In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1; the pitcher is considered the most important player on the defensive side of the game, as such is situated at the right end of the defensive spectrum. There are many different types of pitchers, such as the starting pitcher, relief pitcher, middle reliever, lefty specialist, setup man, the closer. Traditionally, the pitcher bats. Starting in 1973 with the American League and spreading to further leagues throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the hitting duties of the pitcher have been given over to the position of designated hitter, a cause of some controversy; the National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the remaining leagues that have not adopted the designated hitter position.
In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the strike zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it, or hits the ball poorly. If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part of the ball passes through the strike zone and a ball when no part of the ball passes through the strike zone. A check swing is when the batter begins to swing, but stops the swing short. If the batter checks the swing and the pitch is out of the strike zone, it is called a ball. There are the windup and the set position or stretch. Either position may be used at any time; each position has certain procedures. A balk can be called on a pitcher from either position. A power pitcher is one. Power pitchers record a high percentage of strikeouts. A control pitcher thus records few walks. Nearly all action during a game is centered on the pitcher for the defensive team.
A pitcher's particular style, time taken between pitches, skill influence the dynamics of the game and can determine the victor. Starting with the pivot foot on the pitcher's rubber at the center of the pitcher's mound, 60 feet 6 inches from home plate, the pitcher throws the baseball to the catcher, positioned behind home plate and catches the ball. Meanwhile, a batter stands in the batter's box at one side of the plate, attempts to bat the ball safely into fair play; the type and sequence of pitches chosen depend upon the particular situation in a game. Because pitchers and catchers must coordinate each pitch, a system of hand signals is used by the catcher to communicate choices to the pitcher, who either vetoes or accepts by shaking his head or nodding; the relationship between pitcher and catcher is so important that some teams select the starting catcher for a particular game based on the starting pitcher. Together, the pitcher and catcher are known as the battery. Although the object and mechanics of pitching remain the same, pitchers may be classified according to their roles and effectiveness.
The starting pitcher begins the game, he may be followed by various relief pitchers, such as the long reliever, the left-handed specialist, the middle reliever, the setup man, and/or the closer. In Major League Baseball, every team uses Baseball Rubbing Mud to rub game balls in before their pitchers use them in games. A skilled pitcher throws a variety of different pitches to prevent the batter from hitting the ball well; the most basic pitch is a fastball. Some pitchers are able to throw a fastball at a speed over 100 miles per ex. Aroldis Chapman. Other common types of pitches are the curveball, changeup, sinker, forkball, split-fingered fastball and knuckleball; these are intended to have unusual movement or to deceive the batter as to the rotation or velocity of the ball, making it more difficult to hit. Few pitchers throw all of these pitches, but most use a subset or blend of the basic types; some pitchers release pitches from different arm angles, making it harder for the batter to pick up the flight of the ball.
A pitcher, throwing well on a particular day is said to have brought his "good stuff." There are a number of distinct throwing styles used by pitchers. The most common style is a three-quarters delivery in which the pitcher's arm snaps downward with the release of the ball; some pitchers use a sidearm delivery. Some pitchers use a submarine style in which the pitcher's body tilts downward on delivery, creating an exaggerated sidearm motion in which the pitcher's knuckles come close to the mound. Effective pitching is vitally important in baseball. In baseball statistics, for each game, one pitcher will be credited with winning the game, one pitcher will be charged with losing it; this is not the starting pitchers for each team, however, as a reliever can get a win and the starter would get a no-decision. Pitching is physically demanding if the pitcher is throwing with maximum effort. A full game involves 120–170 pitches thrown by each team, most pitchers begin to tire before they re
Roberto Clemente Award
The Roberto Clemente Award is given annually to the Major League Baseball player who "best exemplifies the game of baseball, community involvement and the individual's contribution to his team", as voted on by baseball fans and members of the media. It is named for Hall of Fame outfielder Roberto Clemente. Known as the Commissioner's Award, it has been presented by the MLB since 1971. In 1973, the award was renamed after Clemente following his death in a plane crash while delivering supplies to victims of the Nicaragua earthquake; each year, a panel of baseball dignitaries selects one player from among 30 nominees, one from each club. Teams choose their nominee during the regular season, the winner is announced at the World Series; the player who receives the most votes online via MLB's official website, MLB.com, gets one vote in addition to the votes cast by the panel. Since 2007, the Roberto Clemente Award has been presented by Chevy. Chevy donates money and a Chevy vehicle to the recipient's charity of choice and additional money is donated by Chevy to the Roberto Clemente Sports City, a non-profit organization in Carolina, Puerto Rico, that provides recreational sports activities for children.
Chevy donates additional funds to the charity of choice of each of the 30 club nominees. The first recipient of the award was Willie Mays, the most recent honoree is Yadier Molina. No player has received the award more than once; the first pitcher to receive the award was Phil Niekro in 1980, the first catcher to receive it was Gary Carter in 1989. To date, Clemente's former teammate Willie Stargell and Andrew McCutchen are the only members of the Pittsburgh Pirates to receive the honor. Stargell won his award in 1974, McCutchen in 2015; the Pirates themselves have worn Clemente-era throwback uniforms in recent years on Roberto Clemente Day, on which day they present their award nominee to MLB. In 2014, the award was presented to two players—Paul Konerko and Jimmy Rollins—for the first, to date only, time. KeyRecipients by year In 2014, there were two recipients of one in each league. Players Choice Awards Lou Gehrig Memorial Award Branch Rickey Award Bart Giamatti Award Baseball awards Golden Spirit Award General Specific
Yankee Stadium is a baseball park located in Concourse, New York City. It is the home field for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball, New York City FC of Major League Soccer; the $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies, replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. It is located one block north on the 24-acre former site of Macombs Dam Park; the stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium, like its predecessor, it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, two outdoor NHL games, concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland; the overall price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium built. New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for a new stadium in the early 1980s, just a few years after the remodeled Yankee Stadium opened.
Steinbrenner at the time was considering a move to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in New Jersey. New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean in 1984 authorized the use of land for a new baseball stadium in the Meadowlands, but the state legislature did not provide financing for the stadium. In a statewide referendum in 1987, New Jersey taxpayers rejected $185 million in public financing for a baseball stadium for the Yankees. Despite the rejection from New Jersey, Steinbrenner used a threatened move there as leverage in negotiations with New York City. In 1988, Mayor Ed Koch agreed to have city taxpayers spend $90 million on a second renovation of Yankee Stadium that included luxury boxes and restaurants inside the stadium and parking garages and traffic improvements outside. Steinbrenner agreed in principle, but backed out of the deal. In 1993, Mayor David Dinkins expanded on Koch's proposal by offering his Bronx Center vision for the neighborhood, including new housing, a new courthouse, relocating the Police Academy nearby.
In 1993, New York Governor Mario Cuomo proposed using the West Side Yard, a 30-acre rail yard along the West Side of Manhattan and owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, as the location for a new stadium for the Yankees. However, Cuomo lost his re-election bid a few months later. By 1995, Steinbrenner had rejected 13 proposals to keep the Yankees in the Bronx. In 1998, Bronx Borough President Fernando Ferrer proposed spending $600 million in public money to add dozens of luxury boxes to the stadium, to improve highway and public transportation access, to create a Yankee Village, with shops, a museum. Steinbrenner rejected this as well; that same year, Mayor Rudy Giuliani unveiled a plan to relocate the Yankees to the West Side Yard for a $1 billion stadium. However, with most of the funding coming from taxpayers, Giuliani tabled the proposal, fearing rejection in a citywide referendum; the West Side Stadium plan resurfaced in December 2001, by January 2002, months after the September 11 attacks, Giuliani announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums.
He estimated that both stadiums would cost $2 billion, with city and state taxpayers contributing $1.2 billion. Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement. At the time, Bloomberg said. Bloomberg's blueprint for the stadium was unveiled in 2004, at the same time as the plan for the Mets' new stadium, Citi Field; the final cost for the two stadiums was more than $3.1 billion. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.
The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street. The community was left without parkland for five years. During construction of the new stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey; the Yankees organization donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and associated with Ted Williams. The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it; these attempts didn't have much effect upon the home team, though: the Yankees went on to win the 2009 World Series at the end of their first MLB season in the new stadium.
The new stadium is meant to evoke elements of the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovati
The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball team based in Miami, Florida. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division, their home park is Marlins Park. Though one of only two MLB franchises to have never won a division title, the Marlins have won two World Series championships as a wild card team; the team began play as an expansion team in the 1993 season as the Florida Marlins and played home games from their inaugural season to the 2012 season at what was called Joe Robbie Stadium, which they shared with the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League. Since the 2012 season, they have played at Marlins Park in downtown Miami, on the site of the former Orange Bowl; the new park, unlike their previous home, was designed foremost as a baseball park. Per an agreement with the city and Miami-Dade County, the Marlins changed their name to the "Miami Marlins" on November 11, 2011, they adopted a new logo, color scheme, uniforms. The Marlins have the distinction of winning a World Series championship in both seasons they qualified for the postseason, doing so in 1997 and 2003—both times as the National League wild card team.
They defeated the American League champion Cleveland Indians in the 1997 World Series, with shortstop Édgar Rentería driving in second baseman Craig Counsell for the series-clinching run in the 11th inning of the seventh and deciding game. In the 2003 season, manager Jeff Torborg was fired after 38 games; the Marlins were in last place in the NL East with a 16–22 record at the time. Torborg's successor, 72-year-old Jack McKeon, led them to the NL wild card berth in the postseason. Wayne Huizenga, CEO of Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation, was awarded an expansion franchise in the National League for a $95 million expansion fee and the team began operations in 1993 as the Florida Marlins; the Marlins qualified for the postseason and won the World Series in 1997 and 2003, but both titles were followed by controversial periods where the team sold off all the high-priced players and rebuilt. Although they followed their 2003 World Series win with a stretch in which the team posted winning records in four of the next six seasons, along with a surprise 2006 season in which they exceeded expectations and stayed in the postseason race until September, the team has had the least number of winning seasons of any Major League Baseball franchise, with just six.
They are one of only two current MLB teams. The Marlins moved into their new ballpark, Marlins Park in 2012, which coincided with a change in the team colors/uniforms and name to the Miami Marlins; the Marlins are the only team to win a World Series in their first two winning seasons. In those two seasons, they managed to make a surprise run to the World Series, both times as heavy underdogs, they are the only team to never lose a postseason series. No-Hitters: Marlins pitchers have pitched six no-hitters in team regular-season history, five coming against teams in the NL West and one against a team from the American League. Hitting for the cycle: No Marlins player has hit for the cycle in franchise history. See also: List of Major League Baseball retired numbers § Alternative methods of recognition. From 1993 until 2011, the Marlins had retired the number 5 in honor of Carl Barger, the first president of the Florida Marlins, who had passed away prior to the team's inaugural season. Barger's favorite player was Joe DiMaggio, thus the selection of number 5.
With the move to the new ballpark, the team opted to honor Barger with a plaque. Logan Morrison, a Kansas City native and fan of Royals Hall-of-Famer George Brett, became the first Marlins player to wear the number. After José Fernández's death as a result of a boating accident on September 25, 2016, the Miami Marlins announced plans to build a memorial at Marlins Park in his honor. However, Fernández's number 16 has yet to be retired; the Marlins began construction of a new, state-of-the-art stadium at the Miami Orange Bowl site on July 18, 2009. The now approved stadium was the subject of a protracted legal battle. A lawsuit by local automobile franchise mogul and former Philadelphia Eagles owner Norman Braman contested the legality of the deal with Miami-Dade County and the City of Miami. However, Miami-Dade County Judge Beth Cohen dismissed all the charges in Braman's lawsuit; the seating capacity for Marlins Park is 36,742, making it the third-smallest stadium in the MLB. Its first regular season game was April 4, 2012, against the St. Louis Cardinals, the ballpark became only the sixth MLB stadium to have a retractable roof, joining Rogers Centre in Toronto, Chase Field in Phoenix, T-Mobile Park in Seattle, Minute Maid Park in Houston, Miller Park in Milwaukee.
As part of the new stadium agreement, the team renamed itself the Miami Marlins on November 11, 2011 and unveiled new uniforms and team logo in time for the move to the new stadium in 2012. Until a naming-rights deal is reached, the park will be known as Marlins Park; the Marlins' flagship radio station from their inception in 1993 through 2007 was WQAM 560 AM. Although the Marlins had plans to leave WQAM after 2006, they remained with WQAM for the 2007 season. On October 11, 2007, the Marlins announced an agreement with WAXY 790 AM to broadcast all games for th
Dallas Green (baseball)
George Dallas Green was an American pitcher and executive in Major League Baseball. After playing for the Philadelphia Phillies, Washington Senators, New York Mets from 1960 through 1967, he went on to manage the Phillies, New York Yankees, Mets. Green managed the Phillies when they won their first World Series title in 1980 over the Kansas City Royals, as general manager of the Chicago Cubs from 1981 to 1987 he built the club which won a division title in 1984, the Cubs' first postseason appearance in 39 years. Green had a losing record both as a manager. Nonetheless, in 1983 he was inducted into the Delaware Sports Hall of Fame, he achieved notoriety for his blunt manner. Green was born in Delaware, he was the middle of three children. Green graduated from Conrad High School, attended the University of Delaware, he played as a right fielder for the Delaware Fightin' Blue Hens baseball team. After Green pitched to a 6–0 win-loss record and an 0.88 earned run average in 1955, his junior year, Jocko Collins, a scout for the Philadelphia Phillies, signed Green as an amateur free agent.
Green made his major league debut with the Phillies in 1960. Pitching for the Phillies, Washington Senators, New York Mets, Green had a career 20–22 record and 4.26 ERA in 185 total games, with 46 games started. After his playing career ended, Green managed at the Huron Phillies of the Class A-Short Season Northern League in 1968 and the Pulaski Phillies of the Rookie-level Appalachian League in 1969. Pulaski won the Appalachian League championship. In 1970, he joined the Phillies' front office as the assistant to Paul Owens, the director of the Phillies' farm system, he became the director of the team's minor leagues operations in 1972. In 1979, the Phillies appointed Green as their manager; when he was hired as the Phillies' manager, he said: "I express my thoughts. I'm a screamer, a yeller, a cusser. I never hold back." He was notorious for his use of profanity. His difficult manner led to clashes with many of the team's star players, such as slugger Greg Luzinski, shortstop Larry Bowa and catcher Bob Boone.
He came to blows with relief pitcher Ron Reed. Green led the Phillies to victory in the 1980 World Series. Through 1981, he managed the Phillies to a 169–130 record. In 1981, the Phillies again made the postseason by winning the East division in the first half of the strike-split season, they lost to the Montreal Expos in the National League Division Series, 3 games to 2. Following the Tribune Company's purchase of the Chicago Cubs from the Wrigley family in 1981, the company hired Green away from the Phillies after the 1981 season as executive vice president and general manager, his presence was felt in the organization, as his slogan "Building a New Tradition" was a jab at the Cubs' history of losing. He hired a number of coaches and scouts away from the Phillies, such as Lee Elia, John Vukovich, Gordon Goldsberry. Green made some trades with the Phillies, acquiring players such as Bowa, Keith Moreland, Dickie Noles, Ryne Sandberg. Green continued to build the Cubs between the 1987 seasons. After acquiring left fielder Gary Matthews and center fielder Bob Dernier from Philadelphia before the 1984 season, Green's Cubs became serious contenders for the first time in more than a decade.
During the 1984 season, Green made a few more moves, most notably acquiring right-handed pitcher Dennis Eckersley from the Boston Red Sox for popular first baseman Bill Buckner in late May, sending Cubs' prospects Mel Hall and Joe Carter to the Cleveland Indians for relief pitcher George Frazier, backup catcher Ron Hassey and right-handed pitcher Rick Sutcliffe in mid-June. Sutcliffe went 16–1 with the Cubs that season to lead the Cubs to the National League East title—their first postseason appearance of any kind since the 1945 World Series; because Green neglected to renew waivers on Hall and Carter, the status of the trade was in doubt for a while, the two did not play for a week. Green's first-year manager Jim Frey won NL Manager of the Year, Sutcliffe won the NL Cy Young Award, Sandberg won the NL Most Valuable Player Award. Green was named The Sporting News Executive of the Year. Green won a power struggle within the Cubs front office; the Cubs struggled in 1985 and 1986, they finished last in 1987.
In 1987, manager Gene Michael resigned over Labor Day weekend, after Green blasted his team for quitting. Green resigned as general manager and president of the Cubs in October 1987 citing "philosophical differences" with Tribune Company executives. Green was the first Cubs executive to clash with the city of Chicago over the installation of lights in Wrigley Field. Green was a strong proponent of lights from the start of his tenure, but a city ordinance prohibited the Cubs from installing lights in the residential Lakeview neighborhood, where Wrigley Field was located; as Green saw it, the issue was not lights or no lights, but stay at Wrigley Field or move to the suburbs. Bluntly stating that "if there are no lights in Wrigley Field, there will be no Wrigley Field," he threatened to move the Cubs to a new stadium in northwest suburban Schaumburg or Arlington Heights, he considered shutting down Wrigley Field for a year and playing at Comiskey Park as tenants of the Chicago White Sox, in hopes that the loss of revenue would temper or eliminate neighborhood opposition.
Green's stance changed the context of the debate, as the staunchest opponents of installing lights did not want to be held responsible for the Cubs leaving town. Shortly before Green's departure, the Chicago City Cou
Berkeley Township, New Jersey
Berkeley Township is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township population had increased to 41,255, reflecting an increase of 1,264 from the 39,991 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,672 from the 37,319 counted in the 1990 Census; the highest recorded in any decennial census. Berkeley Township was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 31, 1875, from portions of Dover Township. Sections of the township were taken to form Seaside Park, Seaside Heights, Ocean Gate Pine Beach, South Toms River and Island Beach; the township was named for John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, one of the founders of the Province of New Jersey. Army officer Lt. Edward Farrow began buying up woodland in the 1880s with the idea of building a retirement community for former Army and Navy officers. Farrow built a railroad station, shops and a resort hotel called The Pines with the idea of attracting people.
But only 11 people built houses in what Farrow called "Barnegat Park," and he went bankrupt. In the 1920s, Benjamin W. Sangor purchased the area, intending to create a resort town catering to wealthy urban vacationers. Between 1928 and 1929, about 8,000 lots were sold in Pinewald, a "new-type, recreational city-of-the sea-and-pines." It was to contain a golf course, recreation facilities, estate homes. The developers began construction of the Pinewald pavilion and pier at the end of Butler Avenue; the Royal Pines Hotel, a $1.175 million investment facing Crystal Lake, was built on the site of an earlier hotel dating back to the days of Barnegat Park. It was the focal point of the new community; the hotel was used as an asylum later a nursing home now known as the Crystal Lake Nursing & Rehabilitation Center. The hotel was constructed by Russian architect W. Oltar-Jevsky in the early 1920s. Al Capone may have frequented its halls even venturing beneath the lake in tunnels designed for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition.
One newspaper article interviewed an unidentified man who claimed that "in the early 1930s the Royal Pines Hotel was frequented by society's elite who, for $1.90 a drink, consumed prohibition liquor under the watchful eye of men who had guns strapped under their coats." In 1929, during the Great Depression, the resort community went bankrupt. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 55.999 square miles, including 42.864 square miles of land and 13.135 square miles of water. The township is located in the central part of Ocean County along the Atlantic Ocean and Barnegat Bay, part of the Intracoastal Waterway. 72% of the township's land area is within the federally designated New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve and 38% is within the State's Pineland Area, within the Pinelands National Reserve. Toms River Township forms the northern border of the township, Cedar Creek and Lacey Township form the southern border; the barrier island, on which South Seaside Park and Island Beach State Park are situated, is the township's eastern boundary.
Holiday City-Berkeley, Holiday City South, Holiday Heights and Silver Ridge are unincorporated communities and census-designated places located within Berkeley Township. Other unincorporated communities and place names located wholly or within the township include Barnegat Park, Barnegat Pier, Benders Corners, Berkeley Heights, Double Trouble, Dover Forge, Glen Cove, Glenside Park, Good Luck Point, Holly Park, Manitou Park, Pelican Island, River Bank, Silver Ridge Park, Silver Ridge Park West, South Seaside Park, Stony Hill, Union Village and Zebs Bridge; the township borders the Ocean County communities of Barnegat Light, Island Heights, Lacey Township, Manchester Township, Ocean Township, Pine Beach, Seaside Heights, Seaside Park, South Toms River and Toms River Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,255 people, 20,349 households, 11,537.883 families residing in the township. The population density was 962.5 per square mile. There were 23,818 housing units at an average density of 555.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the township was 94.85% White, 1.75% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.13% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.92% of the population. There were 20,349 households out of which 12.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.3% were non-families. 39.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 30.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.63. In the township, the population was spread out with 11.9% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 43.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 61.1 years. For every 100 females there were 81.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 78.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $4
Liniment, or embrocation, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Sometimes called balms or heat rubs, liniments are of a similar or greater viscosity than lotions and are rubbed in to create friction, unlike lotions, ointments or creams, but patches and sprays are available. Liniments are sold to relieve pain and stiffness, such as from sore muscular aches and strains, or arthritis; these are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicilate, benzoin resin, menthol, or capsaicin. They produce a feeling of warmth within the muscle of the area they are applied to acting as rubefacients via a counterirritant effect; the methyl salicylate, the active analgesic ingredient in some heat-rub products can be toxic if they are used in excess. Heating pads are not recommended for use with heat rubs, as the added warmth may cause overabsorption of the active ingredients. A. B. C. Liniment is a old rubbing mixture or liniment.
It was used for a long period of time as a way of relieving pain caused by lumbago, neuralgia, stiffness after exercise and other conditions. It was made from aconite and chloroform, leading to its name. However, there have been numerous examples of poisoning from the mixture, resulting in at least one death. Bengay, spelled Ben-Gay before 1995, is a liniment used to temporarily relieve muscle and joint pain associated with arthritis, simple backaches and strains, it was developed in France by Dr. Jules Bengué, brought to America in 1898; the name Bengué was anglicized to Bengay. It was produced by Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, acquired by Johnson & Johnson. Flex-power is a liniment. IcyHot is a line of liniments produced and marketed by Chattem, now a subsidiary of Sanofi Mentholatum Ointment was introduced in December 1894 by a US company founded by Albert Alexander Hyde. In 1975 a Japanese pharmaceutical company, Rohto Pharmaceutical Co. bought the rights to market the product and in 1988 it bought the entire Mentholatum company.
The ointment has a brand, "Deep Heat". Minard's Liniment: Dr. Levi Minard from Hants County, Nova Scotia, branded as "The King of Pain", created this preparation which he developed in the 1860s from camphor, ammonia water, medical turpentine, its use was popular in Eastern Canada. Opodeldoc is a formulation invented by the Renaissance physician Paracelsus RUB A535 is a liniment introduced in 1919 and manufactured by Church & Dwight in Canada, it is not well known outside of Canada, is not sold in the United States. Tiger Balm was developed during the 1870s in Rangoon, Burma, by herbalist Aw Chu Kin, son of a Hakka herbalist in China, Aw Leng Fan and brought to market by his sons. Made of Menthol, Oil of Wintergreen. Liniments are used on horses following exercise, applied either by rubbing on full-strength on the legs, they are used in hot weather to help cool down a horse after working, the alcohol cooling through rapid evaporation, counterirritant oils dilating capillaries in the skin, increasing the amount of blood releasing heat from the body.
Many horse liniment formulas in diluted form have been used on humans, though products for horses which contain DMSO are not suitable for human use, as DMSO carries the topical product into the bloodstream. Horse liniment ingredients such as menthol, chloroxylenol, or iodine are used in different formulas in products used by humans. Absorbine, a horse liniment product manufactured by W. F. Young, Inc. was marketed as Absorbine Jr.. The company acquired other liniment brands including Bigeloil and RefreshMint; the equine version of Absorbine is sometimes used by humans, though its benefits in humans may be because the smell of menthol releases serotonin, or due to a placebo effect. Earl Sloan was a US entrepreneur who made his initial fortune selling his father's horse liniment formula beginning in the period following the Civil War. Sloan's liniment, with capsicum as a key ingredient, was marketed for human use, he sold his company to the predecessor of Warner–Lambert, purchased in 2000 by Pfizer