Miso is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients. The result is a paste used for sauces and spreads, pickling vegetables or meats, and mixing with dashi soup stock to serve as miso soup called misoshiru. High in protein and rich in vitamins and minerals, miso played an important nutritional role in feudal Japan, Miso is still widely used in Japan, both in traditional and modern cooking, and has been gaining worldwide interest. Typically, miso is salty, but its flavor and aroma depend on factors in the ingredients. Different varieties of miso have been described as salty, earthy, the traditional Chinese analogue of miso is known as dòujiàng. The origin of the miso of Japan is not completely clear and fish misos had been manufactured in Japan since the Neolithic era. These are called jōmon miso and are similar to the early fish- and this miso predecessor originated in China during the third century BC or earlier.
Hishio and other fermented soy-based foods likely were introduced to Japan at the time as Buddhism in the sixth century AD. This fermented food was called shi, in the Kamakura era, a common meal was made up of a bowl of rice, some dried fish, a serving of miso, and a fresh vegetable. Until the Muromachi era, miso was made without grinding the soybeans, in the Muromachi era, Buddhist monks discovered that soybeans could be ground into a paste, spawning new cooking methods using miso to flavor other foods. In medieval times, the word temaemiso, meaning home-made miso, Miso production is a relatively simple process, so home-made versions spread throughout Japan. Miso was used as military provisions during the Sengoku era, during the Edo period, miso was called hishio and kuki and various types of miso that fit with each local climate and culture emerged throughout Japan. These days, miso is produced industrially in large quantities, in recent years, many new types of miso have appeared. For example, ones with added soup stocks or calcium, or reduced salt for health, the taste, aroma and appearance of miso all vary by region and season.
Other important variables that contribute to the flavor of a particular miso include temperature, duration of fermentation, salt content, variety of kōji, and fermenting vessel. In the eastern Kantō region that includes Tokyo, the darker brownish akamiso is popular while in the western Kansai region encompassing Osaka and Kobe, the lighter shiromiso is preferred. The ingredients used to produce miso may include any mix of soybeans, rice, millet, wheat, hemp seed, and cycad, among others. Lately, producers in other countries have begun selling miso made from chickpeas, azuki beans, amaranth
Akihito is the reigning Emperor of Japan. He is the 125th emperor of his line according to Japans traditional order of succession, Akihito succeeded his father Shōwa and acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 7 January 1989. There has been ongoing coverage of his possible abdication due to age,31 December 2018 and 1 January 2019 has been mentioned as possible dates of such abdication. In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, in writing, the Emperor is referred to formally as The Reigning Emperor. The Era of Akihitos reign bears the name Heisei, and according to custom he will be renamed Emperor Heisei by order of the Cabinet after his death, at the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established. Akihito was born in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo City, and is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun. Titled Prince Tsugu as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors, unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.
During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, during the American occupation of Japan following World War II, Prince Akihito was tutored in the English language and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining. He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, Akihito was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth. His formal Investiture as Crown Prince was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952, in June 1953 Akihito represented Japan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London. Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries, upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, his eldest son the Crown Prince Akihito succeeded to the throne, with an enthronement ceremony taking place on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a visit to the United Kingdom. Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for cancer on 14 January 2003.
Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial family closer to the Japanese people, the Emperor and Empress of Japan have made official visits to eighteen countries and to all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan. The Emperor and Empress made a visit on Wednesday,30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster and this kind of event is extremely rare, though in line with the Emperors attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people. Later in 2011 he was admitted to suffering from pneumonia. In February 2012 it was announced that the Emperor would be having a coronary examination, senior officials within the Imperial Household Agency have denied that there is any official plan for the monarch to abdicate. A potential abdication by the Emperor would require an amendment to the Imperial Household Act, on 8 August 2016, the Emperor gave a rare televised address, where he emphasized his advanced age and declining health, this address is interpreted as an implication of his intention to abdicate
In its present-day form, it records a fluctuating signal by moving the tape across a tape head that polarizes the magnetic domains in the tape in proportion to the audio signal. Tape-recording devices include reel-to-reel tape deck and the cassette deck, the use of magnetic tape for sound recording originated around 1930. Magnetizable tape revolutionized both the radio broadcast and music recording industries and it gave artists and producers the power to record and re-record audio with minimal loss in quality as well as edit and rearrange recordings with ease. The alternative recording technologies of the era, transcription discs and wire recorders, since some early refinements improved the fidelity of the reproduced sound, magnetic tape has been the highest quality analog sound recording medium available. As of the first decade of the 21st century, analog magnetic tape has been replaced by digital recording technologies for consumer purposes. Some individuals and organizations developed innovative uses for magnetic wire recorders while others investigated variations of the technology, one particularly important variation was the application of an oxide powder to a long strip of paper.
This German invention was the start of a string of innovations that have led to present day magnetic tape recordings. The earliest known audio tape recorder was a non-magnetic, non-electric version invented by Alexander Graham Bells Volta Laboratory and patented in 1886. It employed a 3⁄16-inch-wide strip of wax-covered paper that was coated by dipping it in a solution of beeswax and paraffin and had one side scraped clean, the machine was of sturdy wood and metal construction, and hand-powered by means of a knob fastened to the flywheel. The tape was taken up on the other reel. The sharp recording stylus, actuated by a vibrating mica diaphragm, in playback mode, a dull, loosely mounted stylus, attached to a rubber diaphragm, carried the reproduced sounds through an ear tube to its listener. Both recording and playback heads, mounted alternately on the two posts, could be adjusted vertically so that several recordings could be cut on the same 3⁄16-inch-wide strip. While the machine was never developed commercially, it was an ancestor to the modern magnetic tape recorder which it resembled somewhat in design.
The tapes and machine created by Bells associates, examined at one of the Smithsonian Institutions museums, became brittle, the machines playback head was missing. Otherwise, with some reconditioning, they could be placed into working condition, during the recording process, the tape moved through a pair of electrodes which immediately imprinted the modulated sound signals as visible black stripes into the paper tapes surface. On 13 August 1931, Duston filed USPTO Patent Application #556,743 for Method Of And Apparatus For Electrically Recording And Reproducing Sound And Other Vibrations, and which was renewed in 1934. Magnetic recording was conceived as early as 1877 by the American engineer Oberlin Smith, Analog magnetic wire recording, and its successor, magnetic tape recording, involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves with a constant speed past a recording head. An electrical signal, which is analogous to the sound that is to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization similar to the signal
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Located in Winnipeg and founded in 1877, it was Western Canada’s first university, the university maintains a reputation as a top research-intensive post-secondary educational institution and conducts more research annually than any other university in the region. It is the largest university both by total student enrollment and campus area in the province of Manitoba, and the 17th largest in all of Canada. The universitys raised admissions standards, wide array of professional disciplines, the campus includes both Faculties of Law and Medicine, and boasts hundreds of degree programs. As of 2010, there have been 96 Rhodes Scholars from the University of Manitoba, the University of Manitoba has three main locations, the Bannatyne Campus, the Fort Garry Campus and the William Norrie Centre. The downtown Bannatyne campus of the university comprises a complex of ten buildings located west of the Health Sciences Centre between McDermot Ave and William Ave in Central Winnipeg and this complex houses the medical and dental instructional units of the university.
The Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Medical Rehabilitation, the Faculty of Pharmacy officially joined the Bannatyne campus with the opening of the 95,000 sq ft Apotex Centre on October 16,2008. The Brodie Center is known as the flagship which connects all three faculties as well as the Neil John MacLean Health Sciences Library and the Joe Doupe Fitness Centre and it is located on 727 McDermot Avenue. The main Fort Garry campus comprises over 60 teaching and research buildings of the University, in addition, Smartpark is the location of seven buildings leased to research and development organizations involving university-industry partnerships. The address is 66 Chancellors Circle, the William Norrie Centre on Selkirk Avenue is the campus for social work education for inner-city residents. The university operates agricultural research stations near Glenlea and Carman, the Ian N. Morrison Research Farm near Carman is a 406 acres facility located 70 km from Winnipeg, while the Glenlea facility is approximately 1,000 acres and located 20 km from Winnipeg.
The University of Manitoba provides services to urban Aboriginal people, the University of Manitoba Native Studies summer course brings first-year Aboriginal students to campus before the start of the school year for some campus orientation. Aboriginal Elders are present on campus at University of Manitoba to provide social supports, tutoring services are available within the University of Manitoba’s Medicine and Social Work ACCESS Programs. The University of Manitoba is a university, founded by Alexander Morris. It officially opened on June 20,1877 to confer degrees on students graduating from its three founding colleges, St. Boniface College, St Johns College and Manitoba College, the University of Manitoba granted its first degrees in 1880. The University was the first to be established in western Canada, alan Beddoe designed the university coats of arms. The university has added a number of colleges to its corporate, in 1882 the Manitoba Medical College, which had been founded by some physicians and surgeons, became a part of the University.
Charles Henry Wheeler designed the Bacteriological Research Building, part of the Manitoba Medical College, george Creeford Browne designed the Science Building, 1899-1900
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
Order of the Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government, the badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the sun in parallel with the rising sun concept of Japan. Prior to the end of World War II, it was awarded for exemplary military service. While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, the modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981, and women were awarded the Order starting in 2003. The awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of Office of the Prime Minister and it is awarded in the name of the Emperor and can be awarded posthumously. It can be awarded to Japanese as well as non-Japanese nationals, the Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, and the lowest two classes were abolished.
Since then, it has awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, and in rare instances. The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a star of eight points. It is worn on the left chest for the Grand Cordon, on the right chest for the 2nd Class. The badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class. Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun. Order of Civil Merit Order of Chula Chom Klao and Order of the White Elephant Order of St. Michael and St. Barry C. Weaver and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California and Medals Society of America, Cabinet Office and Medals Decoration Bureau, Order of the Rising Sun Japan Mint, Production Process
Osaka University, or Handai, is a national university located in Osaka, Japan. It is the sixth oldest university in Japan as the Osaka Prefectural Medical College, numerous prominent scientists have worked at Osaka University such as the Nobel Laureate in Physics Hideki Yukawa. It is the 4th best ranked higher education institution in Japan in 2016 by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Academic traditions of the university back to Kaitokudō, an Edo-period school for local citizens founded in 1724, and Tekijuku. Osaka University traces its origin back to 1869 when Osaka Prefectural Medical School was founded in downtown Osaka, the school was transformed into the Osaka Prefectural Medical College with university status by the University Ordinance in 1919. The college merged with the newly founded College of Science to form Osaka Imperial University（大阪帝國大学） in 1931, Osaka Imperial University was inaugurated as the sixth imperial university in Japan. As part of the University, Osaka Technical College was included to form the school of Engineering two years later, the university was eventually renamed Osaka University in 1947.
After that, graduate schools, and research institutes have been successively established, built on the then-existing faculties,10 graduate schools were set up as part of the governments education system reform program in 1953. In October 2007, a merger between Osaka University and Osaka University of Foreign Studies was completed, the merger made Osaka University one of two national universities in the country with a School of Foreign Studies. In addition, the made the university the largest national university in the country. In 2009, Osaka University implemented a major revision of its website, thanks to the work of the Creative Unit, virtually all Osaka Universitys web pages come in pairs — a Japanese page and the same page in English. These pairings include frequent updates on symposiums and other open to staff, students and, often. Suita and Minoh are the three campuses. Home to the headquarters, the Suita campus extends across Suita city. The Suita campus houses faculties of Human Sciences, Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences and it contains the Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences and a portion of the Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.
The campus is home to the Osaka University Hospital and the Nationwide Joint Institute of Cybermedia Center. Because access to the campus by public transportation is relatively inconvenient, motorcycles, while sports activities are primarily concentrated on the Toyonaka campus, tennis activities are concentrated on the Suita campus because of its many tennis facilities. The Toyonaka campus is home to faculties of Letters, Economics, Science and it is the academic base for Graduate Schools of International Public Policy and Culture, Information Science, and the Center for the Practice of Legal and Political Expertise
Tokoname is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. In May 2015 the city had an population of 57.024. The total area was 55.89 square kilometres, Tokoname is located on the western coast of the Chita Peninsula in southern Aichi Prefecture, facing Ise Bay. By the Kamakura period, over 3000 kilns were active, during the Sengoku period, the area came under the control of the Isshiki clan, and came under the rule of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Edo period, the area around present-day Tokoname was part of Owari Domain, in the post Meiji Restoration cadastral reforms of 1889, the town of Tokoname was created. Tokoname was elevated to city status on April 1,1954 by the merger of Tokoname town with the towns of Onizaki, Nishiura and Ōno, and the village of Miwa. Chubu Centrair International Airport, built on an island off the coast of Tokoname, opened on February 17,2005. One of the producing companies is INAX. With its long coastline, commercial fishing plays an important role in the local economy, Tokoname has nine elementary schools, four middle schools and one high school
An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, recognizes excellence in the television industry, and corresponds to the Academy Award, the Tony Award, and the Grammy Award. Because Emmy Awards are given in various sectors of the American television industry, Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced, each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies. The Los Angeles-based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25,1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the very first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, in 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, and help to supervise the Emmys.
The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming, the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. Originally there was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States, in 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to specifically honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed, the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and initially aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, in 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark. With the rise of television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988.
The ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013, the Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model. The TV Academy rejected a total of forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus design in 1948. The statuette has become the symbol of the TV Academys goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television, The wings represent the muse of art. When deciding a name for the award, Academy founder Syd Cassyd originally suggested Ike, Ike was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the Academy members wanted something unique. Finally, television engineer and the third president, Harry Lubcke, suggested the name Immy. After Immy was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit, a voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistors terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled power can be higher than the controlling power, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the building block of modern electronic devices. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to construct a working device at that time. The first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios and computers, among other things.
The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, the thermionic triode, a vacuum tube invented in 1907, enabled amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony. The triode, was a device that consumed a substantial amount of power. Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed a patent for a transistor in Canada in 1925. Lilienfeld filed patents in the United States in 1926 and 1928. However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices nor did his patents cite any examples of a working prototype. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a device in Europe. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, the term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce as a contraction of the term transresistance. Instead, what Bardeen and Shockley invented in 1947 was the first point-contact transistor, Mataré had previous experience in developing crystal rectifiers from silicon and germanium in the German radar effort during World War II.
Using this knowledge, he began researching the phenomenon of interference in 1947, realizing that Bell Labs scientists had already invented the transistor before them, the company rushed to get its transistron into production for amplified use in Frances telephone network. The first bipolar junction transistors were invented by Bell labs William Shockley, on April 12,1950, Bell Labs chemists Gordon Teal and Morgan Sparks had successfully produced a working bipolar NPN junction amplifying germanium transistor. Bell Labs had made this new sandwich transistor discovery announcement, in a release on July 4,1951. The first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in 1953 and these were made by etching depressions into an N-type germanium base from both sides with jets of Indium sulfate until it was a few ten-thousandths of an inch thick
Japanese people are an ethnic group native to Japan. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of the population of their country. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent, of these, people of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries are referred to as the Japanese diaspora. The term ethnic Japanese may be used in some contexts to refer to ethnic groups, including the Yamato, Ainu. The Japanese language is a Japonic language that in the past was treated as a language isolate, the Japanese language has a tripartite writing system using Hiragana and Kanji. Domestic Japanese people use primarily Japanese for daily interaction, the adult literacy rate in Japan exceeds 99%. Japanese religion has traditionally been syncretic in nature, combining elements of Buddhism, Shinto, a polytheistic religion with no book of religious canon, is Japans native religion. Mahayana Buddhism came to Japan in the century and evolved into many different sects. Today, the largest form of Buddhism among Japanese people is the Jōdo Shinshū sect founded by Shinran, most Japanese people profess to believe in both Shinto and Buddhism.
Japanese peoples religion functions mostly as a foundation for mythology, Christianity in Japan is among the nations minority religions. Just under 2%, or about 2.5 million, of Japans population are Christians, many Japanese practice Christianity in the diaspora in Brazil, which is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan. About 60% of Japanese Brazilians are Roman Catholics, while 90% of Japanese Mexicans are Roman Catholic, certain genres of writing originated in and are often associated with Japanese society. These include the haiku, and I Novel, although modern writers generally avoid these writing styles, many works have sought to capture or codify traditional Japanese cultural values and aesthetics. Twentieth-century Japanese writers recorded changes in Japanese society through their works, some of the most notable authors included Natsume Sōseki, Junichirō Tanizaki, Osamu Dazai, Yasunari Kawabata, Fumiko Enchi, Yukio Mishima, and Ryōtarō Shiba. In contemporary Japan, popular authors such as Ryū Murakami, Haruki Murakami, decorative arts in Japan date back to prehistoric times.
Jōmon pottery includes examples with elaborate ornamentation, in the Yayoi period, artisans produced mirrors and ceremonial bells known as dōtaku. Later burial mounds, or kofun, preserve characteristic clay haniwa, beginning in the Nara period, painting and sculpture flourished under strong Confucian and Buddhist influences from China. Among the architectural achievements of this period are the Hōryū-ji and the Yakushi-ji, after the cessation of official relations with the Tang dynasty in the ninth century, Japanese art and architecture gradually became less influenced by China
Discman was the product name given to Sonys first portable CD player, the D-5 /D-50, which was the first on the market in 1984, and adopted for Sonys entire portable CD player line. In Japan, all Discman products are referred to as CD Walkman, prior to the development of the CD, cassette tapes were the dominant form of audio storage in regards to the then-fledgling portable audio industry. In 1979, Sony had introduced the Walkman in Japan, as Sony began to realize the potential of the CD, executives pushed for a means to give the CD player market momentum, moving it from audio enthusiasts to the mainstream. With the ability to produce a CD player one-tenth the size of its first unit by August 1983, the original goal was to create a player that was the equivalent size of four CD cases stacked on top of each other. A piece of wood 13.4 cm across and about 4 cm thick was shown to the staff to illustrate the physical dimensions for which they were aiming, the D-50 was released in November 1984, two years after mass production of CDs began.
The unit offered the same functionality as the full-size CDP-101 player, but came without a remote, the D-50 retailed for only 49,800 yen, approximately half the cost price of the CDP-101. The unit successfully sparked public interest in CDs, boosting their popularity, and within a year, because of its portable nature and similarity to the Walkman, the nickname Discman was given to the D-50. This name has been used to refer to any Sony portable CD player, Sony has since changed the name to CD Walkman, starting in the late 1990s. The release of the D-50 sparked public interest in CDs as an audio format, a portable CD market was created and the price of competing CD players from other manufacturers dropped. The CD industry experienced sudden growth with the number of CD titles available dramatically increasing, Sony Data Discman Notes Sources Sony History. Sony Walkman Personal Stereo Turns 20 Years Old, archived from the original on July 20,2009. - Reference site containing details and pictures of various Discman and Walkman models, eEVblog #863 - Sony D50 Discman Teardown - Worlds First Portable CD Player