An aircraft catapult is a device used to launch aircraft from ships, most used on aircraft carriers, as a form of assisted take off. It consists of a track built into the flight deck, below, a large piston or shuttle, attached through the track to the nose gear of the aircraft, or in some cases a wire rope, called a catapult bridle, is attached to the aircraft and the catapult shuttle. Different means have been used to propel the catapult, such as weight and derrick, flywheel, air pressure and steam power; the U. S. Navy is developing the use of Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch Systems with the construction of the Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carriers. Catapulted aircraft land like conventional aircraft, sometimes with the help of arresting gear. Aviation pioneer and Smithsonian Secretary Samuel Langley used a spring-operated catapult to launch his successful flying models and his failed aerodrome of 1903; the Wright Brothers beginning in 1904 used a weight and derrick styled catapult to assist their early aircraft with a takeoff in a limited distance.
On 31 July 1912, Theodore Gordon Ellyson became the first person to be launched from a U. S. Navy catapult system; the Navy had been perfecting a compressed-air catapult system and mounted it on the Santee Dock in Annapolis, Maryland. The first attempt nearly killed Lieutenant Ellyson when the plane left the ramp with its nose pointing upward and it caught a crosswind, pushing the plane into the water. Ellyson was able to escape from the wreckage unhurt. On 12 November 1912, Lt. Ellyson made history as the Navy's first successful catapult launch, from a stationary coal barge. On 5 November 1915, Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Mustin made the first catapult launch from a ship underway; the US Navy experimented with other power sources and models, including catapults that utilized gunpowder and flywheel variations. On 14 December 1924, a Martin MO-1 observation plane flown by Lt. L. C. Hayden was launched from USS Langley using a catapult powered by gunpowder. Following this launch, this method was used aboard both battleships.
Up to and during World War II, most catapults on aircraft carriers were hydraulic. United States Navy catapults on surface warships, were operated with explosive charges similar to those used for 5" guns; some carriers were completed before and during World War II with catapults on the hangar deck that fired athwartships, but they were unpopular because of their short run, low clearance of the hangar decks, inability to add the ship's forward speed to the aircraft's airspeed for takeoff, lower clearance from the water. They were used for experimental purposes, their use was discontinued during the latter half of the war. Many naval vessels apart from aircraft carriers carried float planes, seaplanes or amphibians for reconnaissance and spotting, they landed on the sea alongside for recovery by crane. Additionally, the concept of submarine aircraft carriers was developed by multiple nations during the interwar period, through until WW2 and beyond, wherein a submarine would launch a small number of floatplanes for offensive operations or artillery spotting, to be recovered by the submarine once the aircraft has landed.
The first launch off a Royal Navy battlecruiser was from HMAS Australia on 8 March 1918. Subsequently, many Royal Navy ships carried a catapult and from one to four aircraft; the aircraft carried were the Fairey Supermarine Walrus. Some like HMS Nelson did not use a catapult, the aircraft was lowered onto the sea for takeoff; some catapult removed during World War II e.g. HMS Duke of York, or before. During World War II a number of ships were fitted with rocket-driven catapults, first the fighter catapult ships of the Royal Navy armed merchantmen known as CAM ships from "catapult armed merchantmen." These were used for convoy escort duties to drive off enemy reconnaissance bombers. CAM ships carried a Hawker Sea Hurricane 1A, dubbed a "Hurricat" or "Catafighter", the pilot bailed out unless he could fly to land. Ground-launched V-1s were propelled up an inclined launch ramp by an apparatus known as a Dampferzeuger. Following World War II, the Royal Navy was developing a new catapult system for their fleet of carriers.
Commander Colin C. Mitchell, RNV, recommended a steam-based system as an effective and efficient means to launch the next generation of naval aircraft. Trials on HMS Perseus, flown by pilots such as Eric "Winkle" Brown, from 1950 showed its effectiveness. Navies introduced capable of launching the heavier jet fighters, in the mid-1950s. Powder-driven catapults were contemplated, would have been powerful enough, but would have introduced far greater stresses on the airframes and might have been unsuitable for long use. At launch, a release bar holds the aircraft in place as steam pressure builds up breaks, freeing the piston to pull the aircraft along the deck at high speed. Within about two to four seconds, aircraft velocity by the action of the catapult plus apparent wind speed is sufficient to allow an aircraft to fly away after losing one engine. Nations that have retained large aircraft carriers, i.e. the United States Navy, French Navy, are still using a CATOBAR configuration. U. S. Navy tactical aircraft use catapults to la
Funky Koval is a 4-part Polish science fiction/detective story/political fiction genre comic book published in Poland in the 1980s. It is still recognized as one of the best Polish comics; the scenario for the comic was created by Jacek Rodek. It was first published in November 1982 on four black and white pages in the second issue of Fantastyka, a Polish sci-fi magazine; the first episodes were more of the'comic short story' format, have generated both much praise and critique among the readers. The comic moved from short story format to more lengthy, novel-like plots. Plot-wise the series has never ended. With the release of the'Komiks-Fantastyka' series in 1987 comics were moved rereleased in this comic spin-off, Koval was soon released in 3 albums; the first album, Bez oddechu, contained collected stories published earlier, reprinted in Fantastyka and with some additional panels to allow more seamingless transition between various stories. The second collected the 1985 more novel-like story.
All comics debuted in'Fantastyka' and were released as color albums. In 2002 it was reprinted again in a mega-album Klasyka Polskiego Komiksu - Funky Koval, it contained the beginning of the fourth series - "Bez litosci". Gossip and semi-official promises about that new parts of the comics have been circulating for many years, but no official announcement have been made until 2010, when it started to be serialised in the SF monthly Nowa Fantastyka; the fourth part is titled "Wrogie przejęcie". A notable feature of the comic is the art of Bogusław Polch, known for his unique style and minute attention to details, he was known to put much more details into his drawings than could be printed in the comics. Many gadgets have logos of known companies, their characteristics shapes - of videophones, spaceships or flying cars - are one of the trademarks of that comic book; the art in the third series is different from that in the first two: in the third series Polch experimented with more simple style, sometimes bordering on caricatures.
This change proved to be a disappointment to some fans used to his earlier, more detailed and realistic style. The plot resolves around the figure of former military pilot and now space detective, Funky Koval, who with his friends and colleagues forms a private detective agency "Universs" and solves various cases in the futuristic world of the 2080s, his investigations range from corruption in the police and government, through fighting cultists and terrorists, investigating missing spaceships and illegal slave camps, to the mystery of the Drolls aliens, who seem to have a much more advanced technology than the humans, whose plans for the humanity - if any - remain a mystery. This comic book gained a cult following in Poland due to the high quality of drawings and plot, due to many subtle connections with the real world of the 1980s Poland. Although some of those elements are no longer read by modern audience, the comic is still seen as one of the best Polish sci-fi works, has influenced several more recent works.
Science fiction comic "Klasyka polskiego komiksu: Funky Koval" - review Kosmiczny Detektyw - review Funky Koval - review FUNKY KOVAL ŻYJE! - article from Świat Komiksu 29, wrzesień 2002 Mam mnóstwo własnych pomysłów - Interview with Polch "Official Fansite" Funky Koval Movie website "IMDB "
Terry William Rozier III is an American professional basketball player for the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association. He played two years of college basketball for Louisville before being selected with the 16th overall pick in the 2015 NBA draft by the Boston Celtics. Rozier was born in Youngstown, Ohio, in 1994, his father, Terry Rozier Sr. was sent to prison for eight years only two months after his birth. In 2005, Terry spent a few months with his father, who had just been released from prison, before he was arrested again on charges of involuntary manslaughter for his involvement in a robbery and kidnapping from 2003 that had led to the accidental death of an accomplice. Rozier Sr. was sentenced to thirteen years. In consequence, Rozier was raised by his mother, Gina Tucker, his grandmother, Amanda Tucker, as well as alongside his brother and half sister. Rozier starred at Shaker Heights High School in Shaker Heights, graduating in 2012. In his senior year, he averaged 25.6 points, 6.5 rebounds, 4.5 assists and 4.7 steals per game while leading Shaker to a 21–3 record and taking them in 2012 to the regional semifinals for the first time since 2002.
He was named an All-Lake Erie League selection for three years and was 74th in recruiting ranking on ESPNU's Top 100 Players list in 2012. As he needed to improve his grades, Rozier played at Hargrave Military Academy before joining Louisville. In his 2012–13 campaign at Hargrave, Rozier averaged 29.3 points, 7.8 rebounds, 5.6 assists while the team went 38–8. As a freshman at Louisville in 2013–14, Rozier averaged 7.0 points and 3.1 rebounds in 37 games, made the AAC All-Rookie Team. As a sophomore in 2014–15, Rozier led the Cardinals in scoring with 17.1 points per game, was named second-team All-ACC. On March 30, 2015, Rozier and Louisville teammate Montrezl Harrell declared for the 2015 NBA draft. On June 25, 2015, Rozier was selected by the Boston Celtics with the 16th overall pick in the 2015 NBA draft. On July 27, 2015, he signed his rookie scale contract with the Celtics. Entering his rookie season, he drew comparisons to Damian Lillard. During his rookie season, he received multiple assignments to the Maine Red Claws, Boston's D-League affiliate.
He appeared in 39 regular season games for the Celtics in 2015–16, scoring a season-high seven points twice. In his first playoff game, he scored 10 points on 4-of-7 shooting against the Atlanta Hawks. On November 12, 2016, Rozier scored a career-high 11 points in a 105–99 win over the Indiana Pacers, he topped that mark nine days scoring 12 points in a 99–93 win over the Minnesota Timberwolves. On December 7, he had a 16-point game in a 117–87 win over the Orlando Magic. On March 19, 2017, he recorded his first career double-double with 14 points and 10 rebounds in a 105–99 loss to the Philadelphia 76ers. On November 24, 2017, Rozier had a career-high 23 points in a 118–103 win over the Orlando Magic. On December 18, he made a steal and go-ahead dunk with 1.5 seconds remaining that gave the Celtics a 112–111 victory over the Indiana Pacers. On January 3, 2018, Rozier had a game-high 20 points in a 102-88 win over the Cleveland Cavaliers. On January 31, Rozier logged his first career triple-double in his first NBA start to help the Celtics to a 103–73 victory over the New York Knicks.
He recorded 17 points, 11 rebounds and 10 assists to become just the second player in NBA history with a triple-double in his first start, joining Tony Wroten, who set the initial record on November 13, 2013, with the Philadelphia 76ers. Two days in his second career start, Rozier scored a career-high 31 points in a 119–110 win over the Hawks. On March 25, in his sixth start in place of the injured Kyrie Irving, Rozier scored a career-high 33 points in a 104–93 win over the Sacramento Kings, he had five rebounds and three assists, shot 12 of 16 from the field, including 8 of 12 on 3-pointers. In Game 2 of the Celtics' first-round playoff series against the Milwaukee Bucks, Rozier scored 23 points in helping Boston take a 2–0 series lead with a 120–106 win. In Game 7, Rozier scored 26 points in a 112–96 win over the Bucks. In Game 1 of their second-round series against the 76ers, Rozier recorded 29 points, eight rebounds and six assists in a 117–101 win. In Game 6 of the Eastern Conference Finals, Rozier scored 28 points in a 109–99 loss to the Cavaliers.
In Game 7, Rozier missed all 10 of his 3-point attempts, as the Celtics bowed out of the playoffs with an 87–79 loss. In early November, Rozier was unhappy with his playing time to begin the 2018–19 season, having gone from starting in the playoffs to coming off the bench. On November 9, Rozier scored a season-high 22 points in a 123–115 loss to the Utah Jazz, making his first start of the season in place of Irving. On January 23, he scored 22 of his 26 points in the first half of the Celtics' 123–103 win over the Cleveland Cavaliers, he became the first Celtics player to score 20 or more points in a half on perfect shooting since Paul Pierce went 7 for 7 and had 20 in the second half against the Chicago Bulls on October 30, 2009. On January 30, he had 17 points and tied a career high with 10 assists in a 126–94 win over the Charlotte Hornets. On March 11, he had 26 points in a 140–115 loss to the Los Angeles Clippers. On July 6, 2019, Rozier was traded to the Charlotte Hornets, as part of a sign-and-trade deal involving Kemba Walker.
On December 18, 2019 he scored a career high 35 points in a 100 - 98 loss to the Cleveland Cavaliers. Career statistics and player information from NBA.com, or Basketball-Reference.com Louisville Cardinals bio