Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the weak GPS signals; the GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military and commercial users around the world; the United States government created the system, maintains it, makes it accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U. S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System. Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U. S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the United States government in a program called "Selective Availability"; the GPS system is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems; the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more and to within two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to achieve global reach in 2020. There are the European Union Galileo positioning system, India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy; when selective availability was lifted in 2000, GPS had about a five-meter accuracy. The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now deployed. GPS receivers released in 2018 that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimetres or 11.8 inches. The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the 1960s; the U. S. Department of Defense developed the system, which used 24 satellites, it was developed for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
Civilian use was allowed from the 1980s. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it; the work of Gladys West is credited as instrumental in the development of computational techniques for detecting satellite positions with the precision needed for GPS. The design of GPS is based on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator, developed in the early 1940s. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity – detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth; the GPS calculated positions would drift into error, accumulating to 10 kilometers per day. This was corrected for in the design of GPS.
Winterberg, Friedwardt. “Relativistische Zeitdilatation eines künstlichen Satelliten ” When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory decided to monitor its radio transmissions. Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit; the Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite; this led them and APL to develop the TRANSIT system. In 1959, ARPA played a role in TRANSIT. TRANSIT was first tested in 1960, it used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix once per hour. In 1967, the U. S. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS.
In the 1970s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is governed under the management of the Indian Ministry of Defence; the government-owned corporation is involved in the operations of the aerospace and is involved in the design and assembly of aircraft, jet engines and their spare parts. It has several facilities spread across India including Nasik, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bangalore and Kasaragod; the HAL HF-24 Marut fighter-bomber was the first fighter aircraft made in India. HAL was established as Hindustan Aircraft Limited in Bangalore on 23 December 1940 by Walchand Hirachand who became Chairman of the company; the companies office was opened at a bungalow called "Eventide" on Domlur Road. The organisation and equipment for the factory at Bangalore was set up by William D. Pawley of the Intercontinental Aircraft Corporation of New York, who had established Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company in partnership with Chinese Nationalist government.
Pawley obtained a large number of machine-tools and equipment from the United States. The Indian Government bought a one-third stake in the company and by April 1941 by investing 25 lakhs as it believed this to be a strategic imperative; the decision by the government was motivated to boost British military hardware supplies in Asia to counter the increasing threat posed by Imperial Japan during Second World War. The Kingdom of Mysore supplied two directors, Air Marshal John Higgins was resident director; the first aircraft built was a Harlow PC-5 On 2 April 1942, the government announced that the company had been nationalised when it had bought out the stakes of Seth Walchand Hirachand and other promoters so that it could act freely. The Mysore Kingdom refused to sell its stake in the company but yielded the management control over to the Indian Government. In 1943 the Bangalore factory was handed over to the United States Army Air Forces but still using Hindustan Aircraft management; the factory expanded and became the centre for major overhaul and repair of American aircraft and was known as the 84th Air Depot.
The first aircraft to be overhauled was a Consolidated PBY Catalina followed by every type of aircraft operated in India and Burma. When returned to Indian control two years the factory had become one of the largest overhaul and repair organisations in the East. In the post war reorganisation the company built railway carriages as an interim activity. After India gained independence in 1947, the management of the company was passed over to the Government of India. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited was formed on 1 October 1964 when Hindustan Aircraft Limited joined the consortium formed in June by the IAF Aircraft Manufacturing Depot and the group set up to manufacture MiG-21 under licence, with its new factories planned in Koraput and Hyderabad. Though HAL was not used for developing newer models of fighter jets, except for the HF-24 Marut, the company has played a crucial role in modernisation of the Indian Air Force. In 1957 company started manufacturing Bristol Siddeley Orpheus jet engines under licence at new factory located in Bangalore.
During the 1980s, HAL's operations saw a rapid increase which resulted in the development of new indigenous aircraft such as the HAL Tejas and HAL Dhruv. HAL developed an advanced version of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, known as MiG-21 Bison, which increased its life-span by more than 20 years. HAL has obtained several multimillion-dollar contracts from leading international aerospace firms such as Airbus and Honeywell to manufacture aircraft spare parts and engines. By 2012, HAL was bogged down in the details of production and has been slipping on its schedules. On 1 April 2015, HAL reconstituted its Board with Mr. TS Raju as CMD, Mr. S Subrahmanyan as Director, Mr. VM Chamola as Director, CA Ramana Rao as Director and Mr. D K Venkatesh as Director. There are two Govt. Nominees in the Board and six independent Directors. In March 2017, HAL Chairman and Managing Director T Suvarna Raju announced that the company had finalised plans for an indigenisation drive; the company plans to produce nearly 1,000 military helicopters, including Kamov 226, LCH ALH, over 100 planes over the next 10 years.
HAL will manufacture the Kamov 226T helicopter under a joint venture agreement with Russian defence manufacturers. The Kamov 226T will replace the country's fleet of Chetak helicopters. Over the next 5 years, HAL will carry out major upgrade of the entire fighter fleet of Indian Air Force including Su-30MKI, Jaguars and Hawk jets to make them "more lethal"; the company will deliver 123 Tejas Light Combat Aircraft to the IAF from 2018–19, at a rate of 16 jets per year. One of the largest aerospace companies in Asia, HAL has annual turnover of over US$2 billion. More than 40% of HAL's revenues come from international deals to manufacture aircraft engines, spare parts, other aircraft materials. A partial list of major operations undertaken by HAL includes the following: The US$35 billion fifth-generation fighter jet programme with the Sukhoi Corporation of Russia. US$1 billion contract to manufacture aircraft parts for Boeing. Multi-role transport aircraft project with Ilyushin of Russia worth US$600 million.
120 RD-33MK turbofan engines to be manufactured for MiG-29K by HAL for US$250 million. Contract to manufacture 1,000 TPE331 aircraft engines for Honeywell worth US$200,000 each. US$120 million deal to manufacture Dorni
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited is an Indian oil and natural gas company with its headquarters at Mumbai, Maharashtra. It has about 25% market-share in India among public-sector companies and a strong marketing infrastructure. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation the promoter of the company, owns 51.11% shares in HPCL and others are distributed amongst financial institutes and other investors. The company is ranked 367th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016. HPCL was incorporated in 1974 after the takeover and merger of erstwhile Esso Standard and Lube India Limited by the Esso Act 1974. Caltex Oil Refining Ltd. was taken over by the Government of India in 1976 and merged with HPCL in 1978 by the CORIL-HPCL Amalgamation Order, 1978. Kosan Gas Company was merged with HPCL in 1979 by the Kosangas Company Acquisition Act, 1979. In 2003, following a petition by the Centre for Public Interest Litigation, the Supreme Court of India restrained the Central government from privatising Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum without the approval of Parliament.
As counsel for the CPIL, Rajinder Sachar and Prashant Bhushan said that the only way to disinvest in the companies would be to repeal or amend the Acts by which they were nationalised in the 1970s. As a result, the government would need a majority in both houses to push through any privatisation. HPCL has been growing over the years; the refining capacity increased from 5.5 million metric tonnes in 1984/85 to 14.80 million metric tonnes as of March 2013. On the financial front, the net income from sales/operations grew from ₹2687 crores in 1984–1985 to ₹2,06,529 crores in financial year 2012–2013. During FY 2013-14, its net profit was ₹1740 crores. On 19 July 2017, the Government of India announced the acquisition of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation. On 1 November 2017, the Union Cabinet approved ONGC for acquiring majority 51.11% stake in HPCL. On 30 January 2018, Oil & Natural Gas Corporation acquired the entire 51.11% stake of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation, thus becoming the promoter of the company.
Although ONGC Holds 51.1% in the Company, HPCL denies to identify it as promoter. The reason given for it is that the majority of Board Of Directors are from Government of India and not ONGC. HPCL operates two major refineries producing a wide variety of petroleum fuels and specialties, one in Mumbai of 7.5 million metric tonnes per annum capacity and the other in Visakhapatnam, with a capacity of 8.3 MMTPA. HPCL holds an equity stake of 16.95% in Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited, a state-of-the-art refinery at Mangalore with a capacity of 9 MMTPA. Another refinery of 9 MMTPA. HPCL has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Government of Rajasthan for setting up a refinery near Barmer, it would be operated under a joint venture company called HPCL-Rajasthan Refinery Limited. HPCL owns and operates the largest lubricant refinery in India producing lube base oils of international standards, with a capacity of 335 TMT; this refinery accounts for over 40% of India's total lube base oil production.
Presently HPCL produces over 300+ grades of lubes and greases. The marketing network of HPCL consists of 21 zonal offices in major cities and 128 regional offices facilitated by a supply and distribution infrastructure comprising terminals, aviation service facilities, liquefied petroleum gas bottling plants, lube filling plants, inland relay depots, retail outlets and LPG and lube distributorships. HPCL has state-of-the-art information technology infrastructure; the data center is at Hitech city in Hyderabad. Petrol is known as motor spirit in the oil industry. HPCL markets the product through its retail pumps all over India, its principle consumers are personal vehicle owners. Diesel is known as high speed diesel in the oil industry. HPCL markets the products through its retail pumps as well as depots, its consumers are regular auto owners, transport agencies, etc. Lubricants: HPCL is the market leader in lubricants and associated products, it commands over 30% of market share in this sector. The popular brands of HP lubes are Laal Ghoda, HP Milcy, Thanda Raja, Racer4.
Liquified petroleum gas: The HPCL brand of LPG is a popular brand across India for domestic and industrial uses. Aviation turbine fuel: With major air service facilities in all major airports of India, HPCL is a key player in this sector supplying ATF to major airlines, it has an accomplishment of sorts to supply fuel to US. Emulsions HPCL has a number of refineries in India; some are listed below: Mumbai Refinery: 7.5 million metric tonnes capacity Visakhapatnam Refinery: 8.3 MMT at Visakhapatnam Mangalore Refinery Petrochemicals Ltd.: 9.69 MMT at Mangalore, Karnataka. Guru Gobind Singh Refinery: 9 MMT at Bathinda, Punjab. Barmer Refinery: It is planned for 9 MMT capacity, it is a joint venture with the Rajasthan Government. HPCL is a Fortune Global 500 company as per the ranking of 2013 and was ranked at position 259. HPCL has been ranked at position 367 as per the latest ranking of 2016. HPCL was featured on the Forbes Global 2000 list for 2013 at position 1217, it was the 10th most valuable brand in India according to an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010.
Mumbai refinery: Fuel and lubes Vizag refinery: Fuel Mangalore: MRPL Bhatinda: HMEL Silvassa Lube: St
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited is a Government of India controlled Maharatna oil and gas company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Corporation operates two large refineries of the country located in Mumbai; the company is India's 2nd largest downstream oil company and is ranked 342nd on the Fortune list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016.. In 2018, BPCL ranked 672 in the Forbes 2018; the company today known as BPCL started off as Rangoon oil company and thereafter Burmah Oil, an oil exploration company set up to explore the new discoveries off Assam and Burma during the British colonial rule of India. In 1889 during vast industrial development, an important player in the South Asian market was the Burmah Oil Company. Though incorporated in Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the Chef Rohit Oil Company, formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced from primitive hand dug wells in Upper Burma. In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum Company started cooperation with Burma oil company.
Asiatic Petroleum was a joint venture of Royal Dutch and Rothschilds formed to address the monopoly of John D Rockefeller's Standard Oil, which operated in India as Esso. This alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and Distributing Company of India Limited. Burmah Shell began its operate operations with marketing of Kerosene. In the mid 1950s, the company began to sell LPG cylinders to homes in India and further expanded its delivery network, it marketed kerosene and petrol in cans in order to reach remote parts of India. In 1951, the Burmah shell began to build a refinery in Trombay under an agreement with the Government of India. In 1976, the company was nationalized under the Act on the Nationalisation of Foreign Oil companies ESSO, Burma Shell and Caltex. On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell was taken over by the Government of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited. On 1 August 1977, it was renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, it was the first refinery to process newly found indigenous crude Bombay High.
In 2003, the government attempted to further privatize the company. However, following a petition by the Centre for Public Interest Litigation, the Supreme Court restrained the Central government from privatizing Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum without the approval of Parliament; as counsel for the CPIL, Rajinder Sachar and Prashant Bhushan said that the only way to disinvest in the companies would be to repeal or amend the Acts by which they were nationalized in the 1970s. As a result, the government would need a majority in both houses to push through any privatization. In 2017, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited received Maharatna status, a term used to describe government owned entities in India with the largest market capitalization and high profits. Status on 12 September 2017 Bharat Petroleum operates the following refineries: Mumbai Refinery: Located near Mumbai, Maharashtra, it has a capacity of 13 million metric tonnes per annum. Kochi Refineries: Located near Kochi, Kerala.
It has a capacity of 15.5 million metric tonnes per annum. Bina Refinery: Located near Bina, Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, it has a capacity of 6 million metric tonnes per year. This refinery is operated by Bharat Oman Refineries Limited, a joint venture between Bharat Petroleum and Oman Oil Company. Numaligarh Refinery: Located near Numaligarh, Golaghat district, Assam, it has a capacity of 3 million metric tonnes per year. The company business is divided in seven SBUs, like Retail, Aviation, Gas, I&C and LPG, they have popular Loyalty Program like Smartfleet. As of September 2018, 54% of the shares of BPCL were owned by the Government of India, with the rest owned by Foreign Portfolio Investors, BPCL trust for investing in shares, Mutual funds and UTI, Insurance companies and the balance held by individual share holders. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Official website Bharat gas Booking Bharat Gas Business data for Bharat Petroleum: Reuters Google Finance BloombergQuint
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India)
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the Indian governmental regulatory body for civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation. This directorate investigates aviation incidents, it is headquartered along opposite Safdarjung Airport, in New Delhi. The Government of India is planning to replace the organisation with a Civil Aviation Authority, modelled on the lines of the American Federal Aviation Administration. Endeavour to promote safe and efficient Air Transportation through regulation and proactive safety oversight system. Registration of civil aircraft Certification of airports Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers, air traffic controllers and flight engineers, conducting examinations and checks for that purpose Carrying out amendments to the Aircraft Act, the Aircraft Rules and the Civil Aviation Requirements for complying with the amendments to ICAO Annexes, initiating proposals for amendment to any other Act or for passing a new Act in order to give effect to an international Convention or amendment to an existing convention.
Formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and grant of certificates of airworthiness to such aircraft Conducting investigation into incidents and serious incidents involving aircraft upto 2250 kg AUW and taking accident prevention measures, including formulation of implementation of Safety Aviation Management Programmes Checks on the proficiency of flight crew and other operational personnel such as flight dispatchers and cabin crew Coordination of ICAO matters with all agencies, sending replies to State letters, taking all necessary action arising out of the Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme of ICAO. Granting Air Operator’s Certificates to Indian carriers and regulation of air transport services operating to/from/within/over India by Indian and foreign operators, including clearance of scheduled and non-scheduled flights of such operators Approval of institutes engaged in flying training including simulator training, AME training, air traffic services training or any other training related with aviation, with a view to ensuring a high quality of training Approval to aircraft maintenance, repair and manufacturing organizations and their continued oversight A nodal agency for implementing Annex 9 provisions in India and for coordinating matters relating to facilitation at Indian airports, including holding meetings of the National Facilitation Committee DGCA Organisation Manual Rendering advice to the Government on matters relating to air transport including bilateral air services agreements, on ICAO matters and on all technical matters relating to civil aviation, to act as an overall regulatory and developmental body for civil aviation in the country Keeping a check on aircraft noise and engine emissions in accordance with ICAO Annex 16 and collaborating with the environmental authorities in this matter, if required Regulation and oversight of matters related to Air Navigation Services.
Coordination at national level for flexi-use of air space by civil and military air traffic agencies and interaction with ICAO for provision of more air routes for civil use through Indian airspace Promoting indigenous design and manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components by acting as a catalytic agent Approving training programmes of operators for carriage of dangerous goods, issuing authorizations for carriage of dangerous goods, etc. Safety Oversight of all entities approved/ certified/ licensed under the Aircraft Rules 1937; these are classified and divided into the following: Administration Directorate Aerodrome Standards Directorate Air Safety Directorate Air Transport Directorate Airworthiness Directorate Flight Standards Directorate Information & Regulation Directorate Aircraft Engineering Directorate Directorate Of Flying Training Medical Section Directorate of Training & Licensing Directorate of Airspace and Air Navigation Services Standards DGCA has fourteen Regional Airworthiness Offices at Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Kochi, Lucknow, Bhubaneshwar, Kanpur and Patiala.
It has five Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Chennai and Hyderabad. It has a Regional Development Office located at Bangalore and a Gliding Centre at Pune; the CAA has been envisaged as an autonomous regulatory body which will replace the DGCA and will meet standards set by the UN's International Civil Aviation Organization. The CAA will have separate departments to deal with safety, economic regulation and grievance resolution, as well as a full-fledged environment department, it will have an independent accident investigation bureau. The Authority will have the autonomy to recruit staff; the DGCA is understaffed and does not have any recruitment powers. The CAA will have administrative and financial powers similar to those of the American FAA; these powers will redefine the regulator's role and better equip it to face the challenges of the growing Aviation sector in the country. Employees working with DGCA will be transferred to the CAA; the estimated cost of establishing the new Authority would be around Rs 11.2 million.
The CAA would be self-financing and have a separate fund called the'Civil Aviation Authority of India Fund' that would finance its entire expenses. It would have a Director General and 7-9 members appointed by the Central Government; these members will be qualified in the fields of aviation safety, aircraft engineering, flight standard operations, air navigation systems and air space management. The DGCA conducted investig
Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan
Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan is the corporate headquarters of Airports Authority of India. AAI which functions under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and manages most of the airports in India; the Indian Ministry of Civil Aviation is co-located in the same building. Mehro Consultants was involved in the design of the building, it has been used as a metonym for the Ministry of Civil Aviation. It is named after Rajiv Gandhi; the building has a unique plan. This can be seen on the picture opposite; this building is on the Aurobindo Marg, with Safdarjung's Tomb adjacent on the right-hand side and the Aero Club of India on the left, near to Safdarjung Airport. Airports Authority of India, website
NLC India Limited
NLC India Limited is a'Navratna' government of India company in the fossil fuel mining sector in India and thermal power generation. It annually produces about 30 million tonne lignite from opencast mines at Neyveli in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India and at Barsingsar in Bikaner district of Rajasthan state; the lignite is used at pithead thermal power stations of 3240 MW installed capacity to produce electricity. Its joint venture has a 1000 MW thermal power station using coal, it has diversified into renewable energy production and installed 141 MW solar power plant to produce electricity from photovoltaic cells and 51 MW electricity from windmills. It was wholly owned by the government of India. A small portion of its stock was sold to the public to list its shares on stock exchanges where its shares are traded, it is under the administrative control of Ministry of Coal. NLC has been a forerunner in the country in the energy sector for 62 years, contributing a lion's share in lignite production and significant share in thermal power generation.
It was inaugurated by the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1956. NLC is a Navratna Government of India Enterprise. A pioneer in energy sector, NLC operates four opencast lignite mines of total capacity of 30.6 million tonnes Per Annum at Neyveli and Barsingsar, Five lignite based pithead Thermal Power Stations with an aggregate capacity of 3240 MW – at Neyveli and Barsingsar and a 1000 MW Coal based Thermal Power Station at Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu through its subsidiary company, NLC Tamil Nadu Power Limited, a joint venture between NLC and TANGEDCO. NLC has forayed into renewable energy sector with commissioning of a 141 MW Solar Photo Voltaic Power Plant including 1 MW Roof-top Project at Neyveli and a 51 MW Wind Energy Plant at Kazhuneerkulam Village of Tirunelveli district in Tamilnadu; the Company is setting up 1209 MW Solar Power Projects at Tirunelveli and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu, of which, 300 MW have been commissioned. NLC is aiming to achieve a total Renewable energy capacity of 4251 MW.
NLC has big dreams to become a 20000+ MW company by 2025. Towards realising this dream, NLC is on expansion mode. Works are under progress for the Lignite based Neyveli New Thermal Power Plant, Bithnok TPS and Barsingsar TPS Expansion. Further, NLC, jointly with the Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited, is setting up a 3x660 MW Coal based Thermal Power Plant at Ghatampur in Uttar Pradesh, through its subsidiary company Neyveli Uttar Pradesh Power Limited. Apart from the above, addition of Thermal Capacity to the tune of 6040 MW by way of installation of new plants and acquisition of Power Assets to the tune of 3000 MW is in the pipeline. Not just Mining and Power Generation, NLC has contributed to the Socio-Economic development for more than half a century; the Business portfolio of the company is as under: Lignite Mining Thermal Power Generation Solar Energy Generation Wind Power Generation Coal Mining NLC India has five pithead Thermal Power Stations with an aggregate capacity of 4240 MW.
Further, NLC India has so far installed 51 Wind Turbine Generators of capacity 1.50 MW each and commissioned 140 MW Solar Photo Voltaic Power plant in Neyveli, resulting in an overall power generating capacity of 4431 MW. The 600 MW Neyveli Thermal Power Station-I in which the first unit was synchronized in May'62 and the last unit in September'70 consists of six units of 50 MW each and three units of 100 MW each; the Power generated from Thermal Power Station-I after meeting NLC's requirements is supplied to TANGEDCO, Tamil Nadu, the sole beneficiary. Due to the aging of the equipments / high pressure parts, Life extension programme has been approved by GOI in March 1992 and was completed in March’99 thus extending the life by 15 years. In view of the high grid demand in this region, this power station is being operated after conducting Residual Life Assessment study. GOI has sanctioned a 2x500 MW Power Project in June 2011 as replacement for existing TPS-I; the 1470 MW Second Thermal Power Station consists of 7 units of 210 MW each.
In February 1978, Government of India sanctioned the Second Thermal Power Station of 630 MW capacity and in Feb.'83, Government of India sanctioned the Second Thermal Power Station Expansion from 630 MW to 1470 MW with addition of 4 units of 210 MW each. The first 210 MW unit was synchronised in March 1986 and the last unit was synchronized in June'93; the power generated from Second Thermal Power Station after meeting the needs of Second Mine is shared by the Southern States viz. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Union Territory of Pondicherry. Thermal Power Station-I has been expanded using the lignite available from Mine-I Expansion; the scheme, TPS I Expansion, was sanctioned by Government of India in February 1996. Unit-I was synchronised in October 2002 and Unit-II in July 2003; the power generated from this Thermal Power Station, after meeting the internal requirements, is shared by the Southern States viz. Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Union Territory of Pondicherry. Government of India sanctioned the Barsingsar Thermal Power Station 250 MW in October 2004.
The units were commissioned in December 2011 and in January 2012. The power generated from this Thermal Power Station after meeting internal requirements is shared by the DISCOMS of the state of Rajasthan; this Project is consisting of two units of 250 MW capacity each. Unit-II attai