiste Salis Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Shuttleworth Collection Temora Aviation Museum The Fighter Collection In the United States: Army Aviation Heritage Foundation, Georgia United States Aviation Museum, Ohio EAA AirVenture Museum, Wisconsin American Airpower Heritage Museum, Texas Lone Star Flight Museum, Texas Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome, Red Hook, New York Collings Foundation Fantasy of Flight Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, CA Yankee Air Force Military Aviation Museum, Virginia Beach, Virginia Vintage warbird restoration, or classic aircraft restoration, is the process of taking aircraft from the previous era, performing processes such as maintenance and refurbishments in order to restore these military aircraft to their original wartime state.
According to Classic Warplanes, some of the tasks performed on these vintage aircraft include: Structural repairs Standard maintenance Interior and exterior paint Decals and stamps Upholstery replacements Control heads and radios Parachutes, ejection seats, ejection seat cartridges Rewiring Replacement of real weaponry with non-operating replicas There are several different types of warbirds such as the fighter, bomber, transports, etc. Examples of aircraft types include the North American P-51 Mustang, Vought F4U Corsair, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, North American T-6 Texan, Beechcraft T-34 Mentor, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. There are great warbirds air-shows all over the world annually. Warbird Alley claims that some of the best-known air shows in the United States that feature warbirds are: EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, Wisconsin Alliance Airshow, Fort Worth, Texas Dayton Airshow, Ohio History of Flight Airshow, New York Indianapolis Airshow, Indiana Miramar Airshow, California Orlando Air Fair, Florida Spirit of Flight Airshow, Texas Commemorative Air Force AIRSHO, Texas Warbirds over the Beach, Virginia Beach, Virginia Warbirds over Monroe, North Carolina Classic Fighters Omaka, New Zealand Warbirds over Wanaka, New Zealand Warbirds Downunder, AustraliaIn Europe, one of the best known warbird air show is the annual Flying Legends arranged in Imperial War Museum Duxford in UK.
La Ferté-Alais air show in France collects warbirds annually too. Warbirds fly in most of the Shuttleworth Collection flying days in UK every summer; some organizations in the United States are: Experimental Aircraft Association. The primary focus of the group started with building individual airplanes, it soon grew to include antiques, warbirds, aerobatic aircraft, ultralights and contemporary manufactured aircraft. Warbirds of America is a non-profit organization formed in 1964. A year after its start, it became a branch of the EAA. Classic Jet Aircraft Association Antique aircraft Aviation archaeology EAA AirVenture Museum Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum Category:Lists of surviving aircraft Warbirds over Wanaka Australian Warbirds Association Classic Jet Aircraft Association Commemorative Air Force Experimental Aircraft Association EAA AirVenture EAA Warbirds of America. Federal Aviation Administration New Zealand Warbirds The Fighter Collection Imperial War Museum Duxford Shuttleworth Collection
Paris Air Show
The Paris Air Show is the largest aerospace-industry exhibition type Air Show in the world, measured by number of exhibitors and size of exhibit space. In second place is UK's Farnborough, followed by Dubai Air Show or Singapore Airshow; the latest was the 52nd Air Show, held from 19 to 25 June 2017, attended by 3,450 journalists, 142,000 professionals and 180,000 general public visitors. It claims to be the world's calendar-oldest air show. Established in 1909, it has been held every odd year since 1949 at Paris–Le Bourget Airport in north Paris, France, it is a large trade fair, demonstrating military and civilian aircraft, is attended by many military forces and the major aircraft manufacturers announcing major aircraft sales. It starts with four professional days and is opened to the general public followed from Friday to Sunday; the format is similar to Farnborough and the ILA, both staged in years. It is organised by the French aerospace industry's primary representative body, the Groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales.
The Paris Air Show traces its history back to the first decade of the 20th century. In 1908 a section of the Paris Motor Show was dedicated to aircraft; the following year, a dedicated air show was held at the Grand Palais from 25 September to 17 October, during which 100,000 visitors turned out to see products and innovations from 380 exhibitors. There were four further shows before the First World War; the show restarted in 1919, from 1924 it was held every two years before being interrupted again by the Second World War. It restarted in 1946 and since 1949, has been held in every odd year; the air show continued to be held at the Grand Palais, from 1949 flying demonstrations were staged at Paris Orly Airport. In 1953, the show was relocated from the Grand Palais to Le Bourget; the show was drawing international notice in the 1960s. Since the 1970s, the show has emerged as the main international reference of the aeronautical sector; the 1967 air show was opened by French President Charles de Gaulle, who toured the exhibits and shook hands with two Soviet cosmonauts and two American astronauts.
Prominently displayed by the Soviet Union was a three-stage Vostok rocket, such as the one that had carried Yuri Gagarin into space on April 12, 1961. The "extraordinarily powerful" Vostok was downplayed by American missile experts as "rather old and unsophisticated.". The American exhibit, the largest at the fair, featured the F-111 swing-wing fighter bomber, a replica of Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, and the Ling-Temco-Vought XC-142A, a cargo plane capable of a vertical takeoff and landing. A full-size model of the supersonic Concorde was displayed by the French and British, auguring its successful first flight on March 2, 1969. "The largest plane in the world," the Boeing 747 jet airliner, arrived on June 3, after flying non-stop from Seattle and the Apollo 8 command module, charred by its re-entry, was there flanked by the Apollo 9 astronauts, but the most-viewed exhibit was the supersonic Concorde, which made its first flight over Paris as the show opened. The Soviet TU-144 supersonic airliner was flown to Le Bourget for the 1971 show, drawing comparisons with the French Concorde.
Landing with the Concorde was the American Lockheed C-5A Galaxy. The crash of the Soviet Tu-144, see below, overshadowed the 1973 show, otherwise characterized by "There was nothing new", although the flying was memorable, there were a great many exhibits. One hundred and eighty-two aircraft were scheduled for appearance. Despite restrictions that followed the TU-144 crash in 1973, a day of flying pleased viewers. In particular, the American YF-16 and the French Mirage F-1E competed in turn before a critical audience. Days Belgium became the fourth European nation to choose the YF-16 over the F-1E. Celebration of Charles Lindbergh's trans-Atlantic flight to Le Bourget fifty years ago recalled that historic event. Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Lindbergh's widow, attended the ceremony along with early trans-Atlantic pilots, Maurice Bellonte and Armand Lotti. Recent extension of coastal limits to 200 nautical miles has produced new maritime-reconnaissance aircraft; the crash of a Fairchild A-10 tank-destroyer led to tightened rules on air show demonstrations.
Two airliners, the Airbus A310 and the Boeing 767, are competing for the international market, but neither will carry passengers before 1982. The Westland WG30 transport helicopter shows promise. "The Mirage 4000 remains a question mark" despite being "surely the main highlight this year at Le Bourget." Exhibiting at the show, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas/Fokker vie for the 150-seat airline market, while Rolls Royce/Japan, General Electric/Snecma, Pratt & Whitney contest for their engines. The Northrop F-5G Tigershark mockup was on display and expected to fly in 1982 with delivery the following year. A novelty was Air Transat, a light aircraft trans-Atlantic race from Le Bourget to Sikorsky Memorial Airport, Bridgeport and back, won by a twin engine Piper Navaho and a Beechcraft Bonanza; the American Space Shuttle Enterprise was flown around Paris and towered over other exhibits, but "much more intriguing" were replicas of two twin-engined fighters, the British Aerospace ACA and French Dassault Breguet ACX.
Sales of Boeing 757 and Airbus A310 airliners to Singapore Airlines were welcome news during an ongoing recession. The Soviet Antonov An-124 Ruslan military heavy lifter was the largest exhibit in 1985. Propfan engines stirred interest. Reflecting the upturn in the economy and Airbus announced new contracts totaling as much as $1,700 million; the Hubble space telescope should be deplo
ILA Berlin Air Show
The ILA Berlin Air Show combines a major trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries with a public airshow. It is held every year at the new Berlin ExpoCenter Airport near Schönefeld, Brandenburg 18 km southeast of Berlin, Germany; the most recent ILA Berlin Air Show was held in April 2018. Established in 1909, it claims to be world's oldest air show, it is among the largest and most important aerospace trade fairs today. According to the organisers Messe Berlin GmbH, in 2012 the Berlin Air Show attracted 125,000 professional visitors and 105,000 members of the general public, with 3,600 journalists from 65 countries attending; the format is similar to the Paris Air Show in France and the Farnborough International Airshow in Britain, the other major events in the European air show calendar. The Berlin event starts with three professional days closed to the general public, on Friday and Sunday the public are allowed in; the main display sections planned for 2014 include commercial air transport, military aviation and both civil and military unmanned aircraft systems known as UAVs.
It was first held in Frankfurt am Main in 1909, as such can lay claim to being the oldest aviation show in the world. After the first ILA, following the idea of the aircraft constructor August Euler, numerous flying clubs combined to form the German Pilots' Association in April 1910. Shortly after, the Association of German Aircraft Makers was founded in Frankfurt/Main, establishing close ties between the ILA and the future Federal Association of the Aerospace Industry, an organisation that exists today. Before the First World War, the ILA was held in Berlin; when Germany regained air sovereignty after the Second World War, the foundations were laid in 1955 for an "International Show for Travel by Air", which in 1957 took place at Langenhagen Airport as part of the Hanover Trade Fair, the first in a run of ILA shows in Hanover, to last over 30 years. Known as the German Aviation Show, the fair was attracting participants from abroad, in 1978 the symbolic three letters ILA from 1909 were revived.
In 1992, the far-reaching political and economic changes which had taken place in Europe since the fall of the Berlin Wall opened the way for the ILA to return to its birthplace in Berlin. The ILA’s main display sections include commercial aviation, military aviation and military technology and engines, general aviation and helicopters; the new multi-purpose exhibition area, called Berlin ExpoCenter Airport adjacent to the BER was finished in time for ILA 2012. The main section of the grounds cover 250,000 square metres; the site is situated 18 km southeast of Germany's capital city Berlin. All previous attendance records had been broken at ILA2006. More than 250,000 visitors were recorded at the ILA2006 between 16 and 21 May, including 115,000 trade visitors. Events on the southern section of Berlin-Schönefeld airport were dominated by the signing of sales contracts and joint venture agreements worth billions, a display featuring some 340 aircraft, many of them making their first public appearance, the largest number of delegations and conferences ever.
1,014 exhibitors from 42 countries presented products and processes from every area of the aerospace industry. Several thousand experts from all over Europe and from overseas attended the more than 90 accompanying conferences in search of information; some 4,100 media representatives from 70 countries provided comprehensive coverage of the main technical themes and the attractions for the public at the ILA2006. ILA 2006 emphasised the importance of this sector for Germany in its role as a centre for the aerospace industry. Hans-Joachim Gante, Chief Executive of the BDLI, stated: "We have become one of the few sectors with sustainable growth in Germany, due above all to our innovative strengths." This was demonstrated at the ILA2006, acquiring an international dimension, thereby strengthening its role as one of the world’s major meeting places for the industry. This was an ideal opportunity for the German aerospace industry to demonstrate that it is among the world leaders." Exhibitors expressed their satisfaction with the discussions and contacts and with the business deals that were finalised at this event.
"In particular the decision to make Russia the partner country proved effective. Russia was strongly represented and was able to establish numerous contacts and business links." At the close of the event Stefan Grave, Project Director for Messe Berlin GmbH, summed up: "The ILA2006 underlined its major importance as a European marketing platform for this sector as well as again demonstrating its many attractions for the public. Trade visitors and the general public alike were fascinated by the high-tech products on display. Unprecedented numbers of people attended to see the Airbus A380, an outstanding international flying display and the Space Hall. Many high-ranking delegations attended during the three Trade Visitors’ Days. In addition to the Federal Minister of Economics Michael Glos, the ILA 2006 received visits from the Defence Minister Franz-Josef Jung, Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble, Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee, the Minister at the Chancellor’s Office Dr. Thomas de Maizière and the heads of the regional governments in Brandenburg and Berlin, Matthias Platzeck and Klaus Wowereit.
Germany’s armed forces, the Bundeswehr, were strongly represented: the Chief of the Armed Forces Wolfgang Schneiderhan attended the ILA 2006, as did the Chiefs of Staff
Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne
The Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne was an 8-day aviation meeting held near Reims in France in 1909, so-named because it was sponsored by the major local champagne growers. It is celebrated as the first international public flying event, confirming the viability of heavier-than-air flight, it marked the first contest for the prestigious Gordon Bennett Trophy, sponsored by Gordon Bennett, publisher of the New York Herald, won by American Glenn Curtiss in competition with Louis Bleriot. The meeting saw the breaking of the world record for distance, a flight of 180 km by Henri Farman, as well as the debut of the lightweight Gnome engine, which would achieve much acclaim; the Grand Semaine d'Aviation, held between 22 August and 29 August 1909, was sponsored by many of the leading makers of champagne including Moët et Chandon and Mumm and organised by a committee headed by the Marquis de Polignac. It was the first international public flying event and was seen both at the time and by historians as marking the coming of age of heavier-than-air aviation.
All of the prominent aviators of the time took part, the 500,000 visitors included Armand Fallières, the President of the French Republic and the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George. It was held on the plain of Bétheny, about 5 km north of Reims, which became the Reims – Champagne Air Base. A large grandstand was constructed for the event, together with a row of sheds to accommodate the aircraft. Next to the grandstand was the "Popular enclosure", complete with an enormous scoreboard. Amenities for the spectators included a restaurant that could seat 600 people, an area of specially laid lawn with bandstands and flowerbeds, a post office, from which 50,000 postcards were sent each day and nearly a million words dispatched by press correspondents; the spectator area was only a few hundred metres from the Laon-Reims railway line, a temporary station was provided. A rectangular competition course of 10 km, marked by four pylons was set up for the various competitions, with the strip intended for taking off and landing in front of the grandstands, opposite, the timekeepers hut, provided with a signalling system to indicate to the spectators which event was being competed for.
Flying conditions were primitive: the area over which much of the flying was to take place was farmland: some of the crops under cultivation had not been harvested and where this had been done there were haystacks: more than one flyer was to fall foul of these obstacles. Sunday, 22 August — Contest to decide the French team for the Gordon-Bennett Trophy. Monday, 23 August — Grand Prix de la Champagne. Tuesday, 24 August — Grand Prix de la Vitesse. Wednesday, 25 August — Grand Prix de la Champagne. Thursday, 26 August — Grand Prix de la Champagne. Friday, 27 August — Grand Prix de la Champagne. Saturday, August 28 — Coupe Internationale d'Aviation Gordon-Bennett. Sunday 29 August — Prix de la Vitesse, it consisted of a time trial over two laps of the 10 km circuit rather than a direct race, each nation was allowed three entrants. The qualification trials for the French team on the Sunday morning were hampered by the weather conditions, with the most successful competitor, Eugène Lefebvre flying a French-built Wright biplane, narrowly failing to complete two laps of the course: the only other pilot to make a convincing flight was Louis Blériot, the third place was given to Hubert Latham flying an Antoinette monoplane, on account of his performance in trials for the Prix de la Vitesse held that day, during which "the wonderful and unprecedented spectacle was witnessed of seven machines in the air at one time".
Other nations were represented by the American aviator Glenn Curtiss and George Cockburn flying a French Farman III biplane representing Great Britain: promised Italian and Austrian entries did not materialise. On the Saturday of the race Curtiss made the first flights, first making an attempt for the Circuit Prize and lowering the record to 7 m 55.4 s. Encouraged by this, he made his attempt for the Trophy, completing the two laps in 15 m 50.4 s. Cockburn made the next attempt, but was unable to complete one lap. Lefebvre made the first attempt by the French team, only managing a time of 20 m 47.6 s. Latham's time was 16 m 32 s. Blériot, flying last, managed a first lap time in the same time as Curtiss' second lap, but during the second round he was impeded by a squall, his total time was 15 min 56.1 sec. Under the rules of the Trophy, Curtiss' victory meant that the next race would be held in America. In the day Blériot did secure one prize, that for the fastest circuit, with a time of 7 m 47.4 s.
This was a distance prize offering six prizes of 50,000, 25,000, 10,000, 5,000, 5,000, 5,000 francs. The competition for this award resulted in the world record for distance being broken three times in three days, the prize being won by
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Nellis Air Force Base
Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation in southern Nevada with military schools and more squadrons than any other USAF base. Nellis hosts air combat exercises such as Exercise Red Flag and close air support exercises such as Green Flag-West flown in "Military Operations Area airspace", associated with the nearby Nevada Test and Training Range; the base has the Combined Air and Space Operations Center-Nellis. The Nellis AFB mission of advanced combat training for composite strike forces is conducted in conjunction with air and grounds units of the Army, Marine Corps and allied forces; the base supports operations at the nearby Creech Air Force Base, the Tonopah Test Range and the Nevada National Security Site. Nellis ground systems for range operations include the Computer and Computed Subsystem used to receive microwave signals from the NTTR Ground-Based Stations of the Tracking and Communications Subsystem for presentation on Nellis' Display and Debrief SubSystem. Units 53d Test and Evaluation Group, including the 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron 57th Wing, including the 57th Adversary Tactics Group, the Thunderbirds Squadron, the Weapons & Rescue Schools, & the Maintenance/Munitions Officers School 99th Air Base Wing 505th Operations Group 926th Group Air Expeditionary Force Battle Lab Joint Unmanned Aircraft Systems Center of Excellence Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis AFB covers about 11,300 acres in the northeast corner of the Las Vegas Valley, an alluvial basin in the Basin and Range Province.
Since World War II, Nellis has had areas added, such as Area II in 1969, but still has about 7,000 acres of undeveloped space. One World War II runway has been removed; the base has 3 areas. The United States Geological Survey names five different locations for the base: "Nellis Air Force Base", the airfield, the post office, a Community College of Southern Nevada campus, the census-designated place. Nellis Area I has the airfield and shopping facilities, dormitories/temporary lodging, some family housing, "and most of the command and support structures", e.g. Suter Hall for Red Flag. Nellis Area II northeast of the main base "at the foot of Sunrise Mountain" has the Nellis Gun Club, the 820th Red Horse Squadron. Nellis Area III is west of the main base with family housing and industrial areas, the Mike O'Callaghan Federal Hospital, Area III includes a 23.4 acres munitions response area which had World War II storage for small arms ammunition and chemical bombs and that now includes 2 remaining World War II buildings, 5 modern igloos, & the RV storage.
The Nellis Air Force Base CDP is a 3.1 sq mi region defined by the United States Census Bureau as of the 2010 United States Census. The CDP area includes military family housing and lodging as for aircrew temporary quarters during Red Flag exercises; the CDP residents include a portion of the Nellis work force of ~12,000 military and civilian personnel. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,896 people, 2,873 households, 2,146 families residing in the CDP. Population density was 2,895.9 people per square mile. There were 3,040 housing units at an average density of 989.6/sq mi. The gender ratio was 4813 males to 4083 females; the median age was 24 years, distribution by age group was 33.4% under the age of 18, 19.7% from 18 to 24, 38.5% from 25 to 44, 7.1% from 45 to 64, 1.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The racial makeup of the base was 68.5% White, 14.3% African American, 1.4% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 4.9% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population.
There were 2,873 households out of which 52.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. Of all households 17.9% were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.36. 2000 census median incomes were $33,118, $34,307, $25,551, & $19,210. About 10.0% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 16.1% of those age 65 or over. "Nellis AFB complex" refers to a group of southern Nevada military areas that are predominantly USAF and Bureau of Land Management areas outside of the base. The complex's land areas include Nellis AFB, the USAF Nevada Test and Training Range, the active portion of the Small Arms Range Annex north of the base, the annex's Formerly Used Defense Site of 5,775 acres, 13 BLM areas of 5.7 acres each leased for Patriot Radar/Communications Exercises, other BLM sites "under Military Operations Area airspace".
Nellis AFB leases space at the former Las Vegas AFS, environmental sites of the Tonopah Bombing Range are monitored by the EPA. Additional Formerly Used Defense Sites associated with the area's military operations are the Nye County Areas A, G, H, & I. After World War I, Nevada and other western