An aircraft is a vehicle, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships, gliders and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914. First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939.

Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the Jet Age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large cells or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons, called sky lanterns, were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites, which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs — fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts." In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships".

— though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship. Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back; these soon became known as blimps.

During World War II, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons. The nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust — aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift. A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary.

With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and Lockheed Martin F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC. Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available; the first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A gl

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology

The Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology is an Government institution in Bagayam, Vellore was established in July 1990 and is one of the six Government Engineering colleges governed by the Directorate of Technical Education of the Government of Tamil Nadu. It belongs to Zone 5 and Zonal Office for Zone 5 Colleges of Anna Universitya; the institute is equipped with a laboratory, computer facilities and the students are trained by staff members. It ranks 44 among 454 colleges affiliated to Anna University. Alumni have made their mark in extra curricular activities; the institute is recognized by the All India Council for Technical Education. TPGIT is located in an atmosphere at Bagayam, Vellore, 130 km west of Chennai and 220 km east of Bangalore, it is connected to both these cities by buses. Katpadi railway junction, 12 km from the college is directly connected to Chennai and from there to the rest of India; the nearest airport is at Chennai. Thanthai periyar government institute of technology is a government college, developing and enriching the students with wide aspects and perspects with varieties of resources available in the vellore with top trends with the campus opportunities and extensive lab facilities needed for the engineers.

Bus no.1,2 connects the Katpadi station with college. 1 The institution offers the following courses: Undergraduate Courses: B. E. Electronics & Communication Engineering B. E. Mechanical Engineering B. E. Civil engineering B. E. Electrical and Electronics Engineering B. E. Computer Science and Engineering Post Graduate Courses M. E. Applied Electronics M. E. Manufacturing engineering MCA Part Time Courses M. E. Applied Electronics M. E. Manufacturing Engineering B. E. Electronics And Communication Engineering B. E. Mechanical EngineeringThe Placement cell has been bringing placements to the college for the past six years and a number of students from all the streams have been placed in companies with impressive salaries; this college has been accredited by National Board of Accreditation, New Delhi, which shows the development of this college. Department Of Mechanical Engineering has been established in the year 1990. A separate block for Mechanical Engineering has been functioning since 2006; the department has 13 sanctioned posts of faculties.

Several students of this department have got university ranks. As a part of promoting technical and research activities, the department organizes various Seminars, Guest Lectures Workshops and Conferences; the department has well equipped laboratories and faculty members. The Department offers consultancy works in rapid prototyping; the Department of Mechanical Engineering has evolved with comprehensive learning approaches other than lecture classes in an integrated manner through Lab Sessions, Periodic Tests, Industrial Training, effective Industrial Visits, Paper Presentations and Projects. The Department of electronics and communication was established in the year 1990; the department has been accredited by NBA. Several students of this department have got university ranks. Supported by a crew of staff members, the department stands green with the day-to-day developments in its infrastructural as well as laboratory facilities; the department has 13 sanctioned posts of faculties. As a part of promoting technical and research activities, the department periodically organizes various Seminars, Guest Lectures Workshops and Conferences.

The department has equipped laboratories and faculty members. The department of Civil Engineering was established in the year 1990 having "Eco-Friendly Structures" as its theme area and offers B. E. Civil Engineering Programme. From 1990-91, four batches of Students passed out; the course was restarted with effect from 2004-05. The department has 13 sanctioned posts of faculties. In addition to the Undergraduate Programme, the Department is offering consultancy and testing services in various Civil Engineering Fields like Structural Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, etc... using equipments and software for Government and Private Sectors. The Department occupied separate RCC building of an area 2433sq.m, constructed in 2008 and having AC Sheet roofing structural lab of an area 400sq.m. As a part of promoting technical and research activities, the department periodically organizes various Seminars, Guest Lectures Workshops and Conferences.

The department has equipped laboratories and faculty members. List of Tamil Nadu Government's Educational Institutions List of Tamil Nadu Government's Engineering Colleges TPGIT Official Website Google Maps Location

2017 Michigan State Spartans football team

The 2017 Michigan State Spartans football team represented Michigan State University in the 2017 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Spartans played their home games at the Spartan Stadium in East Lansing and competed in the East Division of the Big Ten Conference, they were led by 11th-year head coach Mark Dantonio. The Spartans finished the season 10–3, 7–2 in Big Ten play to finish in a tie for second place in the East Division. 2017 was a breakout season for the Spartans, has been coined as Michigan State's Improbable March. The Spartans received an invitation to the 2017 Holiday Bowl; the Spartans finished the 2016 season 3–9, 1–8 in Big Ten play to finish in sixth place in the East Division. The season marked a stark drop-off from the school's recent successes, including an appearance in the 2016 College Football Playoff; the Spartans dismissed three players, Donnie Corley, Josh King, Demetric Vance, after they were charged with third-degree criminal sexual conduct in relation to a sexual assault investigation.

In a separate incident, Auston Robertson, was charged with third-degree sexual misconduct in April and dismissed from the team. The Spartans signed a total of 23 recruits. Position key Michigan State announced its 2017 football schedule on December 8, 2016; the 2017 schedule consists of seven home and five away games in the regular season. The Spartans host Big Ten foes Indiana, Iowa and Penn State, travel to Michigan, Northwestern, Ohio State, Rutgers; the Spartans host all three non-conference opponents, Bowling Green from the Mid-American Conference, Western Michigan from the MAC, Notre Dame, an independent. MSU did not leave the state of Michigan until their October 14 game at Minnesota. Schedule Source: MSU opened the season at Spartan Stadium against Mid-American Conference opponent, Bowling Green looking to improve upon their poor performance in 2016; the Spartans started well, driving to the Falcon goalline before LJ Scott fumbled the ball and Bowling Green returned it to their 31-yard line.

The Falcons moved the ball down the field and took the lead shortly thereafter on a Jake Suder 36-yard field goal. After this ominous beginning, neither team managed any further points in the first quarter, but the Spartans took the lead for good less than four minutes into the second quarter on a Madre London seven-yard touchdown run; as time ran out in the first half, Brian Lewerke hit Felton Davis for a four-yard touchdown pass to give the Spartans a 14–3 lead at halftime. MSU's offense took control in the third period, scoring touchdowns on back-to-back possessions, both touchdown passes from Brian Lewerke, to give the Spartans a commanding 28–3 lead. Tyson Smith, playing in his first game since suffering a stroke in November 2016, intercepted a Falcon pass and returned it 38 yards for a touchdown and a 35–3 lead. LJ Scott would lose another fumble early in the fourth quarter, this time the Falcons returned it 46 yards for a touchdown to reduce the Spartan lead to 35–10. Neither team scored again.

Brian Lewerke played well, throwing three touchdowns. He rushed for 70 yards on the day. LJ Scott had a poor day, rushing 15 times and gaining only 39 yards and fumbling the ball twice with the Falcons recovering both; the Spartan defense limited the Falcons to three points and 212 total yards on the day. In the second week of the season, the Spartans hosted another MAC opponent, the previous year's MAC champion, Western Michigan; the Michigan State defense would hold steady on the opening drive by the Broncos, with Josiah Scott recording his first career interception. The Spartan offense was able to drive into WMU territory following the interception, but was unable to score. Several possessions Brian Lewerke opened the scoring in the first quarter on a read option play, scoring on a 61-yard run, giving Michigan State a 7–0 lead. Michigan State would add another score late in the second quarter on a 15-yard pass from Lewerke to LJ Scott; as a result, MSU led 14–0 at halftime. For the second week in a row, an opponent scored on a fumble recovery when true-freshman receiver Hunter Rison had the ball stripped by WMU cornerback Darius Phillips and returned it 67 yards for a touchdown, to pull the Broncos within 14–7.

The Spartan offense answered the score, taking less than three minutes on their following drive to score, which included a Darrell Stewart run of 41 yards to the WMU one-yard line. Lewerke would punch it in from one-yard out, restoring MSU's two touchdown lead, 21–7; the Spartans increased the lead in the fourth quarter when LJ Scott broke a 44-yard run on fourth and one from the Spartan 45-yard line. Scott would score on a two-yard touchdown run, giving MSU a 28–7 lead. However, Darius Phillips answered the Spartan touchdown on the ensuing kickoff with a 100-yard return for touchdown, making it 28–14; the Bronco offense would put a drive together late in the fourth quarter, driving all the way to the MSU 15-yard line before failing to convert on fourth and one. The Spartan offense would run out the clock to secure the 28–14 victory; the win moved the Spartans to 2–0 on the season with a bye week to follow. The Michigan State defense played well, tallying four sacks and surrendering only 195 yards and, for the second week in a row, did not give up a touchdown.

Brian Lewerke totaled 242 all purpose yards, with two rushing TDs and a passing TD. LJ Scott led all rushers with 86 yards rushing with a couple of TDs. Felton Davis led all receivers with 69 yards. Michigan State r