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Akihabara

Akihabara is a common name for the area around Akihabara Station in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, the area called Akihabara belongs to the Sotokanda and Kanda-Sakumachō districts in Chiyoda. There exists an administrative district called Akihabara in the Taitō ward further north of Akihabara Station, but it is not the place people refer to as Akihabara; the name Akihabara is a shortening of Akibagahara, which comes from Akiba, named after a fire-controlling deity of a firefighting shrine built after the area was destroyed by a fire in 1869. Akihabara gained the nickname Akihabara Electric Town shortly after World War II for being a major shopping center for household electronic goods and the post-war black market. Akihabara is considered by many to be the centre of modern Japanese popular culture and a major shopping district for video games, manga and computer-related goods. Icons from popular anime and manga are displayed prominently on the shops in the area, numerous maid cafés and some arcades are found throughout the district.

The main area of Akihabara is located on a street just west of Akihabara Station, where most of the major shops are situated. Most of the electronics shops are just west of the station, the anime and manga shops and the cosplay cafés are north of them; as mentioned above, the area called Akihabara now ranges over some districts in Chiyoda ward: Sotokanda, Kanda-Hanaokachō, Kanda-Sakumachō. There exists an administrative district called Akihabara in the Taitō ward further north of the station, but it is not the place which people refer to as Akihabara, it borders on Sotokanda in between Akihabara and Okachimachi stations, but is half occupied by JR tracks. The area, now Akihabara was once near a city gate of Edo and served as a passage between the city and northwestern Japan; this made the region a home to many craftsmen and tradesmen, as well as some low class samurai. One of Tokyo's frequent fires destroyed the area in 1869, the people decided to replace the buildings of the area with a shrine called Chinkasha, meaning fire extinguisher shrine, in an attempt to prevent the spread of future fires.

The locals nicknamed the shrine Akiba after the deity that could control fire, the area around it became known as Akibagahara and Akihabara. After Akihabara Station was built in 1888, the shrine was moved to the Taitō ward where it still resides today. Since its opening in 1890, Akihabara Station became a major freight transit point, which allowed a vegetable and fruit market to spring up in the district. In the 1920s, the station saw a large volume of passengers after opening for public transport, after World War II, the black market thrived in the absence of a strong government; this disconnection of Akihabara from government authority has allowed the district to grow as a market city and given rise to an excellent atmosphere for entrepreneurship. In the 1930s, this climate turned Akihabara into a future-oriented market region specializing in household electronics, such as washing machines, refrigerators and stereos, earning Akihabara the nickname "Electric Town"; as household electronics began to lose their futuristic appeal in the 1980s, the shops of Akihabara shifted their focus to home computers at a time when they were only used by specialists and hobbyists.

This new specialization brought in a new type of computer nerds or otaku. The market in Akihabara latched onto their new customer base, focused on anime and video games; the connection between Akihabara and otaku has survived and grown to the point that the region is now known worldwide as a center for otaku culture, some otaku consider Akihabara to be a sacred place. The influence of otaku culture has shaped Akihabara's businesses and buildings to reflect the interests of otaku and gained the district worldwide fame for its distinctive imagery. Akihabara tries to create an atmosphere as close as possible to the game and anime worlds of customers' interest; the streets of Akihabara are covered with anime and manga icons, cosplayers line the sidewalks handing out advertisements for maid cafés. The idol group AKB48, one of Japan's highest selling contemporary musical acts, runs its own theater in Akihabara, from which the group's name is derived. Release events, special events, conventions in Akihabara give anime and manga fans frequent opportunities to meet the creators of the works they follow and strengthen the connection between the region and otaku culture.

The design of many of the buildings serves to create the sort of atmosphere. Architects design the stores of Akihabara to be more opaque and closed to reflect the general desire of many otaku to live in their anime worlds rather than display their interests to the world at large. Akihabara's role as a free market has allowed a large amount of amateur work to find a passionate audience in the otaku who frequent the area. Doujinshi has been growing in Akihabara since the 1970s when publishers began to drop manga that were not ready for large markets. Akiba-kei Akihabara Trilogy Kanda Shrine, Shinto shrine near Akihabara Nipponbashi, in Osaka Ōsu, in Nagoya Tourism in Japan Akihabara Area Tourism Organization Akihabara Electrical Town Organization website Go Tokyo Akihabara Guide

July 2016 Dhaka attack

On the night of 1 July 2016, at 21:20 local time, five militants took hostages and opened fire on the Holey Artisan Bakery in Gulshan Thana. The assailants entered the bakery with crude bombs, machetes and took several dozen hostages. In the immediate response, while Dhaka Metropolitan Police tried to regain control of the bakery, two police officers were shot dead by the assailants.29 people were killed, including 20 hostages, 2 police officers, 5 gunmen, 2 bakery staff. As the police were unsuccessful in breaching the bakery and securing the hostages, they set up a perimeter along with the Rapid Action Battalion and Border Guards Bangladesh. Early on 2 July, it was decided that the Bangladesh Armed Forces would launch a counter assault named Operation Thunderbolt; the assault was led by the 1st Para-commando Battalion, an elite force in the Bangladesh Army, began their raid at 07:40. According to Bangladesh's Inspector General of Police, all of the attackers were Bangladeshi citizens. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for the incident and released photographs of the gunmen, but the home minister of Bangladesh, Asaduzzaman Khan, stated that the perpetrators belonged to Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen and were not affiliated with ISIL.

The incident was the worst terrorist attack in Bangladesh's history. The local media described it as 7/16. Bangladesh, having a population of about 170 million, is a developing country with a GDP per capita income of $1,903 per year; the constitution of the country declares secularism as one of the four fundamental principles of the country but recognizes Islam as the state religion. Around 89% of Bangladeshis are Muslims, with the rest being Hindus, Buddhists and others; the militant Islamic organization Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen was founded in 1998 and outlawed in 2005 when it committed a series of bombings, but took up activities again. Bangladesh government tried and hanged Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Siddiqur Rahman, two leaders of the organization; some attacks came from another Islamic terrorist group outlawed in 2005 named Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, including the 2004 Dhaka grenade attack and 2001 Ramna Batamul bombings. Mufti Hannan, the leader of the terrorist group was sentenced to death on 23 December 2008.

Since 2013, Muslim-majority Bangladesh has experienced an increase in Islamist attacks on religious minorities and atheist writers and bloggers, LGBT rights activists and liberal-minded Muslims. Since September 2015, there have been over 30 such attacks, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for 21 of them. Ansarullah Bangla Team, another terrorist group outlawed on 25 May 2015 claimed responsibility for some of them. In November 2015, the ISIL magazine Dabiq published an article calling for the "revival of jihad in Bengal". Gulshan is a well off, upscale residential neighborhood of Dhaka and is home to many foreign embassies; the attack started at about 21:40 local time. Five attackers entered the restaurant armed with bombs and assault rifles. One attacker had a sword, they detonated several of the bombs. Several patrons dove under their tables. An Argentinian-Italian chef named Diego Rossini bolted upstairs, while several restaurant employees followed him, they jumped onto the rooftops of nearby buildings.

Staff on the second floor hid inside a restroom. A total of 8 staff members were hiding inside the restroom; the restroom was cramped, as it was storing yeast and flour. The attackers went upstairs and walked in front of the door, shouting "Bengali people, come out," "If you're Muslims, come out." Because there was no answer, the gunmen thought that there was no one inside the restroom, locked the restroom's door. The staff members inside the restroom began to text their relatives, stating that they were inside the restroom and pleaded for help; the attackers took many hostages all foreigners. Reports indicate that the attackers were "unfailingly polite and solicitous" with the restaurant staff and other Bangladeshis, they took the staff into their confidence, complaining that foreigners, with their skimpy clothes and taste for alcohol, were impeding the spread of Islam. "Their lifestyle is encouraging local people to do the same thing," a militant said. Alerted by the gunfire, police detective Rabiul Karim and officer-in-charge Salauddin Khan started to investigate.

Other police officers responded. The attackers engaged in a shootout with the police. Police planned a rescue raid; the attackers however fired, killing officers Karim and Khan. The attackers spotted one member of staff, named Miraj, who hid in the corner. One of the gunman told Miraj: "Everyone else ran away but you couldn't make it, that means God wants you to die." The gunman strapped him to a chair with explosives, creating their human shield. The gunmen separated the Muslims from the non-Muslims; the Muslims were given water, while the non-Muslims, were not. On the early morning of 2 July, the attackers began releasing hostages. A group of women wearing hijabs were released by the attackers. However, Hossain refused their offer and refused to leave his friends, who were prohibited from leaving by the gunmen. Pictures taken from inside the restaurant were circulated on Twitter by pro-ISIL accounts and show several bodies and pools of blood on the floor; the Daily Kaler Kantho reported that the militant group Ansar al-Islam announced the upcoming a

Eduardo Blanco Amor

Eduardo Modesto Blanco Amor was a Galician writer and journalist who wrote in Galician and in Spanish. Os Nonnatos Romances galegos Poema en catro tempos A escadeira de Jacob Cancioneiro A esmorga. Os biosbardos Xente ao lonxe. Farsas para títeres Teatro pra xente Poemas galegos Proceso en Jacobusland Castelao escritor A Contrapelo Horizonte evadido En soledad amena La catedral y el niño Chile a la vista Las buenas maneras Los miedos Allegue, G.. Eduardo Blanco Amor. Diante dun xuíz ausente. Vigo: Nigra. ISBN 84-87709-05-2. Álvarez, V.. "Manuel Azaña e Eduardo Blanco Amor. Epistolario inédito". Grial: 57–73. ISSN 0017-4181. Carballo Calero, R.. Historia da literatura galega contemporánea. Galaxia. Pp. 715–719. ISBN 84-7154-227-7. Casares, Carlos. "Leria con Eduardo Blanco-Amor". Grial: 337-344. ISSN 0017-4181. Carro, Xavier. A obra literaria de Eduardo Blanco Amor. Vigo: Galaxia. ISBN 84-7154-868-2. Couceiro Freijomil, A.. Diccionario bio-bibliográfico de escritores I. Bibliófilos Gallegos. P. 153-154. Fernández, Camilo.

Eduardo Blanco Amor e o teatro. Universitat de Barcelona. ISBN 84-475-1060-3. Fernández del Riego, Francisco. Historia da literatura galega. Galaxia. Pp. 203–204 e 249–250. ——————. Diccionario de escritores en lingua galega. Do Castro. Pp. 50–51. ISBN 84-7492-465-0. Forcadela, Manuel. Guía de lectura de “A esmorga”. Edicións do Cumio. ISBN 84-87126-44-8. Freixanes, V.. "Eduardo Blanco Amor diante do espello". Unha ducia de galegos. Galaxia. Pp. 79–101. ISBN 84-7154-248-X. Gómez, A.. Historia xeral da literatura galega. A Nosa Terra. Pp. 292–298. ISBN 84-95350-79-3. Landeira Yrago, José. Federico García Lorca y Galicia. Ediciós do Castro. ISBN 84-7492-306-9. Lorenzana, S.. "Perfil biobibliográfico de Eduardo Blanco Amor". Grial: 37-45. ISSN 0017-4181. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luis. De Pondal a Novoneyra. Edicións Xerais de Galicia. P. 57. ISBN 84-7507-139-2. Pena, X. R.. Historia da literatura galega. IV. De 1936 a 1975. A «longa noite». Xerais. Pp. 404–441. ISBN 978-84-9121-481-6. Vilavedra, Dolores, ed.. Diccionario da literatura galega.

Autores I. Vigo: Galaxia. Pp. 79–82. ISBN 84-8288-019-5. Poema actual a Blanco Amor. A Nosa Terra III. 1985. E. Blanco Amor. Xunta de Galicia. 1993. "Blanco Amor, Eduardo Modesto". Diccionario enciclopédico galego universal 9. La Voz de Galicia. 2003-2004. P. 93. ISBN 84-7680-429-6. "Blanco Amor, Eduardo Modesto". Dicionario biográfico de Galicia 1. Ir Indo. 2010-2011. P. 111-116. "Blanco Amor, Eduardo Modesto". Diciopedia do século 21 1. Do Cumio, Galaxia e do Castro. 2006. P. 324. ISBN 978-84-8288-942-9. "Blanco Amor, Eduardo Modesto". Enciclopedia Galega Universal 3. Ir Indo. 1999-2002. Pp. 368–370. ISBN 84-7680-288-9. "Blanco Amor, Eduardo". Gran Enciclopedia Galega Silverio Cañada. El Progreso. 2005. ISBN 84-87804-88-8. "Eduardo Blanco Amor". Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. 2009