Captain America is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by cartoonists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 from Timely Comics, a predecessor of Marvel Comics. Captain America was designed as a patriotic supersoldier who fought the Axis powers of World War II and was Timely Comics' most popular character during the wartime period; the popularity of superheroes waned following the war and the Captain America comic book was discontinued in 1950, with a short-lived revival in 1953. Since Marvel Comics revived the character in 1964, Captain America has remained in publication; the character wears a costume bearing an American flag motif, he utilizes a nearly indestructible shield which he throws as a projectile. Captain America is the alter ego of Steve Rogers, a frail young man enhanced to the peak of human perfection by an experimental serum to aid the United States government's efforts in World War II.
Near the end of the war, he was trapped in ice and survived in suspended animation until he was revived in the present day. Although Captain America struggles to maintain his ideals as a man out of his time with its modern realities, he remains a respected figure in his community which includes becoming the long-time leader of the Avengers. Captain America was the first Marvel Comics character to appear in media outside comics with the release of the 1944 movie serial, Captain America. Since the character has been featured in other films and television series. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the character is portrayed by Chris Evans in Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame. Captain America is ranked sixth on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time" in 2011, second in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012, second in their "Top 25 best Marvel superheroes" list in 2014.
In 1940, writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America and made a sketch of the character in costume. "I wrote the name'Super American' at the bottom of the page," Simon said in his autobiography, decided: No, it didn't work. There were too many "Supers" around. "Captain America" had a good sound to it. There weren't a lot of captains in comics, it was as easy as that. The boy companion was named Bucky, after my friend Bucky Pierson, a star on our high school basketball team. Simon recalled in his autobiography that Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman gave him the go-ahead and directed that a Captain America solo comic book series be published as soon as possible. Needing to fill a full comic with one character's stories, Simon did not believe that his regular creative partner, artist Jack Kirby, could handle the workload alone: I didn't have a lot of objections to putting a crew on the first issue... There were two young artists from Connecticut. Al Avison and Al Gabriele worked together and were quite successful in adapting their individual styles to each other.
Their work was not too far from Kirby's. If they worked on it, if one inker tied the three styles together, I believed the final product would emerge as quite uniform; the two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book. "You're still number one, Jack," I assured him. "It's just a matter of a quick deadline for the first issue." "I'll make the deadline," Jack promised. "I'll pencil it myself and make the deadline." I hadn't expected this kind of reaction... but I acceded to Kirby's wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby... I wrote the first Captain America book with penciled lettering right on the drawing boards, with rough sketches for figures and backgrounds. Kirby did his thing, building the muscular anatomy, adding ideas and popping up the action as only he could, he tightened up the penciled drawings, adding detailed backgrounds and figures." Al Lieberman would ink that first issue, lettered by Simon and Kirby's regular letterer, Howard Ferguson.
Simon said. We wanted to have our say too." Captain America Comics #1 — cover-dated March 1941 and on sale December 20, 1940, a year before the attack on Pearl Harbor, but a full year into World War II — showed the protagonist punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. While most readers responded favorably to the comic, some took objection. Simon noted, "When the first issue came out we got a lot of... hate mail. Some people opposed what Cap stood for." The threats, which included menacing groups of people loitering out on the street outside of the offices, proved so serious that police protection was posted with New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia contacting Simon and Kirby to give his support. Though preceded as a "patriotically themed superhero" by MLJ's The Shield, Captain America became the most prominent and enduring of that wave of superheroes introduced in American comic books prior to and during World War II, as evidenced by the unusual move at the time of premiering the character in his own title instead of an anthology title first.
This popularity drew the attention and a complaint from MLJ that the character's triangular
The Spectacular Spider-Man
The Spectacular Spider-Man is a comic book and magazine series starring Spider-Man and published by Marvel Comics. Following the success of Spider-Man's original series, The Amazing Spider-Man, Marvel felt the character could support more than one title; this led the company in 1968 to launch a short-lived magazine, the first to bear the Spectacular name. In 1972, Marvel more launched a second Spider-Man ongoing series, Marvel Team-Up, in which he was paired with other Marvel heroes. A third monthly ongoing series, Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man, debuted in 1976; the Spectacular Spider-Man was a two-issue magazine published by Marvel in 1968, as an experiment in entering the black-and-white comic-magazine market pioneered by Warren Publishing and others. It sold for 35 cents when standard comic books cost Annuals and Giants 25 cents, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication aside from the original series' summer Annuals, begun in 1964. The first issue featured a painted, color cover by men's adventure-magazine artist Harry Rosenbaum, in acrylic paint on illustration board, over layouts by The Amazing Spider-Man artist John Romita Sr.
The 52-page black-and-white Spider-Man story, "Lo, This Monster!", was by writer Stan Lee, penciler Romita Sr. and inker Jim Mooney. A 10-page origin story, "In The Beginning!", was by Lee, penciler Larry Lieber and inker Bill Everett. The feature story was reprinted in color, with some small alterations and bridging material by Gerry Conway, in The Amazing Spider-Man #116–118 as "Suddenly...the Smasher!", "The Deadly Designs of the Disruptor!", "Countdown to Chaos!". These versions were themselves reprinted in Marvel Tales #95–97; the second and final issue sported a painted cover and the interior was in color as well. Lee and Mooney again collaborated on its single story, "The Goblin Lives!", featuring the Green Goblin. A next-issue box at the end promoted the planned contents of the unrealized issue #3, "The Mystery of the TV Terror". A version of the Goblin story, trimmed by 18 pages, was reprinted in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #9, portions of the "TV Terror" costume were reused for the costume of the Prowler.
Both issues of the magazine were reprinted in their entirety in the collection Marvel Masterworks: The Amazing Spider-Man #7. The first issue was reprinted again in 2002 as The Spectacular Spider Man Facsimile as it was presented. Titled Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man on its December 1976 debut, shortened to The Spectacular Spider-Man with #134, this was the second Amazing Spider-Man monthly comic-book spin-off series, after Marvel Team-Up, which featured Spider-Man; the monthly title ran 264 issues until November 1998. The series was launched by artist Sal Buscema and Mike Esposito. Conway explained the concept and origin of the series: was in response to the fact that I had a deal to script several ongoing for Marvel at the time. Stan wanted me back on Spider-Man, in particular, but I didn't want to take Amazing Spider-Man from Len Wein, by this time the regular writer, so Stan saw it as an opportunity to launch a second Spider-Man title, something he'd wanted to do for a while....
The full, original title was "Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man." The notion was we'd focus more on the supporting characters and Peter's social life, but before we could develop that I left Marvel again, not long after that. Buscema drew the title until mid-1978. After Buscema's departure, a succession of artists penciled the series for five years. Frank Miller, who would become the artist on Daredevil, first drew the character in Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #27. Scripting alternated between Conway and Archie Goodwin until mid-1977, when Bill Mantlo took over. During this era of Spectacular, the stories focused more on Parker's campus life as an undergraduate student/teacher's assistant at Empire State University and giving more attention to his colleagues than to the more long-running supporting characters in Amazing. Mantlo's first run on the title featured frequent appearances by the White Tiger, Marvel's first superhero of Hispanic descent and the first appearance of the supervillain Carrion.
He used the series to wrap up unresolved plot elements from The Champions comic book series and concluded his first run with a crossover with Fantastic Four #218. Mantlo was succeeded by Roger Stern, who wrote for the title from #43 to #61; when Stern departed to write for The Amazing Spider-Man, Mantlo returned to scripting Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man. Mantlo's second run introduced the superhero duo Cloak and Dagger, created by Mantlo and Hannigan in Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #64, included a story arc which took place from issues #73–79, in which Doctor Octopus and the Owl compete for control of the New York underworld, Octopus destroys New York with a nuclear device and the Black Cat is critically injured. Issue #86 was part of the "Assistant Editors Month" event and featured a story drawn by Fred Hembeck. Al Milgrom took over scripting as well as art on the title with issue #90 and worked on it through #100. Milgrom imbued the book with a more whimsical tone, for example
The Incredible Hulk (comic book)
The Incredible Hulk is an ongoing comic book series featuring the Marvel Comics superhero the Hulk and his alter ego Dr. Bruce Banner. First published in May 1962, the series ran for six issues before it was cancelled in March 1963, the Hulk character began appearing in Tales to Astonish. With issue #102, Tales to Astonish was renamed to The Incredible Hulk in April 1968, becoming its second volume; the series continued to run until issue #474 in March 1999 when it was replaced with the series Hulk which ran until February 2000 and was retitled to The Incredible Hulk's third volume, running until March 2007 when it became The Incredible Hercules with a new title character. The Incredible Hulk returned in September 2009 beginning at issue #600, which became The Incredible Hulks in November 2010 and focused on the Hulk and the modern incarnation of his expanded family; the series returned to The Incredible Hulk in December 2011 and ran until January 2013, when it was replaced with The Indestructible Hulk as part of Marvel's Marvel NOW! relaunch.
The original series was canceled with issue #6. Lee had written each story, with Jack Kirby penciling the first five issues and Steve Ditko penciling and inking the sixth. A year and a half after the series was canceled, the Hulk became one of two features in Tales to Astonish, beginning in issue #60; this new Hulk feature was scripted by writer-editor Lee and illustrated by the team of penciller Steve Ditko and inker George Roussos. Other artists in this run included Jack Kirby from #68–87, doing full pencils or, more layouts for other artists; the Tales to Astonish run introduced the supervillains the Leader, who would become the Hulk's nemesis, the Abomination, another gamma-irradiated being. Comics artist Marie Severin finished out the Hulk's run in Tales to Astonish. Beginning with issue #102 the book was retitled The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, ran until 1999, when Marvel canceled the series and restarted the title with the shorter-titled Hulk #1. The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 was published through the 1970s.
At times, the writers included Archie Goodwin, Chris Claremont, Tony Isabella. Len Wein wrote the series from 1974 through 1978. Nearly all of the 1970s issues were drawn by either Herb Trimpe, the regular artist for seven years, or Sal Buscema, the regular artist for ten years, starting with issue #194. Issues #180–181 introduced the character Wolverine, who would go on to become one of Marvel Comics' most popular; the original art for the comic book page that introduced Wolverine sold for $657,250 in May 2014. Key supporting characters included Jim Wilson and Jarella, both of whom would make few appearances outside of this decade. In 1977, Marvel launched The Rampaging Hulk, a black-and-white comics magazine; this was conceived as a flashback series, set between the end of his original, short-lived solo title and the beginning of his feature in Tales to Astonish. After nine issues, the magazine was retitled The Hulk! and printed in color. A nine-part "continuity insert" that in many ways contradicted the original comics stories was retconned as a movie made by an alien movie producer, Bereet who portrayed her people as warmonger shape-changers.
Following Roger Stern, Bill Mantlo took over the writing with issue #245. Among the adversaries Mantlo created for the series were the Soviet Super-Soldiers. Mantlo's "Crossroads of Eternity" stories, which ran through issues #300–313, explored the idea that Banner had suffered child abuse; the Incredible Hulk writers Peter David and Greg Pak called these stories an influence on their approaches to the series. After five years, Mantlo left the title to write Alpha Flight, while Alpha Flight writer John Byrne took over the series and left it after six issues, claiming, "I took on the Hulk after a discussion with editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, in which I mentioned some of the things I would like to do with that character, given the chance, he told me to do whatever was necessary to get on the book, he liked my ideas so much. I did, once installed he changed his mind—'You can't do this!' Six issues was as much as I could take." Byrne's final issue featured the wedding of Betty Ross. Byrne had done a seventh issue, consisting of one-panel pages.
It was published in Marvel Fanfare #29. Al Milgrom succeeded Byrne before new regular writer Peter David took over with issue #331, the start of an 11-year tenure, he returned to the Stern and Mantlo abuse storyline, expanding the damage caused, depicting Banner as suffering dissociative identity disorder. In issue #377 he merged Banner, the green Hulk, the grey Hulk into a single being with the unified personality and powers of all three. David claimed he had been planning this from the beginning of his tenure on the series, had held off so that he could make the readers have an emotional attachment to the grey Hulk. David worked with numerous artists over his run on the series, including Dale Keown, Todd McFarlane, Sam Kieth, Gary Frank, Liam Sharp, Terry Dodson, Mike Deodato, George Pérez, Adam Kubert. In 1998, David followed editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion to kill Betty Ross. In the introduction to the Hulk trade paperback Beauty and the Behemoth, David said that his wife had left him, providing inspiration for the storyline.
Marvel executives used Ross' death as an opportunity to push the idea of bringing back t
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Howard Victor Chaykin is an American comic book artist and writer. Chaykin’s influences include his one-time employer and mentor, Gil Kane, the mid-20th century illustrators Robert Fawcett and Al Parker. Howard Chaykin was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Rosalind Pave and Norman Drucker, who soon separated. Chaykin was raised by his grandparents in Staten Island, New York City, until his mother married Leon Chaykin in 1953 and the family moved to East Flatbush and to 370 Saratoga Avenue, Brooklyn. At 14, Chaykin moved with his now divorced mother to the Kew Gardens section of Queens, he said in 2000 he was raised on welfare after his parents separated and that his absent biological father was declared dead, although Chaykin, as an adult, located him alive. Chaykin's "nutty and cruel" adoptive father, whom Chaykin until the 1990s believed was his natural father, encouraged Chaykin's interest in drawing and bought him sketchbooks, he was introduced to comics by his cousin. He graduated from Jamaica High School at 16, in 1967, in mid-1968 worked at Zenith Press.
He attended Columbia College in Chicago that fall, but left school and returned to New York the following year. Chaykin said that after high school, "I hitchhiked around the country" before becoming, at 19, a "gofer" for the New York City-based comic book artist Gil Kane, whom he would name as his greatest influence. Chaykin's earliest work with comic books was under the tutelage of Gil Kane, whom he would call his mentor. I'd heard on the grapevine that Gil's assistant had dropped dead of a heart attack at 23. I gave Gil a call, he said,'Yeah, I can use you.' So I went to work for him.... He was doing Blackmark, I did a bad job pasting up the dialog and putting in.... It was a great apprenticeship. I learned a lot from watching Gil work. In 1970, he began publishing his art in comics and science-fiction fanzines, sometimes under the pseudonym Eric Pave. Leaving Kane, he began working as an assistant to comics artist Wally Wood in the studio he shared with Syd Shores and Jack Abel in Valley Stream, Long Island.
He worked there for a "couple of months", in 1971 published his first professional comics work, for the adult-theme Western feature Shattuck in the military newspaper the Overseas Weekly, one of Wood's clients. He "ghosted some stuff" for Gray Morrow: "I penciled a Man-Thing story he did, I penciled a thing for National Lampoon called "Michael Rockefeller and the Jungles of New Guinea." He apprenticed under Neal Adams, working with the artist at Adams' home in The Bronx. This led to his first work at DC Comics, one of the two largest comics companies: Neal showed me to Murray Boltinoff and Julius Schwartz. Murray gave me a one-page filler. I got some work from Dorothy Woolfolk, who edited the love comics, it was all just dreadful stuff, but you stumble along, you learn. A problem for me was that by the time I became a professional, I lost any interest whatsoever in superhero comics. I'm not a horror guy, I didn't know what the hell to do! What I wanted to draw is guys with guns, guys with swords, women with big tits, and, the extent of my interest in comics at the time.
The "one-page filler", titled "Strange Neighbor", was inventoried and published in the Boltinoff-edited Secrets of Sinister House #17. His other earliest known DC work was penciling and inking the three-page story "Not Old Enough!" in Young Romance #185, penciling the eight-page supernatural story "Eye of the Beholder" in Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion #7 and the one-page "Enter the Portals of Weird War" in Weird War Tales #9. At one point Chaykin lived in the same Queens apartment building as artists Allen Milgrom, Walter Simonson and Bernie Wrightson. Simonson recalls, "We'd get together at 3 a.m. They'd come up and we'd have popcorn and sit around and talk about whatever a 26, 27 and 20-year-old guys talk about. Our art, TV, you name it. I pretty much knew at the time,'These are the good ole days.'" Chaykin's first major work was for DC Comics drawing the 23-page "The Price of Pain Ease" — writer Denny O'Neil's adaptation of author Fritz Leiber's characters Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser — in Sword of Sorcery #1.
Although the title was well received, it lasted only five issues before cancellation. Chaykin drew the character Ironwolf in the science fiction anthology title Weird Worlds for DC, did the pencils and ink for a 12-page Batman story written by Archie Goodwin and published in Detective Comics #441 in 1974. Moving to Marvel Comics, he began work as co-artist with Neal Adams on the first Killraven story, seen in Amazing Adventures #18 in 1973. After this, Chaykin was given various adventure strips to draw for Marvel, including his own creation, Dominic Fortune, now in the pages of Marvel Preview. In 1978, he wrote and drew his Cody Starbuck creation for the anthology title Star Reach, one of the first independent titles of the 1970s; these strips saw him explore more adult themes as best he could within the restrictions imposed on him by editors and the Comics Code Authority. The same year, he produced for Schanes a six-plate portfolio showcasing his character. In 1976, Chaykin landed the job of drawing the Marvel Comics adaptation of the first Star Wars film, written by Roy Thomas.
Chaykin left after 10 issues to work in more adult and experimental comics, to do paperback book covers. In late 1978, Walt Simonson, Val Mayerik, Jim Starlin formed Upsta
The Avengers (comic book)
The Avengers is the name of several comic book titles featuring the team the Avengers and published by Marvel Comics, beginning with the original The Avengers comic book series which debuted in 1963. In 1960, DC Comics launched a comic book series featuring a team of superheroes called the Justice League. Impressed by that book's strong sales, Martin Goodman, the owner of Marvel Comics predecessor Timely Comics, asked Stan Lee to create a title featuring a similar team of superheroes for Marvel. Lee recounts in Origins of Marvel Comics: Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most, it was a book called The Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes....'If the Justice League is selling,' spoke he,'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?' Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby.
Kirby did the artwork for the first eight issues only, in addition to doing the layouts for issue #16. This initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Marvel filed for a trademark for "The Avengers" in 1967 and the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the registration in 1970. Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line, in which Marvel contracted outside companies to produce four titles, included a new volume of The Avengers, it took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity. The Avengers vol. 2 was written by Rob Liefeld and penciled by Jim Valentino, ran for 13 issues. The final issue, which featured a crossover with the other Heroes Reborn titles, returned the characters to the main Marvel Universe.
The Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500-503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview; the roster changed immediately after the first issue. Issue # 4 brought the title's first major milestone: the return of Captain America; the creative team of writer Roy Thomas and artist John Buscema introduced new characters such as Arkon in issue #75 and Red Wolf in #80. The team's adventures increased in scope as the team crossed into an alternate dimension and battled the Squadron Supreme, fought in the Kree-Skrull War, which guest-starred the Kree hero, Captain Marvel.
Novelist Harlan Ellison plotted two stories for the series. The first was published in issue #88 and the second in #101. Writer Steve Englehart introduced Mantis. During the summer of 1973, Englehart and artists Bob Brown and Sal Buscema produced "The Avengers-Defenders Clash" storyline which crossed over between the two team titles. George Pérez became the title's artist with issue #141 which saw the start of a seven-part story featuring the Squadron Supreme and the Serpent Crown. In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Englehart's run on The Avengers eighth on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels". After Englehart departed and a seven-issue stint by Gerry Conway, Jim Shooter began as writer, generating several classic adventures, including "The Bride of Ultron", the "Nefaria Trilogy", "The Korvac Saga". Shooter introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council; the true origins of Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch were revealed in a three-part story that ran in issues #185-187.
The first major development was the breakdown of Henry Pym, which writer Roger Stern resolved this by having Pym outwit Egghead and defeated the latest incarnation of the Masters of Evil single-handedly, proved his innocence. Stern developed several major storylines, such as "Ultimate Vision". Rogue, who would become a member of the X-Men, was introduced in The Avengers Annual #10 by writer Chris Claremont and artist Michael Golden. Stern created the villain, who falsely claimed to be the granddaughter of Thanos. Following Stern's departure, Walt Simonson wrote the series but left due to editorial conflicts. John Byrne took over writing both West Coast Avengers and The Avengers and merged the two separate Avengers teams into one team with two bases. Byrne's contributions included a revamping of the Vision, the discovery that the children of the Scarlet Witch and the Vision were illusions; the Avengers titles in late 1989 were involved in the major crossover event "Acts of Vengeance". Bob Harras and Steve Epting took over the title in the summer of 1991 and introduced a stable lineup with ongoing story lines and character development.
Their primary antagonists in this run were the mysterious Proctor and his team of other-dimensional Avengers known as the Gatherers. This culminated in "Operation: Galac
A-Next is a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. It is the Marvel Comics 2 universe version of the Avengers; the team made its first appearance in What If? #105, the first comic featuring Spider-Girl, the team's origin story was told in the A-Next #1, cover dated October 1998. The first issue of A-Next paid homage to The Avengers #1, with an Asgardian menace prompting new superheroes to band together, all of them analogues to the original team. Future stories introduced new heroes and menaces, most of them based on pre-existing Marvel characters. Characters and story elements created by DeFalco in the comic were used in other comics in the MC2 Universe. A five issue miniseries entitled Avengers Next ran from November 2006 to January 2007, written by Tom DeFalco and with artwork by Ron Lim, that followed on from the events of Last Hero Standing and Last Planet Standing, it reunited the remaining members of A-Next and added new members Sabreclaw, Kate Power, the daughter of Thor and a former criminal teleporter called Warp to the team.
The new team comes together when Avengers Museum is attacked by Asgardian trolls commanded by Loki, prompting the museum's caretaker, former butler Edwin Jarvis, to send out a distress signal. The summons is responded to by several heroes including Thunderstrike; the heroes are transported to Asgard by Loki, who wants to retrieve the Thunderstrike mace's powers for himself, but Kevin disrupts the spell, absorbing the mace into himself and transforming into a new Thunderstrike in the process. Loki and the trolls are defeated by the heroes, with assistance from Thor, now the King of Asgard. Thunderstrike, Stinger, J2, Mainframe decide to stay together as the new Avengers; the adult heroes decline to stay with the reformed team. A downed Kree spaceship leads to the transformation of Bill Foster's son John into Earth Sentry, an analog of Captain Marvel. Doc Magus, the new Sorcerer Supreme recruits the Avengers into fighting the reformed Defenders. Four new members are inducted into the Avengers by Mainframe and Jarvis.
The new members: American Dream,. Afterwards, the team investigates the apparent return of Doctor Doom, revealed to be Kristoff Vernard in disguise; the team is attacked by Argo, who claims to be Hercules' son, followed by an encounter with the villainous Ion Man, prompting Mainframe to reveal he is a sentient computer program based on Tony Stark's personality. The new Avengers discover the Scarlet Witch in suspended animation in the mansion's subterranean levels, powering a gate to an alternate Earth. After defeating the Soldiers of the Serpent again, with the help of Blacklight, the Avengers travel to the alternate dimension, conquered by Red Skull after World War II, was now ruled by the Skull's adopted son, Dr. Doom, who had murdered the Skull. During the battle, they discover Captain America is alive and leading the resistance, the Avengers help them defeat the Nazi forces, including the Thunder Guard, an alternate version of the Avengers. Thunderstrike elects to stay on the alternate Earth, the remaining Avengers return to Earth, receiving a reprimand from Tony Stark and Clint Barton.
Afterwards, they're attacked by a team of villains known as the Revengers, led by Red Queen and Big Man, the children of Hank and Janet Pym, out for revenge. The Avengers, alongside their reserve members Earth Sentry, Coal Tiger and Blacklight, defeat the Revengers; the team was seen aiding Spider-Girl, appeared during Last Hero Standing and Last Planet Standing. The team made a cameo within Fantastic Five #4, in which they were fighting one of the cosmic-powered Doombots. J2The only minor in the team, Zane Yama is a 15-year-old high school student and the son of the original Juggernaut and district attorney Sachi Yama. Picked on by bullies at school, he manifested the ability to grow to a huge size, in which he gains super strength and invulnerability, his uniform, which includes his father's favorite flannel shirt tied around his waist over his armor, manifests itself automatically upon metamorphosis. He can only stay this way for about an hour. Mainframe Mainframe is a self-aware computer program, created by Tony Stark, which inhabits a series of identical armors.
When an armor is damaged or destroyed, he transfers his consciousness to another body. His robot body utilizes Stark technology similar to the one found in the Iron Man armor, his personality is based on his creator's created by the same process as the Vision's. Stinger Dr. Cassandra Lang is the daughter of Scott Lang. Although she is the oldest member, in her mid-20s, the only one on the team with a professional life and a scientific background, she is still doted on by her father, who worries about her new-found superhero life, she possesses many abilit