click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Airspeed Oxford

The Airspeed AS.10 Oxford was a twin-engine monoplane aircraft developed and manufactured by Airspeed. It saw widespread use for training British Commonwealth aircrews in navigation, radio-operating and gunnery roles throughout the Second World War; the Oxford was developed by Airspeed during the 1930s in response to a requirement for a capable trainer aircraft that conformed with Specification T.23/36, issued by the British Air Ministry. Its basic design is derived from a commercial passenger aircraft. Performing its maiden flight on 19 June 1937, it was put into production as part of a rapid expansion of the Royal Air Force in anticipation of a large-scale conflict; as a consequence of the outbreak of war, many thousands of Oxfords would be ordered by Britain and its allies, including Australia, France, New Zealand and the United States. Following the end of the conflict, the Oxford continued to achieve export sales for some time, equipping the newly formed air forces of Egypt, India and Yugoslavia.

It was considered to be a capable trainer aircraft throughout the conflict, as well as being used a general-purpose type. A large number of Oxfords have been preserved on static display. During the 1930s, a major expansion of the Royal Air Force had been directed by the British government, which led to the formulation and issuing of a number of operational requirements by the Air Ministry. One of these was Operational Requirement 42, which sought an advanced training aircraft to be used by aircrews destined to serve on bomber aircraft; as the RAF was in the process of migrating from biplanes to monoplanes, which were capable of greater speeds and had more demanding flight characteristics, a suitable trainer was needed to match this step change. At one point, the Avro Anson was considered for the role, however, it was thought that an aircraft more difficult to fly would be necessary. Accordingly, on 10 July 1936, Specification T.23/36 was issued to Airspeed for the development of a twin-engined training aircraft to meet OR.42.

Developed to meet the requirements of Specification T.23/36 by Airspeed, the Oxford was based on the company's existing commercial 8-seater aircraft, the AS.6 Envoy, designed by Hessell Tiltman. Seven Envoys had been modified for the South African Air Force as the "Convertible Envoy", which could be equipped at short notice with bomb racks and with a machine-gun in a hand-operated Armstrong Whitworth dorsal turret. Airspeed gained substantial benefit from its prior work on the Envoy and the Convertible Envoy in its development of the Oxford; the Air Ministry approved of the project, leading to an initial order for the type being placed during 1937. It was decided to opt for a large first batch, totalling 136 aircraft, as this allowed for the implementation of more economical flow-line production at Airspeed's Portsmouth factory. On 19 June 1937, L4534, conducted its first flight at Portsmouth. Two variants were planned; as further large contracts for the aircraft were placed with Airspeed, it was arranged that de Havilland Aircraft would build them at Hatfield to meet the demands for Oxfords for training.

Other companies manufactured the aircraft. By the end of production, a total of 8,751 Oxfords had been completed. Of these, 4,411 had been produced by Airspeed at its Portsmouth factory, another 550 at the Airspeed-run shadow factory at Christchurch, Dorset, 1,515 by de Havilland at Hatfield, 1,360 by Percival Aircraft at Luton and 750 by Standard Motors at Coventry; the Oxford was a low-wing twin-engine cantilever monoplane, featuring a semi-monocoque constructed fuselage, a conventional landing gear configuration and a wooden tail unit. It was capable of reproducing the flight characteristics of many contemporary front-line aircraft in military service, it was developed to be suitable for a range of training missions, including navigation, flying instruction, night flying, instrument flying, direction-finding and vertical photography. The Oxford was planned and developed to incorporate various modern innovations and equipment fittings, including a full array of instruments and controls within the cockpit, which assisted in its principal trainer role.

In addition, the Oxford could be used in various secondary roles, such as an air ambulance and maritime patrol aircraft. In terms of flying experience, the Oxford was suitably representative as to enable pilots to migrate onto larger transport aircraft with ease while possessing smooth flight characteristics; the controls were straightforward remaining consistent and adjustable. It was equipped with the standard blind-flying panel, incorporating an airspeed indicator, artificial horizon, directional gyroscope, rate of climb indicator and turn indicator. Life support equipment includes three oxygen regulators, a flowmeter, three bayonet unions and three high-pressure oxygen cylinders of 750 litres capacity; the external view of the cockpit was considered to be high for the era, superior to the majority of its contemporaries, but is unavoidably interrupted by the engine cowlings acting as blind spots. It was operated by a three-man crew; the cockpit was outfitted with dual flying controls and

Gene Goodreault

Eugene Joseph "Gene" Goodreault, was an American football player. He played at the end position for Boston College from 1938 to 1940 and was selected as a consensus first-team All-American in 1940, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1982. Goodreault was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1917, his parents were Rose M. Goodreault, he attended Haverhill High School where he was known as "Goo-Goo" Goodreault and was a member of the football and track teams. Goodreault enrolled at Boston College in 1937; the school's publicity director, Billy Sullivan befriended Goodreault and helped him to obtain therapy to overcome a speech impediment. As a member of Boston College's football team, Goodreault was five feet, ten inches tall and weighed 180 pounds, his profile at the College Football Hall of Fame described him as follows: "Fast and alert, Gene Goodreault was outstanding as a pass-catcher and play-maker blocker on offense and as a play-blaster, destructive tackler on defense."

In 1939, Goodreault's junior year, Frank Leahy was hired as the head of the Boston College Eagles football team. Goodreault helped lead the Eagles to a 9-2 record and the school's first bowl game, appearance in the 1940 Cotton Bowl. At the end of the 1939 season, Goodreault received All-East honors and was the first recipient of the George H. "Bulger" Lowe Trophy in 1940 as the outstanding football player in New England. As a senior, Goodreault was a member of the 1940 Boston College team that compiled an undefeated record of 11-0, outscored opponents 320 to 52, recorded six shutouts, defeated #6 Tennessee in the 1941 Sugar Bowl. After the season, Goodreault was selected as a consensus player on the 1940 College Football All-America Team, he received first-team honors from, among others, the United Press, the International News Service, the Central Press Association, Collier's Weekly. Goodreault was selected in the second round in the 1941 NFL Draft, but he did not play in the NFL, he served in the United States Navy during World War II and operated a wool brokerage business in Massachusetts after the war.

He lived in Haverhill until 2004. Goodreault was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1982, he was honored by Boston College as one of the inaugural inductees into its Varsity Club Hall of Fame in 1970. In 2001, Boston College retired his #50 jersey in a halftime ceremony at Alumni Stadium. Goodreault moved to California in 2004, he died from cancer in 2010 at age 91 in California. Gene Goodreault at Find a Grave

2011 Currie Cup First Division

The 2011 Currie Cup First Division was contested from 15 July to 14 October 2011. The tournament was the second tier of the 73rd season of the Currie Cup, an annual rugby union competition featuring the fourteen South African provincial unions; the tournament was won by Boland Cavaliers, who beat the Eastern Province Kings 43–12 in the final played on 14 October 2011. No team was promoted to the top-tier Currie Cup Premier Division competition for 2012. There were six participating teams in the 2011 Currie Cup First Division; these teams played each other twice over the course of the season, once away. Teams received four points for two points for a draw. Bonus points were awarded to teams that score 4 or more tries in a game, as well as to teams that lost a match by seven points or less. Teams were ranked by points points difference; the top four teams qualified for the title play-offs. In the semi-finals, the team that finished first had home advantage against the team that finished fourth, while the team that finished second had home advantage against the team that finished third.

The winners of these semi-finals played each other in the final, at the home venue of the higher-placed team. Following the reduction of the Currie Cup Premier Division from eight teams to six teams for 2012, there was no promotion from the First Division in 2011; the following teams took part in the 2011 Currie Cup First Division competition: The final league standings for the 2011 Currie Cup First Division were: All times are South African. The following compulsory friendlies were played before the 2011 Currie Cup season between Premier Division and First Division teams: The following matches were played in the 2011 Currie Cup First Division: The following sections contain only points and tries which have been scored in competitive games in the 2011 Currie Cup First Division. 2011 Currie Cup Premier Division 2011 Vodacom Cup 2011 Under-21 Provincial Championship 2011 Under-19 Provincial Championship "SA Rugby Results – 2011 ABSA Currie Cup First Div". South African Rugby Union. Retrieved 6 May 2016.

"SA Rugby Competition – 2011 ABSA Currie Cup First Div". South African Rugby Union. Retrieved 3 June 2016

1663 Charlevoix earthquake

The 1663 Charlevoix earthquake occurred on February 5 in New France, was assessed to have a moment magnitude of between 7.3 and 7.9. The earthquake occurred at 5:30 p.m. local time and was estimated to have a maximum perceived intensity of X on the Mercalli intensity scale. The main shock epicentre is suggested to have occurred along the Saint Lawrence River, between the mouth of the Malbaie River on the north and the mouth of the Ouelle River on the south. A large portion of eastern North America felt the effects. Landslides and underwater sediment slumps were a primary characteristic of the event with much of the destruction occurring near the epicentral region of the St. Lawrence estuary and in the area of the Saguenay Graben; the event occurred during the early European settlement of North America and some of the best recorded first hand accounts were from Catholic missionaries that were working in the area. These records were scrutinized to help determine the scale of damage and estimate the magnitude of the quake in the absence of abundant records from that time period.

The Charlevoix Seismic Zone lies along the St. Lawrence River, northeast of Quebec City. Although eastern Canada has infrequent earthquakes, due to its location away from active plate boundaries, the CSZ is its most active part, with five earthquakes of estimated magnitude of 6 or greater since historical records began. Focal mechanisms for earthquakes in this zone are consistent with rupture on both reverse faults and strike-slip faults of varied orientation; the main structures of the area are faults of the Saint Lawrence rift system that run parallel to the river, formed during the break-up of the supercontinent Rodinia in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The greatest seismicity occurs where the rift is overprinted by a ~300 Ma meteorite crater, the Charlevoix impact structure. Most CSZ earthquakes have hypocenters within the Grenvillian basement at depths between 15 km. Many of the smaller earthquakes do not appear to be located on the rift faults, but within the volumes of rock between them.

Larger events lie outside the impact structure and have inferred nodal planes consistent with reactivation of the rift faults. The weak impact structure is interpreted to cause a perturbation of the regional stress field, affecting the stability of the rift faults; the estimated length of the most active portion of the CSZ was 73 kilometres and the fault area was put at 73 km × 25 km. By comparison, the 7 February 1812 New Madrid event, thought to have taken place on the Reelfoot fault and was the largest event in that series, had a rupture zone, less than that of the Charlevoix earthquake and caused chimney damage at distances of more than 600 kilometres; these things together suggest that the Charlevoix earthquake was similar in size to the largest of the New Madrid earthquakes and was at least a magnitude 6.8 event. The estimation of the earthquake's intensity was based on the condition of the soil where the damage occurred. A lower magnitude range would be preferred if the soil in the area was soft and loosely compacted and a range based on firm ground or bedrock would be proportionately higher.

The earthquake was felt in New England, though the date recorded for the event was 26 January 1663, as New England was using the Julian calendar at the time. A church record entry made by Reverend S. Danforth from Roxbury, Massachusetts indicated the initial shock was felt around 6 pm that evening and several more shocks followed the next morning. On the shores of Massachusetts Bay, the tops of chimneys were broken on houses and pewter was jarred from shelves; this level of damage is consistent with a modified Mercalli intensity of VI though this may have been because the early colonials had the capability of producing only weak mortar. Using this MMI value and the distance from the epicenter one can estimate the magnitude of the earthquake using published intensity-attenuation relations. In a June 2011 report on the earthquake, published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, John E. Ebel, a professor and researcher at Boston College, used these known relations that apply to earthquakes in northeastern North America and determined the magnitude to be 7.3 – 7.9.

Great landslides along the Saint Lawrence, Saint-Maurice, Batiscan Rivers made these rivers muddy after the shock, with the waters of the St. Lawrence being affected for up to one month. Near Trois-Rivières several waterfalls were transformed by these landslides, one waterfall on the St. Maurice River near Les Grès was said to have been nearly leveled. At Saint-Jean-Vianney, there was a large earthflow landslide in a sensitive clay, interpreted to have been caused by the 1663 earthquake. In 1971 this was the site of another much smaller earthflow that destroyed 41 houses and killed 31 people. Multibeam bathymetry data and high resolution seismic reflection data acquired in the Saguenay Fjord has been used to identify a series of landslide deposits that were triggered by the 1663 earthquake; the Saguenay region is the site of a geological graben and has been subject to several natural disasters since the turn of the seventeenth century. In 1996 it was the site of the largest flood in 20th-century Canadian history, which led to the investigation of the fjord bottom using bathymetric data to determine slope stability.

The inhabitants of the land were the Algonquin and Iroquois people as well as several thousand French settlers. Religious groups like the Ursulines and the Augustinians left good records of the event; these groups accredited the earthquake to Go

Community integration

Community integration, while diversely defined, is a term encompassing the full participation of all people in community life. It has referred to the integration of people with disabilities into US society from the local to the national level, for decades was a defining agenda in countries such as Great Britain. In the US, the Consortium of Citizens for Disabilities advocates for a national public policy which "ensures the self-determination, empowerment and inclusion of children and adults with disabilities in all parts of society". Other countries with different roots spoke of inclusion: the unifying, global agenda in "disability and community life". Theorists have differentiated types and levels of integration in special education as physical, social and organizational. In disability circles, community integration meant opportunities for participation in schools, homes, leisure, a variety of interests and lifestyles. Bengt Nirje and the late Wolf Wolfensberger of the US are internationally known for their concept of normalization and social role valorization, with a particular emphasis on physical and social integration.

Anders Gustavsson of Sweden has indicated that physical integration best describes the common use of the term "integration", with social integration the struggle for "equality and quality in life."The intent of community integration was the participation of people with disabilities in regular environments, the antithesis of exclusionary practices. As the field moved toward community support, theories related to community living began to require applicability beyond a minority-group model with a new emphasis on self-determination; as described by Racino, these theories include ecological theory, community-support theories, systems theory, feminist theories, family theories, sociocultural theories, critical theories in education, psychosocial theories, the generic human-concept theory and universal theories. Taylor, in his analysis of community systems in the US, proposed the principle of non-restrictive environment as a counterpoint to the federal government's least-restrictive-environment principle.

In 2014, the governing principle in the US is that of the most integrated setting based upon the Supreme Court Olmstead Decision. Prior to the Olmstead decision, the Supreme Court addressed the community integration issues multiple times in the case, Halderman v. Pennhurst State School and Hospital, a class action filed in Pennsylvania by attorney David Ferleger. Although the Olmstead decision explicitly did not reach the constitutional issues decided in the Pennhurst and other cases, limitations in Olmstead have been critiqued and it has been argued that there is a constitutional right to community services; the analysis of large-scale systems change in community integration has involved challenges by local public agencies, key elements of these strategies and its implications for national policy. Disability-agency, state-level disability-system and societal change are essential elements of the process and outcomes of community integration. Community integration has strong community roots which places it in community practice fields from community psychology, to sociologists studying community, to inclusive education in local school systems, competitive businesses, rural independent living, urban sociology, local parks and recreation programs, community development and housing and communities, among others.

Educational integration has a long history of debate described as "more comprehensive than academic mainstreaming." Community integration in this context refers to opportunities "to learn practical social and community living skills in a wide variety of community settings". Based in part on the civil-rights movement as represented by Brown v. Board of Education, school integration was based on the right to a free, appropriate education in regular schools and classrooms. Educational integration remains controversial in part, to special-education systems. School integration involves children with more significant disabilities, such as those with technology-assisted needs. Progress has been made in education at the post-secondary level due, in part, to disability-services departments at colleges. Today, instead of educational integration, the goal is for continued school reform through inclusion and for education with accommodations as required by the law. In the US disability field a major shift has occurred from group and facility-based models to homes with support services, emphasizing a change from "home-like" housing to community homes and relationships.

The most-recent initiatives were in homeownership, an important form of community integration which involves a feeling of ownership. Housing integration builds on a long history of support for good quality, affordable housing which include analyses of social exclusion which may concentrate on US protected classes. Housing integration is of great importance, in part, because of the history of residential segregation in the US. Residential segregation due to inequality and disparity continues to be studied in ethnic and economic frameworks, including the process of desegregation and hypersegregation. In addition, redlining, as a bridge issue across lower and middle classes, affects housing and neighborhood integration from as early as the 1970s with germa

Sunset Eyes 2000

Sunset Eyes 2000 is an album by trumpeter Saskia Laroo and saxophonist Teddy Edwards, recorded in 1999 and released on the Laroo label. In his review on Allmusic, Alex Henderson states "Sunset Eyes 2000 falls short of being a gem, but it's a satisfying, decent effort that bop fans will enjoy". All compositions by Teddy Edwards except where noted "Nothin' But the Truth" – 6:01 "Moving In" – 5:04 "There Is No Greater Love" – 6:12 "Sunset Eyes" – 5:30 "Cheek to Cheek" – 6:56 "Don't Touch Me" – 5:38 "The Blue Sombrero" – 4:56 "I Got It Bad' – 3:43 "Wheelin' and Dealin'" – 4:24 "Blue Bossa" – 7:35 "Sunset Eyes Latin" – 4:40 Saskia Laroo – trumpet Teddy Edwards – tenor saxophone Ernie Andrewsvocals Art Hillery – piano Wendell Williamsbass Gerryck King – drums