An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from a lifting gas, less dense than the surrounding air. In early dirigibles the lifting gas used was hydrogen, due to its high lifting capacity and ready availability. Helium gas has the same lifting capacity and is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, but is rare and expensive. Significant amounts were first discovered in the United States and for a while helium was only used for airships in that country. Most airships built; the envelope of an airship may form the gasbag. An airship has engines and optionally payload accommodation housed in one or more gondolas suspended below the envelope; the main types of airship are non-rigid, semi-rigid, rigid. Non-rigid airships called "blimps", rely on internal pressure to maintain their shape. Semi-rigid airships maintain the envelope shape by internal pressure, but have some form of supporting structure, such as a fixed keel, attached to it.
Rigid airships have an outer structural framework that maintains the shape and carries all structural loads, while the lifting gas is contained in one or more internal gasbags or cells. Rigid airships were first flown by Count Zeppelin and the vast majority of rigid airships built were manufactured by the firm he founded; as a result, rigid airships are called zeppelins. Airships were the first aircraft capable of controlled powered flight, were most used before the 1940s, their decline was accelerated by a series of high-profile accidents, including the 1930 crash and burning of the British R101 in France, the 1933 and 1935 storm-related crashes of the twin airborne aircraft carrier U. S. Navy helium-filled rigids, the USS Akron and USS Macon and the 1937 burning of the German hydrogen-filled Hindenburg. From the 1960s, helium airships have been used where the ability to hover for a long time outweighs the need for speed and manoeuvrability, such as advertising, camera platforms, geological surveys and aerial observation.
During the pioneer years of aeronautics, terms such as "airship", "air-ship", "air ship" and "ship of the air" meant any kind of navigable or dirigible flying machine. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "air yachts." In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". Nowadays the term "airship" is used only for powered, dirigible balloons, with sub-types being classified as rigid, semi-rigid or non-rigid. Semi-rigid architecture is the more recent, following advances in deformable structures and the exigency of reducing weight and volume of the airships, they have a minimal structure. An aerostat is an aircraft that remains aloft using buoyancy or static lift, as opposed to the aerodyne, which obtains lift by moving through the air. Airships are a type of aerostat; the term aerostat has been used to indicate a tethered or moored balloon as opposed to a free-floating balloon.
Aerostats today are capable of lifting a payload of 3,000 pounds to an altitude of more than 4.5 kilometres above sea level. They can stay in the air for extended periods of time when powered by an on-board generator or if the tether contains electrical conductors. Due to this capability, aerostats can be used as platforms for telecommunication services. For instance, Platform Wireless International Corporation announced in 2001 that it would use a tethered 1,250 pounds airborne payload to deliver cellular phone service to a 140 miles region in Brazil; the European Union's ABSOLUTE project was reportedly exploring the use of tethered aerostat stations to provide telecommunications during disaster response. Airships were called dirigible balloons, from the French ballon dirigeable shortened to dirigeable; this was the name that inventor Henri Giffard gave to his machine that made its first flight on 24 September 1852. A blimp is a non-rigid aerostat. In British usage it refers to any non-rigid aerostat, including barrage balloons and other kite balloons, having a streamlined shape and stabilising tail fins.
The term zeppelin referred to airships manufactured by the German Zeppelin Company, which built and operated the first rigid airships in the early years of the twentieth century. The initials LZ, for Luftschiff Zeppelin prefixed their craft's serial identifiers. Streamlined rigid airships are referred to as "Zeppelins", because of the fame that this company acquired due to the number of airships it produced. Hybrid airships fly with a positive aerostatic contribution equal to the empty weight of the system, the variable payload is sustained by propulsion or aerodynamic contribution. Airships are classified according to their method of construction into rigid, semi-rigid and non-rigid types. A rigid airship has a rigid framework covered by envelope; the interior contains one or more gasbags, balloons to provide lift. Rigid airships are unpressurised and can be made to any size. Most, but not all, of the German Zeppelin airships have been of this type. A semi-rigid airship has some kind of supporting structure but the main envelope is held in shape by the internal pressur
The Stratford Power Station is a 575 MW power station located east of Stratford, New Zealand. It comprises one combined cycle unit and two open cycle gas turbine units and is owned and operated by Contact Energy. In June 1976, the construction of a 200 MW power station was completed on the Stratford Power Station site; this comprised each a Pratt and Whitney TwinPak of two FT4 gas turbines. The FT4 engine is the stationary version of the Pratt & Whitney JT4; this plant was fired on natural gas. The FT4 units were operated by NZED, NZE, ECNZ and Contact Energy; the four 50 MW units were decommissioned and removed in 2001. These units were used in the construction of the Valley Power Peaking Facility. In 1993, the Environment Minister Simon Upton established a board of inquiry under the Resource Management Act to hear the application for a resource consent for Electricity Corporation of New Zealand's proposed 400 megawatt Stratford power station in Taranaki. In February 1995, the board of inquiry concluded that the station’s operation would increase New Zealand’s emissions of carbon dioxide and make it more difficult for the Government to meet its obligation to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels as committed to under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The board of inquiry recommended that ECNZ must establish a carbon sink "sufficient to store in perpetuity the equivalent quantity of carbon emitted from the site over the term of the permit". In March 1995, the Environment Minister Simon Upton approved the expansion of the station to 400-megawatts on the condition that forests were planted to create a carbon sink or the effect of emissions was reduced by greater efficiency elsewhere. In June 2003, a hearing committee of the Taranaki Regional Council granted an application to delete the consent conditions requiring mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions; the plant consists of one 360 MW combined cycle unit, based on a GT26 gas turbine in single shaft configuration. Cooling is achieved with a mechanical draft cooling tower; this plant is known as TCC. Fletcher Construction started construction in 1996 and it was commissioned in 1998, it was purchased by Contact Energy in 2003. Over 2009 and 2010, 200 MW of new generation was built on the site, comprising two LMS100 gas turbine units in open cycle configuration.
Lee Delano was an American character actor. Delano was born in New York City, he graduated from the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theater, where he studied with Sandy Meisner for acting and Martha Graham for dance. His classmates included Susan Oliver and Steve McQueen. McQueen convinced Delano to make the move west to Hollywood where he began to obtain guest roles in episodes of numerous television series, including the original Star Trek in "A Piece of the Action". Delano's tough guy looks and legitimate stage training made him a natural for'cops and crooks' roles. In 1968, Sid Caesar hired Delano to replace his longtime improvisational co-star Carl Reiner. Delano has since co-starred with Caesar on-stage and television around the world, including appearances at the Kraft Music Hall in London, Hollywood Palace, the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. and theaters and concert halls throughout the United States. These engagements included a four-month stint with Caesar and Imogene Coca at Michael's Pub Cabaret, a run on Broadway.
An association with Mel Brooks led to roles in the films High Silent Movie. He appeared in dramatic roles in Report to the Commissioner and Executive Action, in which he played one of three assassins of President John F. Kennedy. Delano co-founded the Oxford Theater with Jack Donner in Los Angeles, their students included Barry Levinson, Craig T. Nelson, Barbara Parkins, Don Johnson, he is the godfather to Sean Macias. He manages Creative Characters. Inc. Lee Delano website Lee Delano on IMDb