Aircraft hijacking, or hijacking, is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. Dating from the earliest of hijackings, most cases involve the pilot being forced to fly according to the hijacker's demands. However, in rare cases, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves and used them in suicide attacks. Unlike carjacking or sea piracy, an aircraft hijacking is not committed for robbery or theft. Individuals driven by personal gain divert planes to destinations where they are not planned to go; some hijacking situations intend to use passengers or crew as hostages, either for monetary ransom or for some political or administrative concession by authorities. Various motives have driven such occurrences, such as demanding the release of certain high-profile individuals or for the right of political asylum. Hijackings involving hostages have produced violent confrontations between hijackers and the authorities, during negotiation and settlement. In the case of Lufthansa Flight 181 and Air France Flight 139, the hijackers were not satisfied and showed no inclination to surrender, resulting in attempts by special forces to rescue passengers.
In most jurisdictions of the world, aircraft hijacking is punishable by life imprisonment or a long prison sentence. In most jurisdictions where the death penalty is a legal punishment, aircraft hijacking is a capital crime, including in China and the U. S. states of Mississippi. Airplane hijackings have occurred since the early days of flight; these can be classified in the following eras: 1929–1957, 1958–1979, 1980–2000 and 2001–present. Early incidents involved light planes but this involved passenger aircraft as commercial aviation became widespread. Between 1929 and 1957, there were fewer than 20 incidents of reported hijackings worldwide and several occurred in Eastern Europe. One of the first unconfirmed hijackings occurred in December 1929. J. Howard "Doc" DeCelles was flying a postal route for a Mexican firm, Transportes Aeras Transcontinentales, ferrying mail from San Luis Potosí to Torreon and on to Guadalajara. A lieutenant named Saturnino Cedillo, the governor of the state of San Luis Potosí, ordered him to divert.
Several other men were involved, through an interpreter, DeCelles had no choice but to comply. He was held captive for several hours under armed guard before being released; the first recorded aircraft hijack took place on February 1931, in Arequipa, Peru. Byron Richards, flying a Ford Tri-Motor, was approached on the ground by armed revolutionaries, he refused to fly them anywhere during a 10-day standoff. Richards was informed that the revolution was successful and he could be freed in return for flying one of the men to Lima; the following year, in September 1932, a Sikorsky S-38 with registration P-BDAD, still bearing the titles of Nyrba do Brasil was seized in the company's hangar by three men, who took a fourth as a hostage. Despite having no flying experience, they managed to take-off. However, the aircraft crashed in São João de Meriti; the hijack was related to the events of the Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo and it is considered to be the first hijack that took place in Brazil.
On October 28, 1939, the first murder on a plane took place in Brookfield, Missouri, US. The victim was Carl Bivens, a flight instructor, teaching a man named Earnest P. "Larry" Pletch. While airborne in a Taylor Club monoplane, Pletch shot Bivens twice in the back of the head. Pletch told prosecutors, "Carl was telling me I had a natural ability and I should follow that line", adding, "I had a revolver in my pocket and without saying a word to him, I took it out of my overalls and I fired a bullet into the back of his head, he never knew what struck him." The Chicago Daily Tribune stated. Pletch was sentenced to life in prison. However, he was released on March 1, 1957 after serving 17 years, lived until June 2001. In 1942, two New Zealanders, a South African and an Englishman achieved the first confirmed in-air hijack when they violently captured an Italian seaplane, flying them to a prison camp; as they approached an Allied base, they were forced to land on the water. However, all on board survived to be picked up by a British boat.
In the years following World War II, Philip Baum, an aviation security expert suggests that the development of a rebellious youth "piggybacking on to any cause which challenged the status quo or acted in support of those deemed oppressed", may have been a contributor to attacks against the aviation industry. The first hijacking of a commercial flight occurred on the Cathay Pacific Miss Macao on July 16, 1948. After this incident and others in the 1950s, airlines recommended that flight crews comply with the hijackers demands than risk a violent confrontation. There were various hijacking incidents and assaults on planes in China and the Middle East; the first hijacking of a flight for political reasons happened in Bolivia, affecting the airline Lloyd Aereo Boliviano on September 26, 1956. The DC-4 was carrying 47 prisoners who were being transported from Santa Cruz, Bolivia to El Alto, in La Paz. A political group was waiting to take them to a concentration camp located in Carahuara de Carangas, Oruro.
The 47 prisoners overpowered the crew and gained control of the aircraft while a
Mancala is one of the oldest known games to still be played today. Mancala is a generic name for a family of two-player turn-based strategy board games played with small stones, beans, or seeds and rows of holes or pits in the earth, a board or other playing surface; the objective is to capture all or some set of the opponent's pieces. Versions of the game date back to the 7th century, evidence suggests the game existed in ancient Egypt; the name is a classification or type of game, rather than any specific game. Some of the most popular mancala games are: Ali Guli Mane or Pallanguzhi, played in Southern India, it is called Omanu Guntalu in Telugu, played in rural areas of Telangana, India. Bao la Kiswahili – played in most of East Africa including Kenya, Comoros, Malawi, as well as some areas of DR Congo and Burundi. Gebeta - Ethiopian and Eritrea in Tigrai. Kalah – North American variation, the most popular variant in the Western world. Oware – Ashanti, but played world-wide with close variants played throughout West Africa and in the Caribbean.
Toguz korgool or Toguz kumalak – played in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Igisoro, played in Rwanda. A notable subtype of mancala are the Southeast Asian mancalas like the Malaysian congkak, Indonesians congklak or dakon, Filipino sungka, among others, they differ from other mancala types in that the player's store is included in the placing of the seeds. The most common type has seven holes for each player, in addition to the player store holes; this version has identical rules throughout its range. But there are numerous variations with the number of holes and rules by region. Sometimes more than one version can be played in a single locality. Although more than 800 names of traditional mancala games are known, some names denote the same game, while some names are used for more than one game. 200 modern invented versions have been described. Evidence of the game was uncovered in Israel in the city of Gedera in an excavated Roman bathhouse where pottery boards and rock cuts were unearthed dating back to between the 2nd and 3rd century AD.
Among other early evidence of the game are fragments of a pottery board and several rock cuts found in Aksumite areas in Matara and Yeha, which are dated by archaeologists to between the 6th and 7th century AD. The similarity of some aspects of the game to agricultural activity and the absence of a need for specialized equipment present the intriguing possibility that it could date to the beginnings of civilization itself; some purported evidence comes from the Kurna temple graffiti in Egypt, as reported by Parker in 1909 and Murray in his A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. However, accurate dating of this graffiti seems to be unavailable, what designs have been found by modern scholars resemble games common to the Roman world, rather than anything like mancala; some historians believe that mancala is the oldest game in the world based on the archaeological evidence found in Jordan that dates around 6000 BCE. The game might have been played by ancient Nabataeans and could have been an ancient version of the modern mancala game.
The games existed in eastern Europe. In the Baltic area, it was once popular. Two mancala tables from the early 18th century are to be found in Weikersheim Castle in southern Germany. In western Europe, it never caught on, but was documented by Oxford University orientalist Thomas Hyde; the United States has a larger mancala-playing population. A traditional mancala game called Warra was still played in Louisiana in the early 20th century, a commercial version called Kalah became popular in the 1940s. In Cape Verde, mancala is known as "ouril", it is played in the Islands and was brought to the United States by Cape Verdean immigrants. It is played to this day in Cape Verdean communities in New England. Recent studies of mancala rules have given insight into the distribution of mancala; this distribution has been linked to migration routes, which may go back several hundred years. There is evidence that the game was played in Egypt before 1000 B. C, it spread from Egypt through other parts of Africa with traders moving up and down the Nile.
Excavations in Lebanon uncovered Phoenician mancala pieces dated from the 6th century B. C; the statue was discovered lying on her stomach on a marble floor covering a drainage channel from the Roman period. Two rows of five holes etched into the back revealed that "it was used to support a board game called mancala, derived from the Arabic word naqala, meaning move", said the lead archaeologist, thus referring to the explanations provided by Irving Finkel, an expert on ancient games in the British Museum; the word mancala comes from the Arabic word naqala meaning "to move". No one game exists with the name mancala; this word is used in Syria and Egypt, but is not applied to any one game, has been used for backgammon in the ancient near east. Mancala is a game that first appeared in Africa, the ancient near east. Most mancala games shar
@ A. E. Harris is a theatre space located within the working metal fabricators' factory A E Harris, in the Jewellery Quarter of Birmingham, England, it is the home of the experimental Stan's Cafe theatre company. The venue was established in 2008 by Stan's Cafe for their work Of All The People In All The World; the collaboration won an Arts & Business award in 2009 and in 2010 the company secured funding from the National Lottery to extend their lease and improve the venue's facilities. Over the following year performances by Birmingham Rep, the Birmingham Opera Company and Kindle Theatre were held in the space, as well as further performances by Stan's Cafe; the venue hosted five performance spaces of varying sizes named after the five continents, but in 2013 economic expansion caused hosts A. E. Harris to take back the four largest to boost their manufacturing capacity, with the venue retaining Australia as a 50-seat performance space. Official website A E Harris metalworkers
Grey Daturas were a noise rock band from Melbourne Australia known to have formed on stage at their debut live performance at The North Melbourne Town Hall Hotel, in August 2001. The band's final live performance coincided with the closure of the original Tote Hotel in Melbourne on Friday 15 January 2010, their split was cited as mutual. Grey Daturas were renowned for performing experimental soundtracks to 16mm film projections by means of electronics and processed guitars; the trio soon adopted drums and bass evolving beyond their original noise based improvisations. In 2004, the group's album Dead in the Woods was released on the Crashing Jets imprint, operated by members of Melbourne math-rock ensemble My Disco. Grey Daturas became renowned for their feedback soaked live performances which incorporated drones, hypnotic rhythmic passages and psychedelic guitar lines, all produced at extreme volumes; the band undertook numerous tours of Australia, four tours of the US, two tours of Europe, two tours of New Zealand, they toured Japan and Alaska before disbanding on Friday, 15 January at The Tote Hotel 2010, coincidently this was the last week of trading for the original era of The Tote Hotel, the venue closed that Sunday.
Over their 9 years period as a band Grey Daturas got to share stages and the road with the likes of Neurosis, Grails, Om, High on Fire, Electric Wizard, Dismember, ISIS, Wolf Eyes, Sunn O)), Comets on Fire, Pig Destroyer and Lightning Bolt. Miles Brown of Melbourne prog outfit The Night Terrors performed live with Grey Daturas twice in the absence of Bonnie Mercer. Ben Butcher of Baseball performed live with Grey Daturas twice in their early period. Dimitra Stankovic of Scratchplate and Aux Assembly played bass and guitar for Grey Daturas in February 2005. Matt Hartman of The Coachwhips and Sic Alps played drums in the absence of Robert MacManus for several shows in the Bay Area. Tyler Smith of Sticky Children played drums in the absence of Robert MacManus for the majority of Grey Daturas' 2005 US tour. Jules Desmond of 1/3 Octave Band played bass for several dates on Grey Daturas' 2007 European tour in the absence of Robert Mayson. George Chen of K. I. T. and Chen Santa Maria played bass for several dates on Grey Daturas' 2007 American tour in the absence of Robert Mayson.
Yellow Swans recorded the collaborative album Copper / Silver with Robert Mayson and Bonnie Mercer in 2005. It was voted as one of the best avant rock releases of 2005 by The Wire magazine. Mammatus of California recorded a collaborative album with Robert Mayson and Bonnie Mercer in 2006. Malakat and Yellow Swans collaborated with Grey Daturas to produce the second CD of Malakat's Collected Works double album. All three members are active on the live scene, performing solo and in various ensembles. Bonnie Mercer and Robert Mayson continue to perform together as Breathing Shrine. Robert Mayson plays in Breathing Shrine, Collapsed Toilet Vietnam, performs solo as It’s Is and under his own name. Bonnie Mercer plays in Dumb Numbers, Little Desert, Hospital Pass, Paul Kidney Experience, The Dacios, Breathing Shrine, performs solo under her own name. Robert MacManus operates the touring agency Heathen Skulls and the backline rental business Melbourne Backline, he played drums and guitar with French doom ensemble Monarch from 2009 - 2011.
CD ReleasesDead in the Woods CD Path Of Niners CD EP Dead in the Woods CD Path of Niners CD-EP Dead in the Woods CD Return to Disruption CD Return to Disruption CD Vinyl ReleasesOwly Claw Hammer 12 inch EP Barren Planet 7 inch EP Return to Disruption 12 inch LP CDR ReleasesThe Grey Daturas CDR Live Volume 1 3 inch CDR Live Volume 2 3 inch CDR All I See is Nothing CD-EP Live at the Rob Roy Hotel 2 x 3 inch CDR Blood Trail CD-EP Live in Austin CDR Split ReleasesYellow Swans / Grey Daturas Australian Tour EP CD-EP Grey Daturas / Shearing Pinx Cassette The Black Plague CD The Black Plague 12 inch LP Dawn of the Catalyst 12 inch EP Dawn of the Catalyst CD-EP Collaborative ReleasesCopper / Silver 2 x CDR Copper / Silver 2 x 12 inch LP Collected Tracks 2 x CD Official website
Events in the year 2014 in South Korea. President: Park Geun-hye Prime Minister: Jung Hong-won February 6 – Kim and Chae are rescued from the Sinan County salt farms. February 17 – A building collapse at a mountain resort in Gyeongju kills ten people. March 11 – The Canada–South Korea Free Trade Agreement is signed by Stephen Harper, the Prime Minister of Canada, Park Geun-hye, the President of South Korea. April 8 – The Australia–Korea Free Trade Agreement is signed by the Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott and South Korean President Park Geun-hye April 16 – A ferry carrying 476 people capsizes and sinks off the South Korean coast, killing at least 262 people and leaving 40 others missing. May 2 – The 2014 Seoul subway crash occurred. May 12 – ITX saemaeul was started operation June 4 – The 2014 South Korean local elections are held. July 16 – A fire incident aboard the train at Busan Metro in the South Korean port city of Busan with five people injured and 100 people were evacuated. July 17 – A firefighting helicopter searching for missing people from the sinking of MV Sewol in April crashes in the South Korean city of Gwangju with five people aboard.
July 30 – 2014 South Korean by-elections 2014 South Korea floods September 3 – Ladies' Code was involved in an accident at Yeongdong Expressway leading to deaths of members EunB and RiSe. September 19 – The Asian Games take place in Incheon, South Korea. October 17 – Pangyo Techno Valley Vents Collapse December 5 – Korean Air flight 086 was returned to gate at JFK airport because vice-president of Korean Air and a passenger aboard the plane, Heather Cho, became enraged about Macadamia service; as a result, the flight arrived at Incheon International Airport 11 minutes late. 19th Busan International Film Festival 51st Grand Bell Awards 1st Wildflower Film Awards 35th Blue Dragon Film Awards 3rd APAN Star Awards 2014 KBS Drama Awards 7th Korea Drama Awards 2014 MBC Drama Awards 2014 SBS Drama Awards List of number-one hits of 2014 List of Gaon Album Chart number ones of 2014 List of number-one Streaming Songs of 2014 2014 Mnet Asian Music Awards April 20–26 – 2014 IIHF World Championship Division I July 18–26 – South Korea finish top of the table at the 2014 IPC Shooting World Championships winning ten gold medals from 27 events.
September 19 – October 4 – 2014 Asian Games September - Kim Song-ae, 89, president September 3 – Go Eun-bi, 21, singer September 7 – Kwon Rise, 23, singer October 27 – Shin Hae-chul, 46, singer-songwriter, artist, activist
Relaxor ferroelectrics are ferroelectric materials that exhibit high electrostriction. As of 2015, although they have been studied for over fifty years, the mechanism for this effect is still not understood, is the subject of continuing research. Examples of relaxor ferroelectrics include: lead magnesium niobate lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate lead lanthanum zirconate titanate lead scandium niobate Barium Titanium-Bismuth Zinc Niobium Tantalum Barium Titanium-Barium Strontium Titanium Relaxor Ferroelectric materials find application in high efficiency energy storage and conversion as they have high dielectric constants, orders-of-magnitude higher than those of conventional ferroelectric materials. Like conventional ferroelectrics, Relaxor Ferroelectrics show permanent dipole moment in domains. However, these domains are on the nano-length scale, unlike conventional ferroelectrics domains that are on the micro-length scale, take less energy to align. Relaxor Ferrolelectrics have high specific capacitance and have thus generated interest in the fields of energy storage.
Furthermore, due to their slim hysteresis curve with high saturated polarization and low remnant polarization, Relaxor ferroelectrics have high discharge energy density and high discharge rates. BT-BZNT Multilayer Energy Storage Ceramic Capacitors were experimentally determined to have high efficiency and stable thermal properties over a wide temperature range