Airbus A340

The Airbus A340 is a long-range, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner, developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus. In the mid-1970s, Airbus conceived several derivatives of the A300, its first airliner, developed the A340 quadjet in parallel with the A330 twinjet. In June 1987, Airbus launched both designs with their first orders and the A340-300 took its maiden flight on 25 October 1991, it was certified along the A340-200 on 22 December 1992 and both versions entered service in March 1993 with launch customers Lufthansa and Air France. The larger A340-500/600 were launched on 8 December 1997, the A340-600 flew for the first time on 23 April 2001 and entered service on 1 August 2002. Keeping the eight-abreast economy cross-section of the A300, the early A340-200/300 has a similar airframe to the A330. Differences include four 151 kN CFM56s instead of two turbofans to avoid ETOPS restrictions on trans-oceanic routes, a three-leg main landing gear instead of two for a heavier 276 t MTOW.

Both airliners have fly-by-wire controls, first introduced on the A320, as well as a similar glass cockpit. The A340-500/600 have a larger wing and are powered by 275 kN Rolls-Royce Trent 500 for a heavier 380 t MTOW; the shortest A340-200 measured 59.4 m, could cover 7,600 nmi with 261 seats in 3-class or 303 in 2-class. The most common A340-300 reached 63.7 m to accommodate 293 to 313 passengers and had a 7,150 nmi range. The A340-500 was 67.9 m long to seat 277 to 335 over 9,000 nmi, the longest-range airliner at the time. The longest A340-600 was stretched to 75.4 m the longest airliner, to accommodate 326 to 380 passengers over 7,550 nmi. As improving engine reliability allowed ETOPS operations for all routes, more economical twinjets have replaced quadjets on many routes. On 10 November 2011, Airbus announced the production reached its end, after 380 orders had been placed and 377 were delivered from Toulouse, France; the A350 XWB is proposed as the MD-11 and the Boeing 777 were its main competitors.

Lufthansa is the largest operator and the largest customer with 62 aircraft in total, continues to operate 34 aircraft as of January 2020. When Airbus designed the Airbus A300 during the 1970s it envisioned a broad family of airliners to compete against Boeing and McDonnell Douglas, two established US aerospace manufacturers. From the moment of formation, Airbus had begun studies into derivatives of the Airbus A300B in support of this long-term goal. Prior to the service introduction of the first Airbus airliners, Airbus had identified nine possible variations of the A300 known as A300B1 to B9. A tenth variation, conceived in 1973 the first to be constructed, was designated the A300B10, it was a smaller aircraft that would be developed into the long-range Airbus A310. Airbus focused its efforts on the single-aisle market, which resulted in the Airbus A320 family, the first digital fly-by-wire commercial aircraft; the decision to work on the A320, instead of a four-engine aircraft proposed by the Germans, created divisions within Airbus.

As the SA or "single aisle" studies underwent development to challenge the successful Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9 in the single-aisle, narrow-body airliner market, Airbus turned its focus back to the wide-body aircraft market. The A300B11, a derivative of the A310, was designed upon the availability of "ten ton" thrust engines. Using four engines, it would seat between 180 and 200 passengers, have a range of 6,000 nautical miles, it was deemed a replacement for the less-efficient Boeing Douglas DC-8s still in service. The A300B11 was joined by another design, the A300B9, a larger derivative of the A300; the B9 was developed by Airbus from the early 1970s at a slow pace until the early 1980s. It was a stretched A300 with the same wing, coupled with the most powerful turbofan engine available at the time, it was targeted at the growing demand for high-capacity, medium-range, transcontinental trunk routes. The B9 offered the same range and payload as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, but it used between 25% to 38% less fuel.

The B9 was therefore considered a replacement for the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar. To differentiate the programme from the SA studies, the B9 and B11 were redesignated the TA9 and TA11, respectively. In an effort to save development costs, it was decided that the two would share the same wing and airframe; the adoption of a common wing structure had one technical advantage: the TA11's outboard engines could counteract the weight of the longer-range model by providing bending relief. Another factor was the split preference of those within Airbus and, more prospective airliner customers. Airbus vice president for strategic planning, Adam Brown, North American operators were in favour of a twin, while Asians wanted a quad. In Europe, opinion was split between the two; the majority of potential customers were in favour of a quad despite the fact, in certain conditions, it is more costly to operate than a twin. They liked that it could be ferried with one engine out, could fly'anywhere'— ETOPS hadn't begun then.

The first specifications of the TA9 and TA11 were released in 1982. While the TA9 had a range of 3,300 nautical miles, the TA11 range was up to 6,830 nautical miles. At the same time, Airbus sketched the TA12, a twin-engine derivative of the TA11, optimised f


Trinitromethane referred to as nitroform, is a nitroalkane and oxidizer with chemical formula HC3. It was first obtained in 1857 as the ammonium salt by the Russian chemist Leon Nikolaevich Shishkov. In 1900, it was discovered that nitroform can be produced by the reaction of acetylene with anhydrous nitric acid; this method went on to become the industrial process of choice during the 20th century. In the laboratory, nitroform can be produced by hydrolysis of tetranitromethane under mild basic conditions. Trinitromethane as a neutral molecule is colorless, it is acidic forming an intensely yellow anion, 3C−. The pKa of trinitromethane has been measured at 0.17 ± 0.02 at 20 °C, remarkably acidic for a methane derivative. Trinitromethane dissolves in water to form an acidic yellow solution. There is some evidence. Trinitromethane forms a series of bright yellow ionic salts. Many of these salts tend to be unstable and can be detonated by heat or impact; the potassium salt of nitroform, KC3 is a lemon yellow crystalline solid that decomposes at room temperatures and explodes above 95 °C.

The ammonium salt is somewhat more stable, deflagrates or explodes above 200 °C. The hydrazine salt, hydrazinium nitroformate is thermally stable to above 125 °C and is being investigated as an ecologically friendly oxidizer for use in solid fuels for rockets

Famagusta derby

The Famagusta derby refers to the Famagusta's local derby, football matches played between Anorthosis Famagusta and Nea Salamis Famagusta. It is one of the rivalries of Cypriot football; the rivalry is indicative of social and political differences. Until 1974 the games between the two teams were taking place in Famagusta. After the Turkish invasion of Cyprus and the occupation of Famagusta by the Turkish army, the games between the two teams are taking place in Larnaca, where the two teams have their headquarters. In recent decades the political differences, the local conflicts and the social divide were some of the elements of the rivalry between the two teams; the matches between the two teams are called the Varoshi derby because of Varosha, the name of an area in the modern city of Famagusta. Anorthosis and Nea Salamis are the most historical teams of Famagusta. Anorthosis was founded in 1911 and Nea Salamina in 1948; the club Anorthosis Famagusta was founded on 30 January 1911. The early years did not develop sporting action but national, spiritual and social.

In 1929 the club began to develop sporting action. However, the young members of the club were active at football much earlier. Since the early 1920s, they formed a group called the "Greek Football Team of Varosha". In 1929, that team joined Anorthosis and the players, who were all members of Anorthosis, became the first football team of the club. After that, Anorthosis took part in the first unofficial national leagues, the Cities' Championships; the Cyprus Football Association was founded in 1934, with Anorthosis being one of the founding members. In 1947, Anorthosis along with EPA Larnaca and Pezoporikos Larnaca called for statutory change, which sought for the presidency of CFA to rotate through all cities; these teams that have raised this request asking for equal treatment once thought that the clubs of Nicosia APOEL, were enjoying the favor of the CFA. The request was discussed at a general meeting of the Federation on 27 August 1947, but only these three teams voted in favor of this proposal.

After this result, the three teams left the CFA and created their own federation, the Football Sports Federation of Cyprus, established in Larnaca. On, five more clubs joined the new federation. A climate of conflict prevailed between the two federations; the conflict ended over a year when the Football Sports Federation of Cyprus dissolved, the three unions reintegrated into the CFA in the autumn of 1948. This followed the establishment of leftist unions, including Nea Salamina; when Nea Salamis Famagusta was founded, Greece was entering a period of civil war between leftists and rightists. The situation in Greece affected Cyprus, both socially. At this time, Famagusta had two sports clubs: Evagoras Gymnastic Association, or GSE and Anorthosis Famagusta; the GSE had many talented leftist athletes on its rosters. At Anorthosis, many players were leftists. Under the influence of the contemporary right-wing political climate, the GSE and Anorthosis began to restrict leftist athletes. In early 1947, a group of people from Famagusta concluded that there was a space for another sports club in the city.

Due to the existing restrictions, they envisioned a club which would appeal to everyone in Famagusta regardless of political affiliation. On 14 February 1948, the decision was made to establish the club, on 7 March 1948 the Nea Salamina sports club was formed as the first leftist athletic club in Cyprus. Negative attitudes towards the left-wing athletes prevailed in other Cypriot cities and some other clubs were formed. Due to their left-wing political beliefs, members of the new clubs were not accepted into the Cyprus Football Association and they established a new football federation in December 1948; the new federation organized cups, which attracted thousands of fans. The CAFF matches became more popular than those of the CFA. CAFF members favored the unification of football in Cyprus, they tried for three years to persuade the CFA to accept them without any success. The existence of two football federations in a country such as Cyprus was unprecedented; the situation created economic hardship, hampered the development and the improvement of Cypriot football.

The clubs felt that sports should reflect friendship rather than discrimination. In December 1952, the first issue of the sports newspaper Athlitiki supported the unification of Cypriot football. Foreign coaches of the CFA clubs supported unification, leading CFA to respond that "their statements opposed the spirit of the Federation". Coaches of CFA's teams were hostile towards consolidation supporters. In summer 1953, the majority of Cypriot sportspeople expressed support for football unification. In August of that year Nea Salamina, Alki Larnaca and Antaeus Limassol submitted a joint application to the CFA to join the Cypriot First Division. On 19 September, the CFA accepted Nea Salamina and Antaeus for membership. However, the organization's negative attitude towards those clubs continued. First, the league rejected applications from Alki, Orfeas Nicosia and Neos Asteras (although the first t