Roy O. Disney
Roy Oliver Disney was an American businessman, becoming the partner and co-founder, along with his younger brother Walt Disney, of Walt Disney Productions, since renamed The Walt Disney Company. Roy was born to Irish-Canadian Elias Charles Disney and English-German-American Flora Call Disney in Chicago, on July 1,1911, Elias purchased a newspaper delivery route for The Kansas City Star. It extended from Twenty-seventh Street to the Thirty-first Street, and from Prospect Avenue to Indiana Avenue and Walt were put to work delivering the newspapers. The Disneys delivered the morning newspaper Kansas City Times to about 700 customers, the number of customers served increased with time. Roy graduated from the Manual Training High School of Kansas City in 1912 and he left the paper delivery route and worked on a farm over the summer. He found employment as a clerk at the First National Bank of Kansas City. Roy served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919, a year his brother Walt tried to join the U. S.
Army but was refused because he was underage. After Roy contracted tuberculosis, he was discharged from military duty, in 1923 Walt moved to Hollywood, joined Roy, and the two founded the Disney Bros. The brothers ordered kit houses from Pacific Ready Cut Homes and, in 1928, while Walt was the creative man, Roy was the one who made sure the company was financially stable. Roy and Walt both founded Disney Studios as brothers, but Walt would buy out most of Roys share in 1929 so, unlike Max and Dave Fleischer of rival Fleischer Studios, Roy would be equal partner in all facets of the production company. Roy became the companys first CEO in 1929, although the title was not given until 1968. He shared the role of chairman of the board with Walt from 1945, Walt however dropped the chairman title in 1960 so he could focus more on the creative aspects of the company. After Walt Disneys death in 1966, Roy postponed his retirement to oversee construction of what was known as Disney World. He renamed it Walt Disney World as a tribute to his brother, Roy became the president of Walt Disney Productions on December 15,1966, and remained so until 1968.
Roy was married to Edna Francis from April 1925 until his death and their son, Roy Edward Disney, was born on January 10,1930. Throughout his life, Roy rejected the publicity and fame came with being Walts brother. He was extremely shy and a passive individual, resulting in few public photos being in existence. After Walt Disney World opened in October 1971, Roy Disney finally retired, in early December of that year, he complained of a spot over one of his eyes and was scheduled to visit his optometrist for a new eyeglass prescription
Donald Duck universe
The world is a part of the Mickey Mouse universe, but is more detailed. Life in the Donald Duck universe centers on the city of Duckburg, usually located in the fictional U. S. state of Calisota, analogous to Northern California. The world incorporates several real and fictional locations, as well as historical figures and a fictional timeline. Disney comics are the medium for Donald Duck stories. Contributors include Americans Carl Barks, Ted Osborne, Don Rosa, Tony Strobl, Al Taliaferro, and William Van Horn, as well as Italians Giovan Battista Carpi, Marco Rota, Donald Duck universe is not an official Disney term, but is sometimes used by fans. Don Rosa has used the terms Barks Universe and Italian Duck Universe to describe different versions of the worlds continuity. Don Rosa is an example of this when creating his book series The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck. Additionally, the stories by Al Taliaferro and Ted Osborne are considered canon by fans, being that they are the creators of Huey and Louie.
Most of the characters have appeared in the 1980s Disney cartoon series DuckTales, much of the DuckTales and all of the Darkwing Duck material does not appear in Barks comics, as the two TV series was created decades after Barkss active years as a comic artist. Later, a few characters would be the characters in the show Quack Pack. Duckburg was the setting of the 1987 animated series DuckTales, the cartoons version of Duckburg was based loosely on the comics version. Duckburg appeared in the 1990s animated series Quack Pack, in Quack Pack, Duckburg was populated almost entirely by human beings, with Donald and Donalds nephews as the only anthropomorphized animals that usually appeared. Moreover, the Money Bin is nowhere to be seen, Duckburg was the setting for one of the three initial levels of the video game Quackshot and for the second level of the video game Donald Duck, Goin Quackers. Duckburg was used for the setting of Mickeys Birthdayland at Walt Disney Worlds Magic Kingdom from 1988 to 1996 and it even included Grandma Ducks Farm and a statue of Cornelius Coot, though it was more of a rural town than a burgeoning metropolis.
The connection to Duckburg was removed as the land was renovated in 1996 to become Mickeys Toontown Fair, the Cornelius Coot statue remains. Duckburg was first mentioned in Walt Disneys Comics and Stories #49 in 1944, the city is populated by various anthropomorphized animals, with dogs, different birds and pigs as the most dominant ones. The mayor of the city is depicted as a pig. However, in stories the office of mayor is held by various dog characters which is probably a result of new elections
Colony of Virginia
The Colony of Virginia was the first permanently settled English colony in North America. Newfoundland, with settlements, had been established as a colony by Royal Charter in 1583. American archaeologist William Kelso says Virginia is where the British Empire began and this was the first colony in the British Empire. The colony existed briefly during the 16th century, and continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution, the name Virginia was first applied by Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth I in 1584. In 1607, members of a joint venture called the Virginia Company founded Jamestown, tobacco became Virginias first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Companys charter was revoked by King James I, from 1619 to 1776, the legislature of the Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699, from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg and it experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacons Rebellion of 1676.
The name Virginia is the oldest designation for English claims in North America, the latter word may have inspired the Queen to name the colony Virginia, noting her status as the Virgin Queen. in Carolina Algonquian, and was not the name of the country as previously misunderstood. Virginia was originally a term used to refer to North Americas entire eastern coast from the 34th parallel north to 48th parallel and this area included a large section of Canada and the shores of Acadia. In gratitude for Virginians loyalty to the crown during the English Civil War, Charles II gave it the title of Old Dominion, Virginia maintains Old Dominion as its state nickname. Accordingly, the University of Virginias athletic teams use Cavaliers as one of their nicknames, earlier attempts had been made by the Spanish in what is now Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, and by the French in South Carolina. Farther south, the Spanish colony of Spanish Florida, centered on St. Augustine, was established in 1565, while to the north, in 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent his first colonization mission to the island of Roanoke.
This was the first English settlement, although it did not survive and it was a military research expedition with a very narrow focus. In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to attempt to establish a permanent settlement. The first English child born in the New World was named Virginia Dare, the expedition leader, John White returned to England for supplies that same year, but was unable to return to the colony due to war between England and Spain. When he finally did return in 1590, he found the colony abandoned, the houses were intact, but the colonists had completely disappeared. Although there are a number of theories about the fate of the colony, Dare County was named in honor of the baby Virginia Dare, who was among those whose fate is unknown. The word Croatoan was found carved into a tree, the name of a tribe on a nearby island, following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, King James I ascended to the throne
Merrie Melodies is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. between 1931 and 1969, during the golden age of American animation. As with its parent series, Looney Tunes, Merrie Melodies featured some of the most famous cartoon characters ever created, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig and Elmer Fudd. Merrie Melodies was originally produced by Harman-Ising Pictures from 1931 to 1933, Schlesinger sold his studio to Warner Bros. in 1944, and the newly renamed Warner Bros. Merrie Melodies was outsourced to DePatie-Freleng Enterprises and Format Films from 1964 to 1967, cartoons resumed production for the series final two years. Three of the Merrie Melodies films won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, in 2013, TV Guide ranked the Warner Bros. Cartoons the third Greatest Cartoon of All Time, producer Leon Schlesinger had already produced one cartoon in the Looney Tunes series, based on music, and its success prompted him to try to sell a sister series to Warner Bros.
His selling point was that the new cartoons would feature music from the soundtracks of Warner Bros. films and would serve as advertisements for Warner Bros. recordings. The studio agreed, and Schlesinger dubbed the series Merrie Melodies, walt Disney Productions had already scored with their Silly Symphonies. Since cartoon production usually began with a soundtrack, animating a piece of music made it easier to plot elements. The origins of the Merrie Melodies series begin with the failure of an action series of musical shorts called Spooney Melodies. These shorts were basically a type of music video that included segments with a popular artist singing along with appropriate background sequences. Warner Bros. wanted to promote this music because they had acquired the ownership of Brunswick Records along with four music publishers for US $28 million. Because of the success of their Looney Tunes series, Warner Bros. decided to develop a new series of animated shorts called Merrie Melodies. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising led the development and it was meant to be a series of musical cartoons that featured hit songs of the day, especially those owned by Warner Bros. and featured in their musical films.
In 1931, many of the featured the orchestra of Abe Lyman. The first cartoon of the new Merrie Melodies series was Lady, Ising attempted to introduce several characters in his Merrie Melodies films, such as Piggy and Goopy Geer. Eventually however, the series continued without any recurring characters, the shorts proved to be enormously popular with the public. In 1932, a Merrie Melodies cartoon, entitled Its Got Me Again. was nominated for the first Academy Award to be given for animation, when Harman and Ising left Warner Bros. in 1933, they took with them all rights to the characters they had created
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits and intentions to non-human entities and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations and natural forces like seasons. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, and most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters, people have routinely attributed human emotions and behavioural traits to wild as well as domestic animals. Anthropomorphism derives from its verb form anthropomorphize, itself derived from the Greek ánthrōpos and it is first attested in 1753, originally in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God. One of the oldest known is a sculpture, the Löwenmensch figurine, Germany. It is not possible to say what these prehistoric artworks represent, in either case there is an element of anthropomorphism. This anthropomorphic art has been linked by archaeologist Steven Mithen with the emergence of more systematic hunting practices in the Upper Palaeolithic.
In religion and mythology, anthropomorphism refers to the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, ancient mythologies frequently represented the divine as deities with human forms and qualities. They resemble human beings not only in appearance and personality, they exhibited many human behaviors that were used to explain phenomena, creation. The deities fell in love, had children, fought battles, wielded weapons and they feasted on special foods, and sometimes required sacrifices of food and sacred objects to be made by human beings. Some anthropomorphic deities represented specific concepts, such as love, fertility, beauty. Anthropomorphic deities exhibited human qualities such as beauty and power, and sometimes human weaknesses such as greed, jealousy, Greek deities such as Zeus and Apollo often were depicted in human form exhibiting both commendable and despicable human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is referred to as anthropotheism, from the perspective of adherents to religions in which humans were created in the form of the divine, the phenomenon may be considered theomorphism, or the giving of divine qualities to humans.
Anthropomorphism has cropped up as a Christian heresy, particularly prominently with the Audians in third century Syria, but in fourth century Egypt and tenth century Italy. This often was based on an interpretation of Genesis 1,27, So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him. Some religions and philosophers objected to anthropomorphic deities. Ethiopians say that their gods are snub–nosed and blackThracians that they are pale and he said that the greatest god resembles man neither in form nor in mind. Both Judaism and Islam reject an anthropomorphic deity, believing that God is beyond human comprehension, judaisms rejection of an anthropomorphic deity grew during the Hasmonean period, when Jewish belief incorporated some Greek philosophy. Judaisms rejection grew further after the Islamic Golden Age in the tenth century, hindus do not reject the concept of a deity in the abstract unmanifested, but note practical problems
Municipal solid waste, commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and as refuse or rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. Garbage can specifically to food waste, as in a garbage disposal. The composition of municipal solid waste varies greatly from municipality to municipality, in municipalities which have a well developed waste recycling system, the waste stream consists mainly of intractable wastes such as plastic film, and non-recyclable packaging materials. At the start of the 20th century, the majority of waste in the UK consisted of coal ash from open fires. Most definitions of municipal solid waste do not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, medical waste, Waste collection is performed by the municipality within a given area. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing, the municipal solid waste industry has four components, composting and waste-to-energy via incineration.
This location may be a processing facility, a transfer station or a landfill disposal site. Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in containers for collection. Handling encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection, separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source. The types of means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of materials that have been separated at the source include curbside collection, drop-off. This element involves two main steps, the waste is transferred from a smaller collection vehicle to larger transport equipment. The waste is transported, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site. In the recent years environmental organizations, such as Freegle or Freecycle Network, have been gaining popularity for their online reuse networks and these networks provide a worldwide online registry of unwanted items that would otherwise be thrown away, for individuals and nonprofits to reuse or recycle.
Therefore, this free Internet-based service reduces landfill pollution and promotes the gift economy, landfills are created by land dumping. Land dumping methods vary, most commonly it involves the mass dumping of waste into a designated area, after the waste is dumped, it is compacted by large machines. When the dumping cell is full, it is sealed with a plastic sheet. This is the method of dumping in the United States because of the low cost. Landfills pose the threat of pollution, and can intoxicate ground water, the signs of pollution are effectively masked by disposal companies and it is often hard to see any evidence
A firecracker is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang, any visual effect is incidental to this goal. They have fuses, and are wrapped in a paper casing to contain the explosive compound. Firecrackers, along with fireworks, originated in China, the predecessor of the firecracker was a type of heated bamboo, used as early as 200 BC, that exploded when heated continuously. The Chinese name for firecrackers, literally means exploding bamboo, after the invention of gunpowder, gunpowder firecrackers had a shape that resembled bamboo and produced a similar sound, so the name exploding bamboo was retained. In traditional Chinese culture, firecrackers were used to scare off evil spirits, Firecrackers are generally made of cardboard or plastic, with flash powder or black powder as the propellant. This is not always the case, anything from match heads to lighter fluid have been used successfully in making firecrackers. The key to loud firecrackers, although in part lying in the propellant substance, is pressure, the entire firecracker must be very tightly packed in order for it to work best.
Flash powder, does not need to be packed tightly, james Dyer Ball, in his book Things Chinese, has a detailed description about the process and material used for making firecrackers at the end of the 19th century. The bamboo paper was cut into strips of 14 inches long and 1⁄3 inch wide, laid on a table, the firecracker tubes were made from pieces of straw paper wrapped around iron rods of various diameters and tightened with a special tool. In Wales the slang term for a firecracker, typically used on Guy Fawkes Night, is a jacky-jumper, Firecrackers, as well as other types of explosives, are subject to various laws in many countries, although firecrackers themselves are not usually considered illegal contraband material. The use of firecrackers, although a part of celebration, has over the years led to many injuries. These rules require a permit from the government, as well as any relevant local bodies such as maritime or aviation authorities and hospitals, schools. Canada — Firecrackers are not authorized under the Explosives Act, thus making importation, transportation, storage, or manufacturing illegal in Canada.
It came out that the children inside the tent had actually been smoking and, Fireworks are still legal to buy for anyone 18 years of age or over. Mainland China — As of 2008, most urban areas in mainland China permit firecrackers, in the first three days of the traditional New Year, it is a tradition that people compete with each other by playing with firecrackers. However, many urban areas banned them in the 1990s, for example, they were banned in Beijings urban districts from 1993 to 2005. In 2004,37 people were killed in a stampede when four million people gathered for a rumored Lantern Festival firework display in nearby Miyun, since the ban was lifted, the firecracker barrage has been tremendous. An unusual feature is that residents in major cities look down on street-level fireworks from their tower blocks
Disney comics are comic books and comic strips featuring Walt Disney characters. The first Disney comics were newspaper strips appearing from 1930 on, in 1940, Western Publishing began producing Disney comic books in the United States. The most notable American Disney comics books are Walt Disneys Comics and Stories, in recent decades, Disney comics have seen a decline of popularity in their country of origin. In the rest of the world Disney comics have very successful. The first Disney comics appeared in newspapers, syndicated by King Features with production done in-house by a Disney comic strip department at the studio. The Mickey Mouse daily comic strip began on January 13,1930, featuring Mickey as an optimistic and it was initially written by Walt Disney with art by Ub Iwerks and Win Smith. Beginning with the May 5,1930 installment the art chores were taken up by Floyd Gottfredson, Gottfredson continued with the strip until 1975. A Sunday strip started January 10,1932 with a topper Silly Symphony strip, Silly Symphony initially related the adventures of Bucky Bug, the first Disney character to originate in the comics.
It subsequently printed adaptations of some of the Symphony cartoons, several extended periods of stories involving Pluto and Little Hiawatha along with adaptations of Snow White, by late 1935 the strip was a standalone half-page, not strictly a topper for the Mickey Sunday. Donald Duck made his first comics appearance in the Silly Symphony adaptation of the 1934 Disney short The Wise Little Hen. As Donalds popularity grew, he became the star of the Silly Symphony strip for an extended run, a Donald Sunday strip was begun December 10,1939. An oddity is in the 1930s a Disney strip was done seemingly outside the purview of the Strip Dept. for a national audience and it was created by Fred Spencer, an animator at the studio. Entitled Mickey Mouse Chapter, it appeared in the International DeMolay Cordon the monthly newsletter of Demolay beginning with its Dec.1932 issue through May 1933 and this was a two tier black and white strip depicting happenings in the Demolay Chapter formed by Mickey and his barnyard friends.
Spencer and Walt Disney were both members of Demolay, while the last installment promised the series would return in the Sept.1933 issue without explanation it did not. The extant installments have been reprinted as part of the first volume of Sunday Mickey Mouse comic strips by Floyd Gottfredson published in 2013 by Fantagraphics, the Silly Symphony Sunday-only strip ended July 12,1942. This was replaced with an adaptation of Bambi, after the conclusion of which a José Carioca Sunday only strip was launched which ran until it in turn was replaced by Uncle Remus in 1945, greg Crosby headed the department from 1979 to 1989. Besides the strips described above the other Disney strips distributed over the included, Uncle Remus. Treasury of Classic Tales True Life Adventures Scamp Mickey Mouse and His Friends, advance publicity for the strip noted Greenes participation and the strip carried the byline By Ward Greene
Looney Tunes is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 during the golden age of American animation, alongside its sister series Merrie Melodies. Coyote and the Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, and many others and these characters themselves are commonly referred to as the Looney Tunes. From 1942 to 1964, Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies were the most popular animated shorts in movie theaters, many of the characters have made and continue to make cameo appearances in various other television shows and advertisements. The most popular Looney Tunes character, Bugs Bunny, is regarded as an icon and has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Several Looney Tunes films are regarded as some of the greatest animated cartoons of all time, in the beginning, Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies drew their storylines from Warners vast music library. From 1934 to 1943, Merrie Melodies were produced in color and Looney Tunes in black, after 1943, both series were produced in color and became virtually indistinguishable, varying only in their opening theme music and titles.
Both series made use of the various Warner Bros. cartoon characters, in 1929, to compete against Walt Disneys Mickey Mouse short cartoons, WB became interested in developing a series of animated shorts to promote their music. They had recently acquired Brunswick Records along with four music publishers for US $28 million and were eager to promote this material for the sales of sheet music, Warner made a deal with Leon Schlesinger to produce cartoons for them. Schlesinger hired Rudolf Ising and Hugh Harman to produce the first series of cartoons, Schlesinger was impressed by Harmans and Isings 1929 pilot cartoon, The Talk-Ink Kid. The first Looney Tunes short was Sinkin in the Bathtub starring Bosko, when Harman and Ising left Warner Bros. in 1933 over a budget dispute with Schlesinger, they took with them all the rights of the characters and cartoons they had created. In 1935 they debuted the first major Looney Tunes star, Porky Pig, Beans was the star of the next Porky/Beans cartoon Golddiggers of 49, but it was Porky who emerged as the star instead of Beans.
The ensemble characters of I Havent Got a Hat, such as Oliver Owl, and twin dogs Ham and Ex, were given a sampling of shorts. Beans was phased out when his popularity declined, leaving Porky as the star of the Schlesinger studio. The debuts of other memorable Looney Tunes stars followed, Daffy Duck, Elmer Fudd, Bugs initially starred in the color Merrie Melodies shorts and formally joined the Looney Tunes series with the release of Buckaroo Bugs in 1944. Schlesinger began to phase in the production of color Looney Tunes with the 1942 cartoon The Hep Cat, the final black-and-white Looney Tunes short was Puss n Booty in 1943 directed by Frank Tashlin. The inspiration for the changeover was Warners decision to only the color cartoons in the Blue Ribbon Classics series of Merrie Melodies. Schlesinger sold his interest in the studio in 1944 to Warner Bros. and went into retirement. During the mid-late 1960s, the shorts were produced by DePatie-Freleng Enterprises, the change in the introductory title cards was possibly to reflect the switch in the animation style of the shorts themselves
Donald Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Productions. Donald is a white duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs. He typically wears a shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is most famous for his speech and his mischievous. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guides list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002. He has appeared in more films than any other Disney character, Donald Duck rose to fame with his comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donalds first appearance was in 1934 in The Wise Little Hen, throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards. In the 1930s, he appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey. These films introduced Donalds love interest Daisy Duck and often included his three nephews Huey and Louie, after the 1956 film Chips Ahoy, Donald appeared primarily in educational films before eventually returning to theatrical animation in Mickeys Christmas Carol.
His most recent appearance in a film was 1999s Fantasia 2000. Donald has appeared in features such as Mickey, Goofy, The Three Musketeers, television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse. Beyond animation, Donald is primarily known for his appearances in comics, Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, and Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for expanding the Donald Duck universe, the world in which Donald lives. Donald has been a popular character in Europe, particularly in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co was the most popular comics publication from the 1950s to 2009. Disney comics fandom is sometimes referred to as Donaldism, a term originated in Norway. The origins of Donald Ducks name may have inspired by Australian cricket legend Donald Bradman. In 1932 Bradman and the Australian team were touring North America, Walt Disney was in the process of creating a friend for Mickey Mouse when he possibly read about Bradmans dismissal in the papers and decided to name the new character Donald Duck.
Voice performer Clarence Nash auditioned for Walt Disney Studios when he learned that Disney was looking for people to create animal sounds for his cartoons, Disney was particularly impressed with Nashs duck imitation and chose him to voice the new character
Taliaferro, spelled Tagliaferro, Tellifero or Taliferro and sometimes anglicised to Tolliver or Toliver, is a prominent family in eastern Virginia and Maryland. The Taliaferros are one of the families who settled in Virginia in the 17th century. They migrated from London, where an ancestor had served as a musician in the court of Queen Elizabeth I, the surname in that line is believed to trace back to Bartholomew Taliaferro, a native of Venice who settled in London and was made a denizen in 1562. The origins of the Taliaferro name were of interest to George Wythe, a Virginia colonial lawyer and classical scholar, Wythe urged his former student and friend Thomas Jefferson to investigate the name when Jefferson traveled to Italy. Jefferson reported to Wythe that he had two families of the name in Tuscany, and that the family was of Italian origin. Jefferson enclosed his sketch of the coat of arms of the Tagliaferro family as reported to him by a friend in Florence, Italy. S. Senator from Florida John Taliaferro, antebellum U. S.
Catesby Taliaferro, American philosopher and mathematician Walter R. Taliaferro, pioneer U. S. Army aviator William B. S
Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have developed a body of theory, the term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος, its roots are διά and λόγος. The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus, in the West, Plato has commonly been credited with the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form. Ancient sources indicate, that the Platonic dialogue had its foundations in the mime and these works and imitated by Plato, have not survived and we have only the vaguest idea of how they may have been performed.
The Mimes of Herodas, which were found in a papyrus in 1891, Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure argumentative conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of character-drawing. By about 400 BC he had perfected the Socratic dialogue, all his extant writings, except the Apology and Epistles, use this form. Following Plato, the became a major literary genre in antiquity. Soon after Plato, Xenophon wrote his own Symposium, Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian’s most famous collection, both Fontenelle and Fénelon prepared Dialogues des morts. Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher Nicolas Malebranche published his Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, in English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until Berkeley employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. His contemporary, the Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, a prominent 19th-century example of literary dialogue was Landor’s Imaginary Conversations.
In Germany, Wieland adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799, in Spanish literature, the Dialogues of Valdés and those on Painting by Vincenzo Carducci are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Platos model, include Torquato Tasso, Galiani, Leopardi, in the 19th century, the French returned to the original application of dialogue. English writers including Anstey Guthrie adopted the form, but these seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors. Authors who have employed it include George Santayana, in his eminent Dialogues in Limbo. Also Edith Stein and Iris Murdoch used the dialogue form, Stein imagined a dialogue between Edmund Husserl and Thomas Aquinas. Murdoch included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work Acastos, Two Platonic Dialogues, more recently Timothy Williamson wrote Tetralogue, a philosophical exchange on a train between four people with radically different epistemological views