An airborne early warning and control system is an airborne radar picket system designed to detect aircraft and vehicles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes. AEW&C units are used to carry out surveillance, including over ground targets and perform C2BM functions similar to an Air Traffic Controller given military command over other forces; when used at altitude, the radar on the aircraft allows the operators to detect and track targets and distinguish between friendly and hostile aircraft much farther away than a similar ground-based radar. Like a ground-based radar, it can be detected by opposing forces, but because of its mobility, it is much less vulnerable to counter-attack; the first known aerial engagement with both opposing sides using Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft was in South Asia, during the February 27, 2019 aerial engagement between India and Pakistan, with India using A-50I Phalcon AWACS and Pakistan using the Saab 2000.
AEW&C aircraft are used for both defensive and offensive air operations, are to the NATO and US forces trained or integrated Air Forces what the combat information center is to a US Navy warship, plus a mobile and powerful radar platform. The system is used offensively to direct fighters to their target locations, defensively, directing counterattacks on enemy forces, both air and ground. So useful is the advantage of command and control from a high altitude, the US Navy operates Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye AEW&C aircraft from its Supercarriers to augment and protect its carrier Command Information Centers; the designation airborne early warning was used for earlier similar aircraft, such as the Fairey Gannet AEW.3 and Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star, continues to be used by the RAF for its Sentry AEW1, while AEW&C emphasizes the command and control capabilities that may not be present on smaller or simpler radar picket aircraft. AWACS is the name of the specific system installed in the E-3 and Japanese Boeing E-767 AEW&C airframes, but is used as a general synonym for AEW&C.
Modern AEW&C systems can detect aircraft from up to 400 km away, well out of range of most surface-to-air missiles. One AEW&C aircraft flying at 9,000 m can cover an area of 312,000 km2. Three such aircraft in overlapping orbits can cover the whole of Central Europe. AEW&C systems communicate with friendly aircraft, vectoring fighters towards hostile aircraft or any flying unidentified object, providing data on threats and targets, help extend their sensor range and make offensive aircraft more difficult to track, since they no longer need to keep their own radar active to detect threats. After having developed Chain Home—the first ground-based early-warning radar detection system—in the 1930s, the British developed a radar set that could be carried on an aircraft for what they termed "Air Controlled Interception"; the intention was to cover the North West approaches where German long range Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor aircraft were threatening shipping. A Vickers Wellington bomber was fitted with a rotating antenna array.
It was tested for use against aerial targets and for possible use against German E boats. Another radar equipped Wellington with a different installation was used to direct Bristol Beaufighters toward Heinkel He 111s, which were air-launching V-1 flying bombs. In February 1944, the US Navy ordered the development of a radar system that could be carried aloft in an aircraft under Project Cadillac. A prototype system was flown in August on a modified TBM Avenger torpedo bomber. Tests were successful, with the system being able to detect low flying formations at a range greater than 100 miles; the US Navy ordered production of the TBM-3W, the first production AEW aircraft to enter service. TBM-3Ws fitted with the AN/APS-20 radar entered service in March 1945, with some 36–40 constructed; the Lockheed WV and EC-121 Warning Star, which first flew in 1949, served with the US Air Force and US Navy. It provided the main AEW coverage for US forces during the Vietnam war, it remained operational until replaced with the E-3 AWACS.
Developed in parallel, N-class blimps were used as AEW aircraft, filling gaps in radar coverage for the continental US, their tremendous endurance of over 200 hours being a major asset in an AEW aircraft. Lighter than air operations were discontinued in 1962 following a crash. In 1958, the Soviet Tupolev Design Bureau was ordered to design an AEW aircraft. After determining that the projected radar instrumentation wouldn't fit in a Tupolev Tu-95 or a Tupolev Tu-116, the decision was made to use the more capacious Tupolev Tu-114 instead; this solved the problems with cooling and operator space that existed with the narrower Tu-95 and Tu-116 fuselage. To meet range requirements, production examples were fitted with an air-to-air refueling probe; the resulting system, the Tupolev Tu-126, entered service in 1965 with the Soviet Air Forces and remained in service until replaced by the Beriev A-50 in 1984. Many countries have developed their own AEW&C systems, although the Boeing E-3 Sentry and Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye are the most common systems worldwide.
The E-3 Sentry was built by the Boeing Defense and Space Group and was based on the Boeing 707-320 aircraft. Sixty-five E-3s were built and it is operated by the US, NATO, the UK, Saudi Arabia. For the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, the E-3 technology has been fitted into the Boeing E-767; the specially designed Grumman
Temples of Ice is the seventh studio album by English heavy metal band Venom. The album was supposed to be produced by ex-Child's Play producer Howard Benson, however he was unavailable so the band decided to stay with Kevin Ridley, who co-produced the band's previous album Prime Evil, it was released on Under One Flag records in 1991, marketed and distributed by Music for Nations. All tracks are written except where indicated. VenomTony "Demolition Man" Dolan – vocals, bass Jeff "Mantas" Dunn – guitar Al Barnes – guitar Anthony "Abaddon" Bray – drumsProductiomEngineered by Kevin Ridley Mixed by Kevin Ridley and Pete Peck at Great Linford Manor, England Venom official website
The Leader of the Opposition in Sri Lanka is the politician who leads the main opposition party. This is the leader of the largest party not within the government the leader of the second-largest party in the Parliament; the post of Leader of the Opposition is a political office common in countries that are part of the Commonwealth of Nations. Sajith Premadasa took office as Leader of the Opposition on January 3, 2020, after Speaker announces the appointment in parliament. In 2016, the Leader of the Opposition received a salary month and other entitlements of a Member of Parliament; the leader of the opposition is entitled to an official residence, office and security equal that of a Cabinet Minister. In the Sri Lankan order of precedence, the leader of the opposition is ranked at the level of a Cabinet Minister in the order of precedence. Parties United National Party Sri Lanka Freedom Party Lanka Sama Samaja Party Tamil United Liberation Front Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna Parliament of Sri Lanka - Handbook of Parliament, Leaders of the Opposition President of Sri Lanka Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
The Inclosure Acts use an old or formal spelling of the word now more spelt "enclosure". They cover enclosure of open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights to land, held in common. Between 1604 and 1914, over 5,200 individual enclosure acts were passed, affecting 6.8 million acres. Prior to the enclosures in England, a portion of the land was categorized as "common" or "waste" or not in use. "Common" land was under the control of the lord of the manor, but a number of rights on the land were variously held by certain nearby properties, or held in gross by all manorial tenants. "Waste" was land without value as a farm strip – very narrow areas in awkward locations, but bare rock, so forth. "Waste" was not used by anyone, thus was cultivated by landless peasants. The remainder of the land was organised into a large number of narrow strips, with each tenant possessing a number of disparate strips throughout the manor, as would the manorial lord. Called the open-field system, it was administered by manorial courts, which exercised some kind of collective control.
Thus what might now be considered a single field, would under this system have been divided among the lord and his tenants. This system facilitated crop rotation. Any particular individual might possess several strips of land within the manor at some distance from one another. In search of better financial returns, landowners looked for more efficient farming techniques. Enclosure acts for small areas had been passed sporadically since the 12th century, but with the rise of new agricultural knowledge and technology in the 18th century, they became more commonplace; because tenants had enforceable rights on the land, substantial compensation was provided to extinguish them. With legal control of the land, landlords utilised innovations in methods of crop production, increasing profits and supporting the Agricultural Revolution. In 1801, the Inclosure Act was passed to tidy up previous acts. In 1845, another General Inclosure Act allowed for the appointment of Inclosure Commissioners, who could enclose land without submitting a request to Parliament.
The tenants displaced by the process left the countryside to work in the towns. This contributed to the industrial revolution – at the moment new technological advances required large numbers of workers, a concentration of large numbers of people in need of work had emerged; the Inclosure Act 1773 The Inclosure Acts 1845 to 1882 mean: English land law Common land Enclosure List of short titles Primitive accumulation of capital The act for the enclosure of commons in England and Wales. By George Wingrove Cooke Papers by Command, Volume 12. By Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. P. 588 The Parliamentary Debates, Volume 80. By Great Britain. Parliament.pg 483 Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Volume 12. By Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons 104 380 Edinburgh Review, Or, Critical Journal, Volume 62. P. 327 The Pictorial History of England, Volume 6. By George Lillie Craik, Charles Knight pg 781 The English Peasantry and the Enclosure of Common Fields. By Gilbert Slater An Analytical Digest of the Reports of Cases Decided in the Courts of Common Law, Equity, of Appeal, Nisi Prius.
By Henry Jeremy. P. 40 The Fence. By Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company Pg 21 The Contemporary Review, Volume 67. Pg 703 Alienated tithes in appropriated and impropriated parishes. 38 Chambers, Jonathan D. "Enclosure and labour supply in the industrial revolution", Economic History Review 5.3: 319–343 in JSTOR Thesaurus of Acts Parliamentary enclosure – Surrey County Council Archive details and description The Enclosures of the 18th Century, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Rosemary Sweet, Murray Pittock & Mark Overton
This is a list of drama films of the 1940s. Brigham Young The Grapes of Wrath The Great Dictator Kitty Foyle Knute Rockne, All American Lillian Russell Rebecca The Letter Citizen Kane Here Comes Mr. Jordan How Green Was My Valley Meet John Doe Men of Boys Town Sergeant York Suspicion The Little Foxes Bambi Casablanca Joan of Paris The Magnificent Ambersons Mrs. Miniver The Pied Piper Pride of the Yankees Random Harvest Day of Wrath For Whom the Bell Tolls Jane Eyre Life and Death of Colonel Blimp So Proudly We Hail! Song of Bernadette Watch on the Rhine The Children Are Watching Us Going My Way Lifeboat Mr. Skeffington Passage to Marseilles Secret Command Since You Went Away Till We Meet Again To Have and Have Not Wilson The Bells of St. Mary's Brief Encounter Children of Paradise Corn Is Green I Know Where I'm Going! Leave Her to Heaven Lost Weekend Mildred Pierce Rome Open City The Southerner A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Week-End at the Waldorf The Best Years of Our Lives Dragonwyck Gilda Great Expectations Humoresque It's a Wonderful Life Minshū no Teki No Regrets for Our Youth Paisà Utamaro and His Five Women The Bishop's Wife Black Narcissus A Double Life Gentleman's Agreement Miracle on 34th Street Mourning Becomes Electra Sea of Grass Shoeshine Another Part of the Forest Bicycle Thieves Corridor of Mirrors Drunken Angel The Fallen Idol Germany Year Zero Hamlet I Remember Mama Johnny Belinda Letter from an Unknown Woman Oliver Twist The Red Shoes The Snake Pit State of the Union All the King's Men The Blue Lagoon Daleká cesta Federal Agents vs. Underworld, Inc.
Presenilins-associated rhomboid-like protein, mitochondrial known as mitochondrial intramembrane cleaving protease PARL is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that in humans is encoded by the PARL gene on chromosome 3. It is a member of the rhomboid family of intramembrane serine proteases; this protein is involved in signal transduction and apoptosis, as well as neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes. Rhomboid family members share a conserved core of six transmembrane helices, with the Ser and His residues required to form the catalytic dyad embedded in TMH-4 and TMH-6, respectively; this dyad is found deep below the membrane surface, which indicates that the hydrolysis of peptide bonds occurs within the hydrophobic phospholipid bilayer membrane. As a member of the Parl subfamily, PARL has an additional N-terminal TMH which may form a loop to the catalytic core; this gene encodes a mitochondrial integral membrane protein. Following proteolytic processing of this protein, a small peptide is formed and translocated to the nucleus.
This gene may be involved in signal transduction via regulated intramembrane proteolysis of membrane-tethered precursor proteins. Variation in this gene has been associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additionally, PARL is involved in apoptosis through its interactions with the mitochondrial GTPase optic atrophy 1 and the Bcl-2 family-related protein HAX1. OPA1 regulates mitochondrial fusion in the mitochondrial inner membrane, but after proteolytic cleavage by PARL, its short, soluble form contributes to inhibiting apoptosis by slowing down cytochrome c release, thus, proapoptotic signaling. Alternatively, PARL can inhibit apoptosis by coordinating with HAX1 to activate HtrA2 protease, thus preventing the accumulation of the proapoptotic Bax, it has been shown that the p. S77N presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein mutation is not a frequent cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease. Variation in presenilins-associated rhomboid-like protein sequence and/or expression may be an important new risk factor for type 2 diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome.
Mutations in PARL may be involved in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy by disrupting normal function of the mitochondria, thus promoting retinal ganglion cell death and neurodegeneration. PARL has been shown to interact with: PINK1, OPA1, HAX1