Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC is operated by the military. Air traffic controllers monitor the location of aircraft in their assigned airspace by radar and communicate with the pilots by radio. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard; the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.
Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. In practice, the native language for a region is used. In 1920, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control; the "aerodrome control tower" was a wooden hut 15 ft high with windows on all four sides. It was commissioned on 25 February 1920 and provided basic traffic and location information to pilots. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions; the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services.
They do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930. Approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports; the first air route traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland. After the 1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision, killing all 128 on board, the FAA was given the air traffic responsibility over America in 1958, this was followed by other countries. In 1960, France and the Benelux countries set up Eurocontrol, intending to merge their airspaces; the first and only attempt to pool controllers between countries is the Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre, founded in 1972 by Eurocontrol and covering Belgium, the Netherlands and north-western Germany.
In 2001, the EU aimed to create a “Single European Sky”, hoping to boost efficiency and gain economies of scale. The primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower; the tower is a windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Air traffic controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, aircraft in the air near the airport 5 to 10 nautical miles depending on the airport procedures. Surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing; these displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, data tags that include aircraft identification, speed and other information described in local procedures. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and control systems or advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area.
The areas of responsibility for tower controllers fall into three general operational disciplines: local control or air control, ground control, flight data / clearance delivery—other categories, such as Apron control or ground movement planner, may exist at busy airports. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the tower environment. Remote and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services. Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users; this includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, some tr
Palbasha Siddique is a Bangladeshi born American singer. She is best known for her performance of Praan, a song adapted from the collection of poems Gitanjali by Rabindranath Tagore, with music composed by Garry Schyman for Matt Harding's "Dancing 2008" video. Siddique was born in Bangladesh, she moved to Minneapolis, with her family at age 10. She received a scholarship to MacPhail Center for Music and sang in her schools' choirs and theater programs. At age 11, she sang God Bless America during the seventh-inning stretch at a Minnesota Twins game, she attended De La Salle High School for two years and sang in both the concert and a cappella choirs. She lives in Seattle now. While a 17-year-old student at Southwest High School, Siddique participated in KFAI radio's 1st International Women's Day program with Irina in March 2007. A video clip of her singing for the Minneapolis radio station was posted to YouTube by Rajib Bahar. Harding's co-producer Melissa Nixon found the videos as Schyman was looking for a vocalist to perform "Praan," whose lyrics are written in Bengali and based on poetry by Rabindranath Tagore.
Schyman flew Siddique and her mother to Los Angeles for a day of recording in mid-June 2008. "Palbasha was the consummate professional in-pitch and belying her age," Schyman told the Minneapolis Star-Tribune. The "Dancing 2008" video was posted soon afterward, Praan climbed into the top-10 list of soundtrack downloads at Amazon.com. On November 2008, Matt and the vocalist Palbasha were interviewed by KFAI radio in Minnesota; the interview focused on. She married to Dr. Durjoy Siddique, a civil engineer and musician. Together they perform their songs as a musical duo known as MOYNA. Studio albums2011: Bhalobashi TaiCompilation albums2011: Shihoron 2012: Nari 2013: Shomonnoy 2013: 360 Singles2009: In loss of all hopes 2010: Nijete Phire 2010: Nesha- The Addiction 2010: Mumbasa TV series title song 2015: TolparCover songs2008: Praan - Modern Rabindra song 2010: Beautiful Disaster- - Kelly Clarkson 2010: Don't Stop Believin' - Journey 2010: Blackbird - The Beatles 2012: Someone like you - Adele 2013: Payphone - Maroon 5 2013: Young and Beautiful - "Lana Del Rey 2014: All of Me - "John Legend" Dancing 2008 video featuring Praan Palbasha Siddique on SoundCloud
Lindsey Kerecz is an American professional wrestler and valet, better known by her ring name Veda Scott. She has wrestled for various American independent promotions, including Ring of Honor, Shimmer Women Athletes and Absolute Intense Wrestling, where she is a former AIW Tag Team champion and AIW Women's champion, she has wrestled internationally in both Canada and Japan. Kerecz debuted in May 2011, her earliest recorded match took place on May 15, 2011 at a Horizon Wrestling Alliance event, where she was defeated by Daizee Haze. Scott started wrestling for Absolute Intense Wrestling on July 29, 2011 with a loss to Cherry Bomb at Girls Night Out 4. In the second half of 2012, Gregory Iron employed Scott as his legal counsel, she helped him implement a stipulation that he, the "Handicapped Hero", could only be pinned with a count of four instead of the standard three. On November 23, 2012 at Hell on Earth 8, Iron and Scott defeated defending champions The Batiri to capture the AIW Tag Team Championship.
Known together as Hope and Change, they were known to have won and defended their title through nefarious means, thus racked up successful title defenses against various teams including the Batiri, the Old School Express and the Jollyville Fuck-Its. Hope and Change remained champions until Absolution VIII on June 30, 2013, when they lost their titles back to the Batiri. On March 1, 2013 at Girls Night Out 8, Scott won the main event ladder match against Addy Starr and Crazy Mary Dobson to earn a future shot at the AIW Women's Title. On October 6, 2013 at Girls Night Out 10, Scott lost her main event championship match against AIW Women's Champion Allysin Kay. On February 7, 2014 at #TGIF, Scott lost a rematch for the title to Kay. Scott's tag team with Iron started to fracture in November 2013, resulting in their feuding with each other; this culminated in Scott defeating Iron in the main event steel cage match at Battle of the Sexes on July 26, 2014. In July 2012, Scott debuted for Shine Wrestling at the Shine 1 Internet pay-per-view, where she defeated Kimberly.
On May 10, 2014, Scott made her debut for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling at the tapings of TNA's One Night Only Knockouts Knockdown pay-per-view, where she lost to Gail Kim. Scott joined Shimmer Women Athletes in October 2011, when she wrestled an un-aired tag team match before the DVD tapings of Volume 41 and Volume 42. Scott's first aired match for Shimmer came about on Volume 44 that same month, where she lost a singles match to Taylor Made. On Volume 46, Scott gained her first victory. Scott was trained in Ring of Honor's Wrestling Academy under Daizee Delirious. In January 2012, Scott debuted in ROH as a backstage interviewer, playing this role throughout 2012 and into 2013, including on ROH's television episodes. From February 2013, in addition to her interviewing duties, Scott began working as a commentator for the female wrestlers' matches in ROH. On the March 23, 2013 episode of ROH Wrestling, Scott was taken hostage by the group S. C. U. M. Who only released her upon agreeing to a deal for matches featuring S.
C. U. M. Vs the ROH roster on the next episode. At the Supercard of Honor VII internet pay-per-view, Scott helped ward off interference from S. C. U. M. During S. C. U. M. Member Kevin Steen's ROH World Title match against Jay Briscoe leading to Briscoe capturing the title. On the April 6, 2013 episode of ROH Wrestling, Scott interviewed MsChif, who had just lost for the first time since her return. In response, MsChif attacked Scott by spraying mist into her face. On the May 25, episode of ROH Wrestling, Scott vowed revenge and her interference cost MsChif a singles match. On the July 7, 2013 episode of ROH Wrestling, Scott had her first televised match for ROH and lost to MsChif. In January 2014, Scott entered a storyline, where she began managing R. D. Evans when he began gloating about his win streak, which he dubbed the "New Streak", As a part of storyline, she would put him in match with jobbers in order to win easily. At the ROH Unauthorized presents: "Michael Bennett's Bachelor Party" pay-per-view, Scott teamed up with Heather Patera and Leah von Dutch defeating Taeler Hendrix, "Crazy" Mary Dobson and Scarlett Bordeaux when Scott pinned Bordeaux after a back-drop driver.
Scott began acting as Cedric Alexander's manager at Best in the World 2015 after the latter attacked Moose who Scott had managed, turning heel in the process. On December 2, 2016, Ring of Honor had announced. On July 7, 2012, Scott was noted to have wrestled in Canada for NCW Femmes Fatales, where she defeated Mary Lee Rose. Scott wrestled her first match in Japan at Joshi for Hope IV on October 7, 2012, where she lost to Yuhi. On May 10, 2014, Scott made her debut for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling at the tapings of TNA's One Night Only Knockouts Knockdown pay-per-view, where she lost to Gail Kim. On November 7, 2014 PPV, Scott competed in TNA One Night Only: Knockouts Knockdown 2 losing to Gail Kim. On April 22, 2016 PPV, Scott competed in TNA One Night Only: Knockouts Knockdown 4 losing to Rosemary. Kerecz was studying law during her professional wrestling debut in 2011, graduated from the Drexel University School of Law in 2012, she was a former Drexel Law Review editor. Kerecz is a vegan. Absolute Intense Wrestling AIW Women's Championship AIW Tag Team Championship – with Gregory Iron DDT Pro-Wrestling Ironman Heavymetalweight Championship Family Wrestling Entertainment FWE Women's Championship Inspire Pro XX Division Championship Inspire Pro XX Division Championship Legacy Wrestling Legac