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Airdrie, North Lanarkshire

Airdrie is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on a plateau 400 ft above sea level, is 12 miles east of Glasgow city centre; as of 2012, the town had a population of around 37,130. Part of Lanarkshire, Airdrie forms part of a conurbation with its neighbour Coatbridge, in the territory known as the Monklands district; the origin of Airdrie's name first appeared in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland in 1373 as Ardre. By 1546 it had become Ardry and by 1587 it was known as Ardrie. In 1630 it appeared in the Register as Airdrie. Given the topography of the area, the most interpretation is that the name derives from the Gaelic An Àrd Ruigh meaning a level height or high pasture land. Another possibility is that it is from the Gaelic An Àrd Àirighe meaning a sheiling, a summer pasture/shepherd's hut. A third possibility is the Gaelic Ard Reidh meaning a high plain. A further, non-Gaelic alternative is the Brythonic, i.e. Cumbric or North Welsh, ard tref, meaning a high steading or farmstead, which would date back to the times of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, before the expansion of Gaelic or English speech into the region.

Airthrey Castle in Stirlingshire may have a similar derivation. Chapelhall, Caldercruix, Glenmavis, Longriggend, Moffat Mills, Stand and Wattston are considered satellite villages of Airdrie. North Lanarkshire Council divides Airdrie into the following wards and areas: Ward 7 – Airdrie North: Glenmavis, Plains, Thrashbush, Holehills, Greengairs, Longriggend Ward 8 – Airdrie Central: Airdrie Town Centre, Coatdyke, North Cairnhill, Central Park Area, Rawyards Ward 11 – Airdrie South: Craignuek, Moffat Mills, Calderbank, South Cairnhill, Gartness Chalmers' claim in his book Caledonia of a link between the modern town of Airdrie and the ancient battle of Arderyth has no evidence to back it up and is therefore best regarded as spurious. Under the patronage of King Malcolm IV of Scotland Cistercian monks established an abbey at Melrose in 1136. Five years a daughter house was founded at Newbattle Abbey in Lothian. In 1160 Malcolm granted to the monks of Newbattle lands in central Scotland which became known as the "Munklands".

Malcolm's Charter constitutes the oldest documentary record of place-names in the Monklands. The area of land granted by the Charter is defined by direct reference to geographical and topographical features thus: Dunpeldre by its right boundaries, namely with Metheraugh and Mayeuth and Clarnephin as far as Dunduffes in the east; the name Dunpeldre is found in the modern name Drumpellier. The one thing this Charter does not make any reference to is anything resembling Airdrie yet this is where Airdrie is located. Airdrie owes its existence to its location on the'Hogs Back' – a ridge of land running from east to west. One important aspect of the town's history was the Cistercian monks of Newbattle Abbey, why the area is called the Monklands; the monks were farmers and some of their place names survive, e.g. Ryefield and Whifflet. Much of the land they used is known today as'The Four Isles': Mull, Islay and Luing in the Petersburn area of modern Airdrie; the monks of Newbattle had numerous establishments throughout the area including a farm grange at Drumpellier, Coatbridge, a court house at Kipps, a chapel in the area of Chapelhall and a number of corn mills.

The Monks were expert in the construction of roads. In the 12th century, they established the original Glasgow to Edinburgh road via Airdrie and Bathgate, to link up with their lands in Newbattle in East Lothian. In those days travelling was dangerous. Horses could only be afforded by the rich. Low-lying ground was extremely difficult to navigate because of the numerous bogs and burns – not to mention the possibility of ambush by a footpad or robber. Hence, it became much more practical to travel on the high ground where one could avoid the mud and the robbers; these roads became known as the King's Highway. Definitive evidence of the existence of Airdrie as a tenantry was only made clear in 1503; the old monks' road was via Cliftonhill, Airdrie House, Aitchison Street, High Street, Hallcraig Street, Flowerhill Street and Colliertree Road. It was along this road. Development was slow and it was only around 1650 that evidence of the number of inhabitants was known at around 500 for the Airdrie area.

A large contingent of Airdrieonians fought at the Battle of Bothwell Brig during the Covenanter Rebellion of 1679. A significant event in Airdrie's history was the 1695 passing of a special Act of Parliament in the Scottish Parliament allowing Robert Hamilton of Airdrie to hold four fairs yearly and a weekly market in the town of'Airdry'; this helped develop Airdrie from a'farm town' into a thriving'market town'. However, Airdrie really

Stéphan Tremblay

Stéphan Tremblay is a former politician in Quebec, Canada. Tremblay was a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1996 to 2002, a member of the National Assembly of Quebec from 2002 to 2006, he was born in Quebec. He won a by-election in 1996 and succeeded Lucien Bouchard as Member of Parliament for the Lac-Saint-Jean electoral district. Tremblay was affiliated with the Bloc Québécois, he was re-elected in the 2000 elections. In 2002, he left federal politics and won a provincial by-election on June 17, 2002 as a Parti Québécois candidate, he represented the riding of Lac Saint-Jean in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region. Tremblay was re-elected to the MNA in the 2003 election, he served as the opposition critic for environment until his resignation in 2006. In 1998, he removed his green upholstered chair from the Canadian House of Commons and returned with it to his Quebec riding in protest of the gaps between the rich and the poor, he returned the chair a week later. In August 2004, Tremblay was injured when the small plane he was flying crashed near Alma, Quebec after hitting Hydro-Québec's high-voltage power lines..

Stéphan Tremblay – Parliament of Canada biography "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec

French frigate Melpomène (1828)

The Melpomène was a Surveillante class 60-gun first rank frigate of the French Navy. Melpomène was commissioned in March 1830, in time to take part in the Invasion of Algiers in 1830, was decommissioned on 28 October after the events; the next year, on 7 February, she was recommissioned amidst growing tensions with Portugal, she took part in the blockade, the subsequent Battle of the Tagus, under Captain de Rabaudy. Arrived the first French warship, she was the last to depart. In October 1833, she was again decommissioned, she was condemned in 1845, used as a masting crane in Toulon under the name Travailleuse from 1865. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours, 1671 - 1870. Group Retozel-Maury Millau. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922