Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH and succeeding his brother Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah. Al-Mansur is regarded as the real founder of the Abbasid Caliphate, one of the largest polities in world history, for his role in stabilizing and institutionalizing the dynasty, he is known for founding the'round city' of Madinat al-Salam, to become the core of imperial Baghdad. Al-Mansur was born at the home of the Abbasid family in Humeima after their emigration from the Hejaz in 714, his father, was reputedly a great-grandson of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the youngest uncle of Mohammad. His mother, as described in the 14th-century Moroccan historical work Rawd al-Qirtas, was one Sallama, "a Berber slave woman given to his father." He reigned from Dhu al-Hijjah 136 AH until Dhu al-Hijjah 158 AH. He ruled for nine days less than twenty-two years. Al-Mansur was proclaimed Caliph on his way to Mecca in the year 753 and was inaugurated the following year.
Mansur's uncle, Isa ibn Ali, pledged an oath of allegiance first to Mansur and to Isa ibn Musa, to be his successor on Sunday, 12 Dhu al-Hijja 136 AH/754 AD. When Isa ibn Musa, al-Mansur's intended successor, fell under suspicion of corruption, Al-Mahdi was appointed in his stead and publicly swore allegiance. Before ascending to the throne, Al Mansur's bid for Caliph came under contention by a number of ambitious army commanders, he was involved in the murder of several individuals that helped lead the Abbasid movement that brought them power. Al Mansur had a formidable rival in his uncle Abdullah ibn Ali, with the help of the famous general, Abu Muslim, he defeated in 754 AD. Abu Muslim was a loyal freed man from the eastern Iranian province of Khorasan who had led the Abbasid forces to victory over the Umayyads during the Third Fitna in 749–750. Fearing Abu Muslim's power and growing popularity among the people, Al-Mansur planned his assassination. Abu Muslim was conversing with the Caliph when, at an appointed signal, four of his guards rushed in and fatally wounded the general.
John Aikin, in his work General Biography, narrates that Mansur, not content with the assassination, committed "outrages on the dead body, kept it several days in order to glut his eyes with the spectacle.". The assassination of Abu Muslim caused uproars throughout the province of Khorasan. In 755, Sandbad, an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen, led a revolt against Al-Mansur, taking the cities of Nishapur and Ray. In Ray, he seized the treasuries of Abu Muslim, he gained many supporters form Jibal and Tabaristan, including the Dabuyid ruler, paid with money from the treasuries. A force of 10,000 under Abbasid commander Jahwar ibn Marrar al-lijli was ordered to march without delay to Khorasan to fight the rebellion. Sandbad was Khorasan reclaimed by the Abbasids. Al-Mansur sent an official to take inventory of the spoils collected from the battle as a precautionary measure against acquisition by his army. Angered by Mansur's avarice, Jahwar gained support from his troops after informing them of his intention to split the treasures evenly, revolted against the Caliph.
This raised alarm in the Caliph's court and Al-Mansur ordered Mohammad ibn Ashar to march towards Khorasan. Jahwar, knowing his troops were at a disadvantage, fortified in preparation. Mohammad's army pressed Jahwar fled to Azerbaijan. Jahwar's forces were cut to pieces; this campaign lasted from 756 to 762 AD. After relieving former vizier ibn Attiya al-Bahili, Al-Mansur transferred his duties to Abu Ayyub al-Muriyani from Khuzestan. Abu Ayyub was a secretary to Sulayman ibn Habib ibn al-Muhallab, who in the past, had condemned Mansur to be whipped and flogged to pieces. Abu Ayyub solidified a close relationship with the Caliph. After appointing him as vizier, Mansur suspected Abu Ayyub of various crimes, including extortion and treachery, which led to the latter's assassination; the vacant secretary role was granted to Aban ibn Sadaqa until the death of the Caliph. In 757 AD, Mansur sent a large army to Cappadocia. In this same year, he confronted a group of the Rawandiyya from the region of Greater Khorasan that were performing circumambulation around his palace as an act of worship.
The confrontation turned violent and Al Mansur was graciously saved by former Umayyad general Ma'n ibn Za'ida al-Shaybani, who had, prior to this event, gone into hiding following the Abbasid Revolution. The Abbasids had accepted the support of the Rawandiyya prior to their uprising, after rising to power, the Caliphate cut ties with them because of their unorthodox beliefs. Al-Mansur was disconcerted by the Rawandiyya insurgency, in 762, he founded the new imperial residence and palace city Madinat as-Salam, which became the core of the Imperial capital Baghdad; this was in response to a growing concern from the chief towns in Iraq and Kufa that there was lack of solidity within the regime after the death of Abu'l `Abbas. Another reason for the construction of the new capital was the growing need to house and provide stability for a developing Abbasid bureaucracy forged under the influence of Iranian ideals. Mansur considered using r
Change ringing software encompasses the several different types of software in use today in connection with change ringing. The Central Council of Church Bell Ringers maintains a list of change ringing software. There are four general types of software used in connection with change ringing: tools for composition, simulation and maintaining up-to-date bell tower directories; the most common use of software in change ringing is composition proving. This type of software is used to take the tedium out of proving change ringing compositions: that is, checking that no change within the composition is repeated; the software will perform the checks required to prove a composition in milliseconds, rather than the hours or days required for paper based proving methods. These programs can analyse compositions to determine the musical rows that they contain. In recent years, more advanced tools have emerged; these range from pure composition-generation programs such as BYROC and Elf, to more sophisticated programs such as SMC32, which can work alongside the human composer, for instance by linking together existing musical blocks which the composer has created.
The main examples of proving software are: Trident BeltowerSome examples of composition generation tools: BYROC Elf The original use of simulators was to allow the practicing of change ringing in the tower, but nowadays is used more in the home, using a dumbbell or keyboard. Many different scenarios can now be accommodated by the software. Sensors are used to give temporal information to the computer. Single or multiple learner silent practice with computer producing sound of the bell Whole band silent practice with computer producing sound of all the bells Practice on more bells than you have with the computer adding in the extra bells Practice methods that are more advanced that your band is capable with the computer filling in all the bellsThe main examples of simulator software are: Abel Beltower Virtual Belfry Keeping records is important to some change ringers. Records are kept in the following areas: Grabs Peals Quarter pealsThe main examples of record keeping software are: WinRK An up-to-date directory of towers is used to plan outings and, used in conjunction with the record keeping software to decide what towers still need to be grabbed.
The main examples of tower directory software are: TowerBase The earliest known change ringing programs can be traced back to the 1950s. Some of this history is traced in this article on software firsts. Braid theory Campanology Bell Conductor software to help to achieve harmony and melody through visualization of a ringing sequence from text and midi files "Abel" simulator software Excalibur composition proving software Beltower bell ringing simulator, composer, method/touch editors and printing software Virtual Belfry simulator software, high-resolution photographic animation of change ringing bells Visual Method Archive – simple, FREE, web-based tool to view blue lines for methods and experiment with generating your own Elf – online lead and half-lead spliced composing engine Stedman Pricker – assists the Stedman composer in pricking and proving compositions on all numbers Smart Phone Apps for Ringers – directory of free and paid for smart phone apps for bell ringing
Eurema brigitta, the small grass yellow or broad-bordered grass yellow, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites. It is found in India, other parts of Asia and Africa. Wet-season form: Male. Upper-side somewhat paler yellow. Fore-wing with the outer marginal black band. Hind-wing with the black outer band somewhat narrower, the decreasing portions each with a more prolonged inner-tooth, the yellow ground-colour between each extending to the outer edge. Underside pale yellow, the fore-wing having a slightly defined sub-apical inwardly-oblique squamous streak. Fore-wing with the entire costal edge and outer marginal cilia, the outer marginal cilia of the hind-wing, rosy-red. Female. Upper-side. Apical edge between the subcostals of fore-wing, cilia of both wings paler rosy-red. Underside with the markings on hind-wing visible. Fore-wing above with the black outer band broken beneath the lower median veinlet. Hind-wing with the outer band similar to male, its portions broader.
Underside similar to male, the markings being more defined. Intermediate form: Male. Upper-side. Fore-wing with the outer band narrower than in wet form. Hind-wing with the marginal macular band narrower, composed of smaller portions. Underside similar to wet form. Female. Upperside. Fore-wing with the outer band less broken at its posterior end than in wet form. Hind-wing with the marginal macular band less distinct and narrower. Underside similar to the male. Dry-season form: Both sexes much smaller than in intermediate form. Cilia paler. Male. Fore-wing above with the inner-edge of the marginal band less sinuated than in intermediate form, its posterior end indistinctly broken. Hind-wing with the lower portions of the macular band somewhat larger and less dentate. Underside. Both wings with less defined markings than in intermediate form. Female. Upper-side. Fore-wing with the band broken at posterior end. Hind-wing with the lower portions of band somewhat wider. Underside with the markings indistinct; the wingspan is 30–35 mm.
Adults are on the wing year-round. The larvae feed on Hypericum aethiopicum and Chamaecrista mimosoides. E. b. brigitta – tropical Africa E. b. pulchella – Madagascar, Comoro Islands, Aldabra Islands E. b. drona – Sumatra, Java to Lombok E. b. senna – Peninsular Malaya, Indochina E. b. fruhstorferi – eastern Indo-China E. b. ina Eliot, 1956 – southern Sulawesi E. b. hainana – Hainan E. b. rubella – Sri Lanka, Burma to southern China, Nicobars E. b. formosana Matsumura, 1919 – Taiwan E. b. yunnana E. b. australis – Australia, New Guinea, Papua New Guinea List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Gaonkar, Harish. Butterflies of the Western Ghats, India - A Biodiversity Assessment of a Threatened Mountain System. Bangalore, India: Centre for Ecological Sciences. Gay, Thomas. Common Butterflies of India. Nature Guides. Bombay, India: World Wide Fund for Nature-India by Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0195631647. Kunte, Krushnamegh. Butterflies of Peninsular India. India, A Lifescape. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press. ISBN 978-8173713545. Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander. Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329
Anna Biolik is a Canadian diplomat. She is the Regional Director of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade's Vancouver Regional Office. Prior to this, she was Canada's first Ambassador to Mongolia, she was Canada's Consul General to Saint Petersbourg, Russian Federation from 2001 to 2004, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2006, with concurrent accreditation to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and the Republic of Tajikistan. Biolik's parents immigrated to Canada from Poland after World War 2. Biolik taught at the University of Ottawa before joining the Canadian federal government. Since 1984, she has worked for the House of Commons, the Secretary of State, the Department of Communications, the Governor General, Canada Post and Investment Partnerships Canada. In 1997, she joined the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, serving in Ottawa as Director of the International Business Opportunities Centre and the Market Support Division.
Dr. Biolik is married to Terry Hargreaves. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada Complete List of Posts
Intrepid Aviation is a commercial aircraft leasing company focused on young, fuel-efficient wide-body aircraft and larger narrowbody aircraft. It has offices based in Dublin and Stamford, United States, its current portfolio consists of aircraft such as the Airbus A330, Airbus A321, Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 787 Dreamliner. Intrepid has purchase commitments from Boeing for six 777-300ER aircraft, it is owned by Reservoir Capital Group. Intrepid Aviation was founded by Ron Anderson, a 20-year employee of FedEx Corp. in 1994 and was based in Memphis, Tennessee. The company started by buying used passenger aircraft and having them converted into cargo aircraft for leasing. In 2007, Intrepid placed an order for 20 Airbus A330-200 freighter aircraft. During the financial crisis of 2007–08, Intrepid had to negotiate delaying deliveries by three years; the company subsequently reconstituted its management team and relocated its corporate headquarters to Stamford, CT. In 2014, the company filed for an IPO with a fundraising target of $150 million.
The company has equity commitments of up to $650 million from existing shareholders. And raised $215 and $120 million in bonds on 2014 and 2015, respectively. In August 2015, Olaf Sachau was appointed as Doug Winter as its President; the Intrepid Aviation fleet includes passenger aircraft such as the Airbus A330-300, Airbus A330-200, Airbus A321-200, Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner. As of December 31, 2015, Intrepid had 29 aircraft in its fleet; the company has 13 airline customers in 11 different countries, including Alitalia, Air Namibia, Asiana Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, China Airlines, Air France, Thai Airways, Sichuan Airlines, Philippine Airlines, EVA Air, Cebu Pacific, Ethiopian Airlines. Turkish Airlines will become a new customer in 2016. Official website Bloomberg profile
The Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Tripoli is a non-Metropolitan Archeparchy of the Maronite Church in the north-west of Lebanon. It is subject to the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch and the Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches, it is ruled by Archeparch Georges Bou-Jaoudé, Congregation of the Mission. Its archeparchial seat is the Saint Michael Cathedral in the city of Tripoli in Lebanon; as per 2014 the archeparchy pastorally served 147,800 baptized Eastern Catholics in 126 parishes and 3 missions with 190 priests, 206 lay religious and 6 seminarians. The eparchy dates back to the seventeenth century, but was canonically erected in the Maronite Synod of Mount Lebanon in 1736 as Arch? Eparchy of Tripoli / Tripoli del Libano / Tarabulus / Tripolitan Maronitarum, it included all the coastal territory from Tripoli to Latakia. In 1840 it acquired a dozen of villages from Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Jbeil, by order of the Propaganda Fide. Joseph Assemani, Archbishop of Tripoli, attended the First Vatican Council in 1869–1870, called upon by Pope Pius IX.
Assemani, of the famous family of Maronite clerics, was born in Hasseroun on 31 March 1821. Well versed in Italian and Latin, he was sent to Rome to the Pontifical Urban University to study theology and French, he was ordained a priest in Rome by Cardinal Fransoni, Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. He returned to Lebanon, he was a professor of Italian and philosophy before being named Vicar General of the Maronite Patriarchy in Tripoli. He was named Maronite Chorbishop of Tripoli in 1856. With the assistance of the French Consul, Mr. Planche, he was able to obtain from Fuad Pasha a plot of land to establish a Maronite cemetery and hospital, he established in Tripoli the Brotherhood of the Immaculate Conception, repaired the Church of the Virgin Mary, obtained an Ottoman firman to build a church in Tripoli, the first of its kind since the Crusades. According to his biography, he suffered numerous vexations while representing the Maronites in Tripoli. In 1860, his home was pillaged during the night.
He was arrested twice and attacked, before being exiled by the Ottoman governor in 1867. In 1869 he joined the Maronite delegation attending the First Vatican Council in Rome, serving as the Maronite delegation's official interpreter due to his knowledge of Latin and Italian. On April 16, 1954 the Arch? Eparchy gave a part of its territory to Syria in favor of the erection of the Apostolic Administration of Latakia.? On September 5, 1965 the Eparchy of Tripoli was elevated to the rank of Archeparchy by Pope Paul VI. Arch?eparchs of Tyre? Isaac? Michael Hasrouni? Gabriel? Joseph Hesronita Jacob Awad, next Maronite Patriarch of Antioch Elias al-Gemayel Basil German Tobias El Khazen Raphael Haklani Ignatius Gazeno Joseph Peter Hobaish Paul Moise Musa Joseph El Khazen Joseph Assemani Estephan Auad, Anthony Peter Arida Antoine Abed Antoine Joubeir Gabriel Toubia Youhanna Fouad El-Hage Georges Bou-Jaoudé, CM, List of Catholic dioceses in Lebanon Christianity in the Middle East GCatholic – date for all sections Joseph Assemani Biography Joseph Assemani biography as Vatican Interpreter http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dtrim.htmlBibliographyAnnuario Pontificio, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano.
2003, ISBN 88-209-7422-3