A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust, demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole; the term refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain; the massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. The word is taken from French, where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France; the Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. Massifs may form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. Adrar des Ifoghas – Mali Aïr Massif – Niger Bongo Massif – Central African Republic Marojejy Massif – Madagascar Mulanje Massif – Malawi Waterberg Biosphere – South Africa Virunga Massif – border shared by Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo Kilimanjaro Massif – border of Kenya and Tanzania Oban Massif – Nigeria Borg Massif Craddock Massif Cumpston Massif Vinson Massif Otway Massif Annapurna – Nepal Chu Pong Massif – Vietnam Dhaulagiri – Nepal Gasherbrum – Pakistan Hazaran – Iran Kholeno – Iran Kangchenjunga – Nepal Knuckles Massif – Sri Lanka Kondyor Massif – Russia Kugitangtau Ridge – Turkmenistan Logar ultrabasite massif – Logar Province, Afghanistan Mount Ararat – Turkey Mount Everest massif – border of Nepal and Tibet Mount Kinabalu – Malaysia Mount Tomuraushi – Japan Nanga Parbat – Pakistan Nun Kun – India Panchchuli – India Shillong – Meghalaya, India Alpilles – France Aravis Range – France Ardennes Massif – France/Belgium/Luxembourg Areskutan – Sweden Armorican Massif – Brittany, France Bauges Massif – France Beaufortain Massif – France Ben Nevis massif – Scotland, United Kingdom Bohemian Massif – Czech Republic Bornes Massif – France Calanques Massif Ceahlău Massif – Romania Cerces Massif Chablais Massif – France Chartreuse Massif – France Cornubian Massif – United Kingdom Dévoluy Massif – France Massif des Écrins – France Gotthard Massif – Switzerland Jungfrau Massif – Switzerland Jura Mountains – France Lauzière massif L'Esterel Massif Long Mynd – England, United Kingdom Lubéron – France Massif Central – France Massiccio del Matese - Italy Mangerton Mountain – Ireland Mercantour – France Montgris – Spain Montserrat – Spain Mont Blanc massif – Italy/France/Switzerland Massiccio del Pollino - Italy Rila - Rhodope Massif – Bulgaria/Greece Sila Massif – Italy Snowdon Massif – Wales, United Kingdom Taillefer Massif – France Troodos – Cyprus Untersberg – Germany/Austria Queyras Massif – France Vanoise Massif – France Vercors Plateau – France Vitosha Massif – Bulgaria Vosges Mountains – France Adirondack Massif – New York, USA Mount Cayley massif – British Columbia, Canada Laurentian Massif – Quebec, Canada Le Massif – Canada Denali – Alaska, USA Level Mountain – Canada Mount Edziza – Canada Mount Juneau – Alaska, USA Mount Le Conte – Tennessee, USA Mount Logan – Yukon, Canada Mount Meager massif – Canada Mount Septimus – Canada Mount Shuksan – Washington, USA Teton Range – Wyoming, USA Big Ben – Heard Island Ahipara Gumfields – New Zealand Massif de la Hotte – Haiti Valle Nuevo Massif – Dominican Republic Brasilia Massif – Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Neblina massif – Venezuela–Brazil border Colombian Massif – Colombia North Patagonian Massif – Argentina Deseado Massif – Argentina Atlantis Massif – part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean Tamu Massif — the largest volcano on Earth
The Basque Mountains are a mountain range situated in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Geographically it is considered as the eastern section of the larger Cantabrian Range; the range runs through western Navarre. The Basque Mountains are a transitional range between two major ones, the Cantabrian range to the west and the Pyrenees to the east. Geologists call the area "The Basque threshold" and some consider that the Cantabrian Mountains and the Pyrenees are a single greater range and the Basque Mountains are just part of both. There are two parallel sub-ranges running from west to the inner one and the coastal one. In between them there is a 500 m high plateau called "Llanada Alavesa" where Vitoria-Gasteiz is located. East of the Llanada a narrow valley called Burunda and its follow-up Barranca separate the two ranges, with Urbasa-Andia located to the south and Aralar to the north; the valley harbours major infrastructures linking Pamplona. The Basque coastal range forms the water divide of the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins, the climate north of the range is milder and oceanic, typical of the so-called green Spain, while to the south of the coastal range and in the inner range winters are cold and snowy and summers drier and hotter than in the northern range, in general the climate in the Basque municipalities south of this range is more Mediterranean with some Continental traits, showing less precipitation and much colder winters than those coastal municipalities north of the range.
The snow cover is irregular during the winter season. From November to April snow cover can be found in the Basque Mountains above 700 m AMSL, but the changing weather conditions of the Bay of Biscay can bring great accumulations of snow and a sudden rise of temperatures can melt it in a few days due to the Foehn wind effect; this sudden melting can cause flooding problems, specially in the plains of northern Alava. It is a range of moderate height. In the inner range the main massifs from west to east are: Sierra Salvada Mounts of Vitoria, the most important is Kapildui Izki Urbasa, a 1,000 m high plateau Andía, with the impressive Beriain In the coastal range its main massifs from west to east are: Gorbea 1,481 m, maximum height of Biscay. Urkiola, Anboto being its highest peak. Elgea Aizkorri Altzania, the Aratz is the maximum height. Aralar, its most known peak being Txindoki The range is entirely limestone, but other materials can be found; the slopes are gentle, but there are many limestone peaks and cliffs in which vultures dwell.
There is abundant oceanic climate vegetation, like beeches, oaks and other like the Cantabrian Holm Oaks and the Pinus radiata, the last one artificially introduced for plantation. Pyrenees Cantabrian Range Geography of Spain Basque mountains list
Aizkorri-Aratz Natural Park
The Aizkorri-Aratz Natural Park is the second-largest natural park in the Basque Country, extending over 16,000 hectares, in the Aizkorri-Aratz Mountain Range. Included in the park are the highest summits in the Cantabrian-Mediterranean watershed, which together form a massif, a centre for Basque mountaineering. Declared a natural park in 2006, the area contains limestone ridge-and-valley and siliceous intrusion biomes; this natural park is situated in Spain. It was declared a natural park in 2006, it is located in the provinces of Alava. Four towns in the province of Alava are within the park – Asparrena, San Millán/Donemiliaga, Barrundia – and seven of Gipuzkoa: Leintz-Gatzaga, Aretxabaleta, Oñati, Legazpi and Zegama; the park includes all the lands of the "Gipuzkoa eta Arabako Partzuergo Orokorra / Parzonería General de Gipuzkoa y Álava". The park has a humid climate, with no drought in the summer, because of the altitude; the northern slope is wetter than the southern. The climate varies from area to area due to differences in the terrain.
The temperature is mild. Although the mountains are the most noticeable characteristic of the park, the area has vegetation and phenomena not present in other mountainous areas; the park is in a mountain area near the Aralar Range, one of the corridors linking the Pyrenees to the Cantabrian Mountains. Highlights include the rock wall that extends between the mountains of Aratz; the highest altitudes of the Basque Autonomous Community are the peaks of Aizkorri. The substrate of the area consists of urgonian limestone, which create karstic phenomena such as ridges, sinkholes and ravines. Notable formations include the basin of La Lece, the tunnel of San Adrián, Urbia's depression, Arantzazu's ravine. In Elguea-Urkilla the substrate changes. In the natural park some magnificent large autochthonous forests are conserved, which contain beech and white oak. Rare vegetation is present at higher altitudes, such as mountain meadows and heather, fruits, which are the food of the menhaden sheep; the fauna associated with the forest are the black woodpecker, owls, the vultures, more than 20 species that are protected under European legislation.
Amphibians present in the ponds include the Iberian Frog. Mammals include the marten; this animal is a mustelid, is native to Northern Europe. Its body is up to 53 centimetres, its bushy tail can be 25 centimetres. Males are larger than females, their fur is light to dark brown and grows longer and silkier during the winter months. They have a cream to yellow coloured "bib" marking on their throats. Nocturnal and somewhat arboreal in habit, it eats small mammals, small birds and frogs, they eat fruits and eggs of birds. Martens are occasional prey of eagles and foxes. In captivity they live up in the wild eight to ten years, they reach sexual maturity at two to three years. Their young, with a birth-weight of 30 grams, are born in March or April after a seven-month-long gestation period, in litters of one to five; the Iberian frog or Rana Patilarga, Rana iberica, is a species of frog in the family Ranidae. It is limited to Portugal and Spain, its natural habitats are rivers, intermittent rivers, swamps.
Because of the karstic properties of the rock, there are many caves in the park. Most of them, including Arrikrutz and Aizkirri, have prehistoric deposits, including the remains of lions and bears; the cave at Otzaurte links Alava and Gipuzkoa. A small furnace to smelt iron from the Bronze Age has been found in the area. In some parts of the park, it is still possible to view the Roman road to Vitoria-Gasteiz, it is one of the trails of the Camino de Santiago. There are roads extant from the Middle Ages, such as San Adrian's road; the nearest airport is Foronda. The airport at Loiu, Vizcaya, is nearby; the road to the park is marked, tourist accommodations are available. Restaurants and cafes are on site. Natural park http://www.gipuzkoaturismo.net/WAS/CORP/DITPortalTurismoPublicoWEB/Detalle.do?destino=irADetalle&seccion=PAGINA_DETALLE&buscaFN=true&codigoFN=E.4.2.1# http://www.totallyspain.com/spain_travel_itineries.asp?id=6
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Beech is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe and North America. Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera and Fagus; the Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark; this group includes Fagus sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus crenata, Fagus lucida, Fagus longipetiolata, Fagus hayatae. The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region.
Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of overlapping morphotypes, though genetic analysis does not support separate species. Within its family, the Fagaceae, recent research has suggested that Fagus is the evolutionarily most basal group; the southern beeches thought related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Chile; the European beech is the most cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5 -- 4 -- 10 cm broad. Beeches are monoecious; the small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring; the bark is light grey. The fruit is a small three–angled nut 10–15 mm long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm long, known as cupules.
The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, though bitter with a high tannin content, are called beechnuts or beechmast; the name of the tree is of Indo-European origin, played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece. Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, provided they are not waterlogged; the tree canopy casts dense shade, carpets the ground thickly with leaf litter. In North America, they form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple; the beech blight aphid is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera. Beech bark is thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech bark disease is a fungal infection that attacks the American beech through damage caused by scale insects. Infection can lead to the death of the tree. Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England; some suggest. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is removed from'native' woods. Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora; the Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge. Beech is not native to Ireland; the Friends of the Irish Environment say that the best policy is to remove young regenerating beech, while retaining veteran specimens with biodiversity value. A campaign by Friends of the Rusland Beeches and South Lakeland Friends of the Earth launched in 2007 to reclassify the beech as native in Cumbria.
The campaign is backed by Tim Farron, MP, who tabled a motion on 3 December 2007 regarding the status of beech in Cumbria. Today, beech is planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain below about 650 m; the tallest and longest hedge in the world is the Meikleour Beech Hedge in Meikleour and Kinross, Scotland. The common European beech grows in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about the 57–59°N; the most northern known growing beech trees are found in a few small forests around the city of Bergen on th
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia