Aitkin is a city in Aitkin County, United States. The population was 2,165 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Aitkin County. Before the establishment of City of Aitkin, a transient community of Lexington was located at the mouth of the Ripple River, at its confluence with the Mississippi River. However, maps from the 1860s erroneously depict the village of Ojibway at the mouth of the Ripple River. Due to the importance of regional trade at Lexington, the route of the Northern Pacific Railroad was planned to pass near there. Aitkin was founded in 1870 when the Northern Pacific Railroad was extended to that point and annexing Lexington; the city and county were named for William Alexander Aitken, a partner of the American Fur Company and chief factor of the company's regional operations in the early 19th century. The development of industries attracted people to the town. In the late 19th and early 20th century, a massive wave of immigrants from present-day Ireland and Scandinavian countries, moved into the Aitkin area to work in the logging and riverboat industries.
They were able to start working. After the Great Depression and World War II, the logging industry declined; the area developed as a farming community, based on production of cattle and poultry, which continued until the late 1970s to early 1980s. A creamery and a turkey plant were important to the town's economy. With the decline of small family farms in agriculture, many abandoned farms can be seen throughout the county. By the 1990s, Aitkin had changed again, developing as a community for retirement and tourism with its lake areas; the tourism and service industries are central today. Health care, human services, non-profit organizations are some of the major contributors to the modern-day Aitkin economy, along with the hospitality industry. Aitkin has been affected by occasional flooding of the Mississippi River. Major notable floods had reached past 20 feet, such as the 1950 flood, nearly 19 feet, such as the summer flooding in 2012; the 2012 flood was one of the first floods that overflowed into the lake areas, flooding the cabins, since it was caused by heavy rainfall instead of melting snow.
Five properties in Aitkin are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the 1901 Patrick Casey House, the 1902 Potter/Casey Company Building, the 1911 Aitkin Carnegie Library, the 1916 Northern Pacific Depot, the Aitkin County Courthouse and Jail. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.20 square miles, all of it land. The Mississippi River flows through at the northern edge of Aitkin; the Ripple River and Sissabagamah Creek both flow nearby. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,165 people, 936 households, 483 families residing in the city; the population density was 984.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,097 housing units at an average density of 498.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.5% White, 0.8% African American, 1.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 936 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.8% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.4% were non-families.
43.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 25.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 44.3 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.3% male and 54.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,984 people, 892 households, 434 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,150.3 people per square mile. There were 969 housing units at an average density of 561.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.33% White, 0.15% African American, 1.31% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. 30.4% were of German, 16.6% Swedish, 12.3% Norwegian and 6.5% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 892 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.3% were non-families.
46.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 32.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $47,574, the median income for a family was $58,071. Males had a median income of $50,577 versus $31,641 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,471. About 7.1% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.0% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over. The city's annual festivals include: Riverboat Heritage Days - the firs
Carlton County, Minnesota
Carlton County is a county in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 35,386, its county seat is Carlton. The county was formed in 1857 and organized in 1870, it was named for Reuben B. Carlton, a member of the Minnesota Senate. Part of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation lies in NE Carlton County. Carlton County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlton County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Louis River flows east-southeasterly through the county's NE corner, discharging into Lake Superior as it exits the county; the Moose Horn River flows southwesterly through the central part of the county, discharging into the Kettle River SW of the county's south boundary. The Nemadji River and the South Fork Nemadji River flow eastward through the eastern and SE part of the county, meeting a few miles east of the county's eastern boundary before flowing to Lake Superior.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded. The terrain slopes to the several river valleys; the county has a total area of 875 square miles, of which 861 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlton have ranged from a low of 1 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −45 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.87 inches in February to 4.34 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,386 people residing in the county. 89.7% were White, 5.9% Native American, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.4 % were of 13.5 % Finnish, 8.9 % Norwegian, 8.6 % Swedish and 5.6 % American ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 31,671 people, 12,064 households, 8,408 families in the county.
The population density was 36.8/sqmi. There were 13,721 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 91.75% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 5.19% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.5 % were of 11.8 % Swedish and 5.8 % Polish ancestry. 95.5 % spoke 1.8 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 12,064 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,021, the median income for a family was $48,406. Males had a median income of $38,788 versus $25,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,073. About 5.40% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.20% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Esko Mahtowa Clear Creek North Carlton Carlton County voters are traditionally Democratic. In no national election since 1928 has the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Carlton County, Minnesota Cloquet Fire of 1918 Carlton County official website Carltoncountyhelp.org: A guide to service organizations in Carlton County MN Mn/DOT – map of Carlton County
American Fur Company
The American Fur Company was founded in 1808, by John Jacob Astor, a German immigrant to the United States. During the 18th century, furs had become a major commodity in Europe, North America became a major supplier. Several British companies, most notably the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were eventual competitors against Astor and capitalized on the lucrative trade in furs. Astor capitalized on anti-British sentiments and his commercial strategies to become one of the first trusts in American business and a major competitor to the British commercial dominance in North American fur trade. Expanding into many former British fur-trapping regions and trade routes, the company grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States by 1830, became one of the largest and wealthiest businesses in the country. Astor planned for several companies to function across the Great Lakes, the Great Plains and the Oregon Country to gain control of the North American fur trade. Comparatively inexpensive manufactured goods were to be shipped to commercial stations for trade with various Indigenous nations for fur pelts.
The sizable number of furs collected were be brought to the port of Guangzhou, as pelts were in high demand in the Qing Empire. Chinese products were in turn be purchased for resale throughout the United States. A beneficial agreement with the Russian-American Company was planned through the regular supply of provisions for posts in Russian America; this was planned in part to prevent the rival Montreal based North West Company to gain a presence along the Pacific Coast, a prospect neither Russian colonial authorities or Astor favored. Demand for furs in Europe began to decline during the early 19th century, leading to the stagnation of the fur trade by the mid-19th century. Astor left his company in 1830, the company declared bankruptcy in 1842, the American Fur Company ceased trading in 1847. Prior to John Jacob Astor creating his enterprise in the Oregon Country, European descendants throughout previous decades had suggested creating trade stations along the Pacific Coast. Peter Pond, an active American fur trader, offered maps of his explorations in modern Alberta and the Northwest Territories to both the United States Congress and to Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant Governor of Quebec in 1785.
While it has been conjectured that Pond wanted funding from the Americans to explore the Pacific Coast for the Northwest Passage, there is no documentation of this and it is more that he had sent a copy of the map to Congress due to personal pride. Pond became a founding member of the North West Company and continued to trade in modern Alberta. In time Pond had an influence upon Alexander Mackenzie, who crossed the North American continent. In 1802, Mackenzie promoted a plan form the "Fishery and Fur Company" to the British Government. In it he called for "a supreme Civil & Military Establishment" on Nootka Island, with two additional posts located on the Columbia River and another in the Alexander Archipelago. Additionally this plan was formed to bypass the three major British monopolies at the time, the Hudson's Bay Company, the South Sea Company and the East India Company for access the Chinese markets; however the British Government ignored the plan. Another influence upon Astor was a longtime friend, Alexander Henry.
At times Henry mused at the potential of the western coast. Forming establishments on the Pacific shoreline to harness the economic potential would be "my favorite plan" as Henry described in a letter to a New York merchant, it is that these considerations were discussed with Astor during his visits to Montreal and the Beaver Club. Despite not originating the idea to create a venture on the Pacific coast, Astor's "ability to combine and use the ideas of other men" allowed him to pursue the idea. Astor joined in on two NWC voyages charted to sail to the Qing Dynasty during the 1790s; these were done with American vessels to bypass British commercial law, which at the time prohibited any company besides the British East India Company from commerce with China. These were financially profitable ventures, enough so that Astor offered to become the NWC agent for all shipments of furs destined for Guangzhou; however Alexander Mackenzie denied his offer, making Astor consider financing voyages to China without the Canadian traders.
Now a independent international merchant, Astor began to fund trading voyages to China along with several partners. Cargoes amounted to $150,000 in such as otter and beaver pelts, in addition to needed specie. Astor ordered the construction of the Beaver in 1803 to expand his trade fleet. By 1808, Astor had established "an international empire that mixed furs and silks and penetrated markets on three continents." He began to court diplomatic and government support of a fur trading venture to be established on the Pacific shore in the same year. In correspondence with the Mayor of New York City, DeWitt Clinton, Astor explained that a state charter would offer a particular level of formal sanction needed in the venture, he in turn requested the Federal government grant his operations military support to defend against British citizens and control these new markets. The bold proposals were not given official sanction however, making Astor to continue to promote his ideas among prominent governmental agents.
President Thomas Jefferson was contacted by the ambitious merchant as well. Astor gave a detailed plan of his mercantile considerations, declaring that they were designed to bring about American commercial dominance over "the greater part of the fur-trade of this continent..." This was to be accomplished through a chain of interconnected trading posts that stretching acro
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
U.S. Route 169
U. S. Route 169 runs for 966 miles from the city of Virginia, Minnesota to Tulsa, Oklahoma at Memorial Drive. U. S. Highway 169 is a major south–north highway spanning 75.1 miles in Oklahoma. The southern terminus for US-169 is Memorial Drive; the highway connects Tulsa, Oklahoma to the south with the Kansas state border to the north at South Coffeyville, Oklahoma. US-169 travels through Tulsa and Nowata counties. US-169 has undergone several widening projects that have brought US-169 to freeway and expressway standards; the highway is two lanes between Talala and South Coffeyville except for a short four lane portion north of Nowata and ending at State Highway 28. An Alternate US-169 passes through Nowata following the original path of US-169; the alternate route begins at the intersection of Choctaw Avenue and reconnects with US-169 south of Nowata at its intersection with Maple Street. In January 2005, Oklahoma Department of Transportation began a $16.8 million widening project on a mile-long stretch of US-169 from Interstate 244 to Interstate 44.
The project widened the highway from four to six lanes. The project was completed in April 2006; this stretch of US-169 is traveled by 106,000 vehicles per day. US-169 enters the state at Coffeyville as a four-lane road, is a four-lane highway for about 8.8 miles till the edge of the Coffeyville Industrial Park. A segment between Chanute and Iola is a freeway with controlled access with center concrete barrier, with two lanes in each direction. US-169 runs concurrently with US-59 and K-31 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges northeast again south of Garnett; the intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with Stop and Yield signs. It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006; the Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety. In Garnett, 6th Avenue (from US-169 to US-59 is known as Business US 169.
Going south, it veers off from US-169 about a mile and a half north of the US-169/US-59/K-31 roundabout intersection and travels west and south on 6th Avenue from US-169 to US-59/K-31 before turning south onto US-59/K-31 and running concurrent with them, ending at the US-169/US-59/K-31 roundabout intersection. At Osawatomie the road becomes a full freeway. In southern Johnson County 169 becomes an expressway until its junction with Interstate 35 in Olathe. From this point to the Missouri state line, US-169 alternates between freeways and surface streets, it follows Interstate 35 to Shawnee Mission Parkway in Overland Park travels east to Rainbow Blvd. US-169 follows surface streets to its junction with Interstate 70 near downtown Kansas City. US-169 and I-70 enter Missouri together just after crossing the Kansas River. US 169 exits Interstate 70 shortly after both roads enter Missouri via the Clark Viaduct, it serves Kansas City Downtown Airport. Northbound, US 169 becomes a freeway at 5th St south of the Missouri River, however southbound it ceases being a freeway north of the airport.
An at grade private driveway exists just south of the intersection with Route 9 as well as for airport access. At the northern end of the city an intersection is being reconstructed at NE 108th street with completion in November 2013. Once this is completed it will be a freeway through Interstate 435; this segment is known as Arrowhead Trafficway, although this road neither passes nor approaches Arrowhead Stadium. US 169 is a 4-lane rural expressway until it reaches Smithville, where it reverts to a two-lane rural highway. In St. Joseph, it forms most of the Belt Highway, a major commercial strip on the eastern edge of town, paralleling just inside Interstate 29. 169 angles northeastward out of St. Joseph, passing through many rural communities before exiting Missouri north of Grant City. US 169 intersects Interstate 29 three times in Missouri: once in Gladstone, twice in St. Joseph. U. S. 169 enters Iowa just south of Redding. It intersects Interstate 80 near De Soto. U. S. 169 becomes an expressway at U.
S. Route 20, south of Fort Dodge. At Iowa Highway 7 on the northwest side of Fort Dodge it reverts to a two-lane highway again; this is changing, however, as a two-phase, $11 million project began in the spring of 2010 to widen the route to four lanes from Fort Dodge to Humboldt. U. S. 169 passes through Algona before it leaves Iowa north of Lakota. U. S. 169 is a major north–south highway in Minnesota. It enters the state at Elmore. Shortly after, it junctions Interstate 90 at Blue Earth, it passes Mankato. Between Mankato and the Twin Cities, U. S. 169 is a rural highway. Before entering Le Sueur U. S. 169 crosses the Minnesota River again. At Shakopee, U. S. 169 becomes a freeway. The freeway ends in Champlin. U. S. 169 crosses the Mississippi River at Anoka and follows concurrently with US 10 to Elk River, where U. S. 169 splits off northbound through central Minnesota. The rest of the route in Minnesota is rural; the route passes the western side of Mille Lacs Lake. It terminates at U. S. 53 in Virginia, in the Iron Range.
In Kansas, US 169 used run concurrent with US 69 from I-35 through Downtown Kansas City and the Fairfax District across the Platte Purchase Bridge to I-635 until splitting at I-29 in Missouri. In Missouri, US 169 replaced Route
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Minnesota's 8th congressional district
Minnesota's 8th congressional district covers the northeastern part of Minnesota. It is anchored by the state's fifth-largest city, it includes most of the Mesabi and Vermilion iron ranges. The district is best known for its mining, agriculture and shipping industries. For many decades, the district reliably voted Democratic, but in 2016, Republicans made strong gains and Donald Trump carried the district by a 15-point margin. In the 2018 midterm election, it was one of only three US Congressional districts flipped to Republican. Only St. Louis, Lake and Carlton counties in the extreme northeast of the district had margins for the Democratic party candidate; the district is represented by Republican Pete Stauber. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts