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Airborne forces

Airborne forces are military units moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle by parachute anywhere with little warning. Formations are limited only by the size of their aircraft. On the other hand, airborne forces lack supplies for prolonged combat. Airborne operations are sensitive to weather. Advances in helicopter technology since World War II have brought increased flexibility, air assaults have replaced parachutists. Benjamin Franklin envisioned the danger of airborne attack in 1784, only a few months after the first manned flight in a hot air balloon: "Five Thousand Balloons capable of raising two Men each, would not cost more than Five Ships of the Line: And where is the Prince who can afford so to cover his Country with Troops for its Defense, as that Ten Thousand Men descending from the Clouds, might not in many Places do an infinite deal of Mischief, before a Force could be brought together to repel them?" Although Winston Churchill had proposed the creation of an airborne force to assault behind the German lines in 1917 during the First World War, the first modern operation dates to late 1918.

Major Lewis H. Brereton and his superior Brigadier General Billy Mitchell suggested dropping elements of the U. S. 1st Division behind German lines near Metz. The operation was planned for February 1919 but the war ended before such an attack could be planned. Mitchell conceived that US troops could be trained to utilize parachutes and drop from converted bombers to land behind Metz in synchronisation with a planned infantry offensive. Following the war, the United States Army Air Service experimented with the concept of having troops carried on the wings of aircraft pulled off by the opening of their parachutes; the first true paratroop drop was by Italy in November 1927. Within a few years several battalions had been raised and were formed into two Folgore and Nembo divisions. Although these would fight with distinction in World War II, the divisions were never used in a parachute drop. Men drawn from the Italian parachute forces were dropped in a special forces operation in North Africa in 1943 in an attempt to destroy parked aircraft of the United States Army Air Forces.

In Peru, on March 27, 1927, Enrique Tavernie Entelador leaped from a height of 2,000 meters out of an AVRO aircraft piloted by Captain Clifford, making Entelador the first Peruvian paratrooper. On May 10, 1928, Second Lieutenant César Álvarez jumped from a height of 3,000 meters, becoming the first military parachutist. At about the same time, the Soviet Union was experimenting with the idea, planning to drop entire units complete with vehicles and light tanks. To help train enough experienced jumpers, parachute clubs were organized with the aim of transferring into the armed forces if needed. Planning progressed to the point that Corps-size drops were demonstrated to foreign observers, including the British Military Attaché Archibald Wavell, in the Kiev military district maneuvers of 1935. One of the observing parties, was interested. In 1936, Major F. W. Immans was ordered to set up a parachute school at Stendal, was allocated a number of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft to train on; the military had purchased large numbers of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft which were modified for use as paratroop transports in addition to their other duties.

The first training class was known as Ausbildungskommando Immans. They commenced the first course on May 3, 1936. Other nations, including Argentina, Japan and Poland organized airborne units around this time. France became the first nation to organize women in an airborne unit. Recruiting 200 nurses who during peacetime would parachute into natural disasters but reservists who would be a uniformed medical unit during wartime. Several groups within the German armed forces attempted to raise their own paratroop formations, resulting in confusion; as a result, Luftwaffe General Kurt Student was put in overall command of developing a paratrooper force to be known as the Fallschirmjäger. During the invasions of Norway and Denmark in Operation Weserübung, the Luftwaffe dropped paratroopers on several locations. In Denmark, a small unit dropped on the Masnedøfort on the small island of Masnedø to seize the Storstrøm Bridge linking the islands of Falster and Zealand. A paratroop detachment dropped at the airfield of Aalborg, crucial for the Luftwaffe for operations over Norway.

In Norway, a company of paratroopers dropped at Oslo's undefended airstrip. Over the course of the morning and early afternoon of April 9, 1940, the Germans flew in sufficient reinforcements to move into the capital in the afternoon, but by that time the Norwegian government had fled. In the Battle of France, members of the Brandenburg Regiment landed by Fieseler Fi 156 Storch light reconnaissance planes on the bridges to the south of the 10th Panzer Division's route of march through the southern Ardennes. In Belgium, a small group of German glider-borne troops landed on top of the Belgian fortress of Eben Emael on the morning of May 10, 1940, disabled the majority of its artillery; the fort held on for another day before surrendering. This opened up Belgium to attack by German Army Group B; the Dutch were exposed to the first large scale airborne attack in history. During the invasion of the Netherlands, the Germans threw into battle their entire Luftlandekorps, an airborne assault army corps that consisted of one parachute division and one division of airlanding troops plus the necessary transport capac

Glebocarcinus oregonensis

Glebocarcinus oregonensis known as the pygmy rock crab, is a species of crab found on the Pacific coast of North America. It is red/brown but this may vary; the carapace reaches a width of about 5 centimetres, is widest at the 7th or 8th lateral tooth. The chelipeds are black at the tip, the dactylus of the cheliped has no spiny ridges. Glebocarcinus oregonensis is found in crevices and under rocks, they can live in depths of up to 1,400 feet. They are nocturnal feeders, feeding on small barnacles, bivalves, green algae and Pacific oysters. Predators include river otters and red rock crab. Breeding occurs during the summer, the Puget Sound females carry eggs from November to May, it is not unusual to find harems consisting of one male with as many as seven females. Males may carry females that are molting and continue until their new shell hardens, for mating occurs after females molt. Eugene N. Kozloff & Linda H. Price. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press.

ISBN 978-0-295-97562-7

The Revelators (album)

The Revelators is the third and final studio album by Australian blues-rock band The Revelators. The album was released 23 September 2002; the band considers this'their true debut'. Camilleri said "This is the evolution of being a band. It’s about trying to create a standard of music that’s as good as the music we love." Unlike the band's previous albums, this album contains original tracks. Joe Camilleri said. It's always a tricky thing, you think; some songs are good but they don’t fit the record.” The album was launched on 4 October 2002 at Melbourne's Corner Hotel. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2003, the album was nominated for ARIA Award for Best Blues and Roots Album losing to Up All Night by The Waifs. CD track listing"That's What I'd Give" "Heart Like a Wheel" "Here We Go Again" "The Bottle and its Slave" "Floating Bridge" "Key to the Heart" "When the Spell is Broken" "One Mo' Time" "Must've Seen a Raven" "Missing You" "Hell to Pay" "Honey Bee" "Ruler of My Heart" "The Revelators" at discogs.com