Interstate 105 (California)
Interstate 105 is an Interstate Highway in southern Los Angeles County, California that runs east–west from near the Los Angeles International Airport to the City of Norwalk. It is known as the Glenn Anderson Freeway for the Democratic California politician who advocated its construction. I-105 has been referred to as the Century Freeway; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 105 as "from Pershing Drive near El Segundo to Route 605," but Caltrans never constructed the segment from Sepulveda Boulevard to Pershing Drive. Motorists can continue west via Imperial Highway over conventional roadway to Pershing Drive, but it is not part of Route 105 nor is it under state maintenance. I-105 begins at Sepulveda Boulevard on the southern edge of Los Angeles International Airport, adjacent to the city of El Segundo, it proceeds eastward from there on, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers before terminating just east of the San Gabriel River Freeway in western Norwalk. The freeway stops short of intersecting with its parent interstate.
Instead, the primary lanes of I-105 terminate at an at-grade intersection with Studebaker Road. Much of the length of the Century Freeway runs parallel to Imperial Highway, it runs parallel to Century Boulevard, from which its original name is derived. Century Boulevard, in turn, is named for its position equivalent to 100th Street in the Los Angeles grid; the Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line runs in the median of nearly the entire length of I-105. The Green Line's eastern terminus is at Norwalk, at the interchange between I-105 and I-605. I-105 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. Interstate 105 was an integral part of a Caltrans 1960s master plan for the Southern California freeway system, but did not open until 1993; the right-of-way was included on several early highway plans since at least 1947, although it was not named the "Century Freeway" until 1956, was numbered Route 42.
In 1965, the Century Freeway was added to the state system originated at State Route 1 east to Central Avenue in the City of Los Angeles along an alignment near to the current right-of-way. The current route was added to the Interstate system in 1968; the route was designed between 1968 and 1972, but opposition from some of the communities through which the right-of-way would pass slowed the process and led to some reroutings. Many factors contributed to the delay; the growth of the environmental movement in the 1960s created resistance to new freeway construction. Fiscal difficulties brought about by the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the California tax revolt of the late 1970s further hampered Caltrans' construction efforts. However, the major source of resistance to the freeway's construction was community opposition and the side effects of these demands. By the early 1970s, most of the areas in the freeway's path were predominantly African-American. Resentment over previous freeway projects' effects on other black communities resulted in significant modifications to the original route.
Most cities along the way, weary of the noise and visual blight created by elevated freeways, demanded that the route be built far below grade in a "trench." Another source for resistance to the freeway's construction was that much of the areas along the I-105 path was going to be built in low income, high crime neighborhoods, which delayed the freeway's construction until the crime in the areas went down. Norwalk, opposed to the freeway's proposed route through the center of the city, blocked the route from reaching its intended terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway. In 1972, community opposition resulted in a federal lawsuit, Keith v. Volpe, being filed, charging violation of various civil rights protections and the National Environmental Policy Act. An important figure in the freeway's history was Harry Pregerson, a United States federal judge who presided over the lawsuit concerning the freeway's construction and chose to continue presiding over the case despite being promoted to a higher level court.
The interchange with Interstate 110 is named the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in his honor. In 1972, Judge Pregerson enjoined the further development of the freeway until it has complied with the requirements of NEPA, the California Environmental Quality Act, the Federal-Aid Highway Act, the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Act of 1970. In 1979, this lawsuit resulted in a Consent Decree, amended in 1981, which imposed several conditions on development of the freeway, including additional public hearings, preparation of an environmental report, alterations to the design to reduce lanes and intersections, improve carpooling and provide for a transit way, which became the Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line. A portion of the right-of-way was to be constructed below grade to buffer adjacent areas from the effects of traffic noise. After construction began in the 1980s, failure to perform a full survey of the area's groundwater deposits, combined with the 20–30 f
Lynwood is a city in Los Angeles County, California. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 69,772, down from 69,845 at the 2000 census. Lynwood is located near South Compton in the southern portion of the Los Angeles Basin. Incorporated in 1921, the city is named for Lynn Wood Sessions, wife of a local dairyman, Charles Sessions; the local railroad siding and Pacific Electric Railway station were named after the dairy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Lynwood had a population of 69,772; the population density was 14,415.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lynwood was 27,444 White, 7,168 African American, 464 Native American, 457 Asian, 206 Pacific Islander, 31,652 from other races, 2,381 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 60,452 persons; the census reported that 67,120 people lived in households, 449 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 2,203 were institutionalized.
There were 14,680 households, out of which 9,790 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,303 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,266 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,569 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,281 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 105 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,064 households were made up of individuals and 328 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.57. There were 13,138 families; the population was spread out with 22,977 people under the age of 18, 8,705 people aged 18 to 24, 21,245 people aged 25 to 44, 13,075 people aged 45 to 64, 3,770 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. There were 15,277 housing units at an average density of 3,156.4 per square mile, of which 6,829 were owner-occupied, 7,851 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.9%. 34,023 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 33,097 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there are 69,845 people, 14,395 households, 12,941 families residing in the city; the population density is 5,560.3/km². There are 14,987 housing units at an average density of 1,193.1/km². The racial makeup of the city is 33.62% white, 13.53% African American, 1.20% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.39% Pacific Islander, 46.14% from other races, 4.36% from two or more races. 82.33 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 14,395 households out of which 63.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% are married couples living together, 20.6% have a female householder with no husband present, 10.1% are non-families. 7.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 2.6% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 4.70 and the average family size is 4.76. In the city, the population is spread out with 38.0% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 13.5% from 45 to 64, 4.2% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age is 24 years. For every 100 females, there are 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 104.2 males. The median income for a household in the city is $35,888, the median income for a family is $35,808. Males have a median income of $23,241 versus $19,149 for females; the per capita income for the city is $9,542. 23.5% of the population and 21.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 28.3% are under the age of 18 and 14.3% are 65 or older. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as their first language accounted for 77.43% of residents, while English was spoken by 22.13%, Thai was spoken by 0.16%, Samoan was spoken by 0.09%, Gujarati was spoken by 0.07%, Tagalog was spoken by 0.07%, Vietnamese by 0.05% of the population. Lynwood went through five phases of demographic change in the 20th century. First, a colonial settlement. Second, a farming small town. Third, a working-class white suburb from 1940 to 1970. Fourth, a majority African-American city between 1970 and 1990, today, predominantly Latino.
Fire protection in Lynwood is provided by the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The LACFD operates Station #147 at 3161 East Imperial Highway and Station #148 at 4262 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, both in Lynwood, as a part of Battalion 13; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Century Station in Lynwood. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the South Health Center in Watts, Los Angeles, serving Lynwood. Lynwood is represented in the 63rd Assembly District by Democrat Anthony Rendon and in the 33rd Senate District represented by Democrat Ricardo Lara. In the United States House of Representatives, Lynwood is in California's 44th congressional district, represented by Democrat Nanette Barragán. Mark Ridley-Thomas represents Lynwood located on the 2nd Los Angeles Board of Supervisors District. On March 20, 2006, former mayor Paul H. Richards II was sentenced to 188 months in federal prison after being convicted in 2005 on numerous corruption charges that centered on his funneling of $6 million in city business - including exorbitant no-bid contr
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
U.S. Route 101 in California
U. S. Route 101 in the state of California is one of the last remaining and longest U. S. Routes still active in the state, the longest highway of any kind in California. US 101 was one of the original national routes established in 1926. Significant portions of US 101 between the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area follow El Camino Real, the historic road connecting the former Alta California's 21 missions. Although the highway has been superseded in overall importance for transportation through the state by Interstate 5, US 101 continues to be the major coastal north–south route that links the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Central Coast, the San Francisco Bay Area, the North Coast. Referred to as "101" by residents of Northern California, in Southern California it is called "The 101"; the highway has portions designated as the Santa Ana Freeway, the Hollywood Freeway, the Ventura Freeway, South Valley Freeway, Bayshore Freeway. The Redwood Highway, the 350-mile-long northernmost segment of the highway, begins at the Golden Gate and passes through the world's tallest and only extensive preserves of virgin, old-growth coast redwood trees.
US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. The south terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles, about one mile east of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange known as the "Commuters' Complex"; this southernmost portion is named the Santa Ana Freeway, inheriting that title as the northerly extension of the roadway now known as I-5. After merging with westbound traffic from the San Bernardino Freeway, US 101 proceeds northwest via the Downtown Slot under the northern edge of Los Angeles' Civic Center to State Route 110 at the Four Level Interchange. From here, US 101 becomes the Hollywood Freeway, it heads to Hollywood and up through the Cahuenga Pass before reaching the San Fernando Valley. US 101 intersects with SR 134 and SR 170 at the interchange known as the Hollywood Split. Here, the alignment of US 101 shifts to the alignment of SR 134 and thereafter is referred to as the Ventura Freeway until it reaches Ventura.
Though confusing, the "Hollywood Freeway" name continues northward from this interchange on SR 170, the "Ventura Freeway" name continues eastward to SR 134. From the Hollywood Split, US 101 is an east–west highway, it meets with I-405 in Sherman Oaks, an interchange which holds claim to the most traveled intersection in the nation. The east–west geographical alignment of the Ventura Freeway and the north–south designation which appears on the freeway signs can be confusing to visitors. After the Conejo Grade, a 7% grade incline, the freeway enters the Oxnard Plain and runs concurrent with SR 1 for the first time. Upon reaching Ventura, there is an interchange with SR 126. North of Santa Barbara, US 101 switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status, but there are no traffic signals until San Francisco; the last traffic signals along this stretch of the route were removed in 1991 when the section through downtown Santa Barbara was constructed to freeway standards after years of disagreement over the impact that the original elevated design would have on the community.
From Ventura and through Santa Barbara, US 101 follows the Pacific coastline until Gaviota State Park, about 23 miles west of Goleta. At Gaviota State Park, the highway shifts back from an east–west highway to a north–south alignment. About one mile north of this point, US 101 passes through the Gaviota Tunnel. A few miles north of the Gaviota Tunnel, SR 1 splits from US 101 and heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline parallel and to the west of US 101. US 101 passes through Buellton, Los Alamos, Santa Maria, Nipomo. South of Santa Maria, US 101 widens from a four-lane highway to a six-lane freeway. SR 166 joins US 101 for about 3 miles before splitting just north of the city limits, while US 101 continues as a four-lane freeway before reverting to expressway status north of Nipomo. Farther north, SR 1 rejoins US 101 between San Luis Obispo. US 101 takes an inland route through the Salinas Valley, while Highway 1 heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline in California, parallel and to the west of US 101.
A steep segment between San Luis Obispo and Atascadero is known as the Cuesta Grade. North of Atascadero, the highway joins SR 46 for about three miles through Paso Robles. From Paso Robles to Salinas, US 101 is an expressway known as the Salinas River Valley Highway, since the Salinas River Valley extends from Santa Margarita to the SR 156 junction in Prunedale. US 101 resumes freeway status between San Miguel and King City, passing through the smaller towns of Camp Roberts and San Ardo, as well as the San Ardo Oil Field about five miles south of San Ardo. Near this point, the wide agricultural bottomlands of the Salinas Valley begins. North of King City, US 101 once again switches intermittently between freeway and
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,456. It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Downtown Compton, Richland Farms; the city is a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods, is home to a young population, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 38. In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area; the tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was applied to the Dominguez Hills area south of Compton; the tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets. The rancho was subdivided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848.
American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848. In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of 30 pioneers to the area; these families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California, in search of ways to earn a living other than the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton. Compton's earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence; the weather continued to be harsh and cold, fuel was difficult to find. To gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena; the round trip took a week. Many in the Compton party wanted to relocate to a friendlier climate and settle down, but as there were two general stores within traveling distance—one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington—they decided to stay put.
By 1887, the settlers realized. A series of town meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned for agriculture and named Richland Farms. In January 1888, a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton was forwarded to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. On May 11, 1888 the city of Compton was incorporated with a population of 500 people; the first City Council meeting was held on May 14, 1888. The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, food to feed them, along with building a barn, caring for livestock; the farms attracted the black families who had begun migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, there they found their'home away from home'. Compton couldn't support large-scale agricultural business, but it did give the residents the opportunity to work the land for their families.
The 1920s saw the opening of the Compton Airport. Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street. On March 10, 1933, a destructive earthquake caused many casualties: schools were destroyed and there was major damage to the central business district. While it would be home to a large black population, in 1930 there was only one black resident. From the 1920s through the early 1940s, the Compton area was home to a sizable Japanese American population, a large proportion of whom were farmers. Shortly after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 in February 1942, Compton residents of Japanese descent were forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated for the duration of World War II. Most were detained at the Santa Anita Assembly Center. In the late 1940s, middle class blacks began moving into the area on the west side. Compton grew in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton; the eastern side of the city was predominately white until the 1970s.
Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the legacy of Griffith D. Compton, there still remains one small pocket of agriculture from its earliest years. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the Supreme Court declared all racially exclusive housing covenants unconstitutional in the case Shelley v. Kraemer, the first black families moved to the area. Compton's growing black population was still ignored and neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was built to accommodate a burgeoning student population. At one time, the City Council discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. A black man first ran for City Council in 1958, the first black councilman was elected in 1961. In 1969, Douglas Dollarhide became the mayor, the first black man elected mayor of any metropolitan city in California. Two blacks and one Mexican-American were elected to the local school board.
Four years in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first female black mayor of a metropolitan American city. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest conce
California State Route 91
State Route 91 is a major east–west freeway located within Southern California and serving several regions of the Greater Los Angeles urban area. It runs from Vermont Avenue in Gardena, just west of the junction with the Harbor Freeway, east to Riverside at the junction with the Pomona, Moreno Valley freeways. SR 91 inherited its route number from the decommissioned US 91, which passed through the Inland Empire in a northeasterly direction on its way to Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, points beyond; those segments of US 91 are now parallel to, or have been replaced altogether by, I-15. Though signs along the portion between Vermont Avenue and Pacific Coast Highway in Hermosa Beach along Artesia Boulevard are still signed off as SR 91, Caltrans does not control this portion of the highway, as this portion was relinquished to local jurisdictions in 2003; the area from post mile 10.4 to 11.1 is signed as the Juanita Millender-McDonald Highway. From the Harbor Freeway to its intersection with the Long Beach Freeway in northern Long Beach, SR 91 is named the Gardena Freeway.
Between the Long Beach Freeway and its intersection with the Santa Ana Freeway in Buena Park, it is named the Artesia Freeway. From the Santa Ana Freeway to its eastern terminus at the intersection of the Pomona, Moreno Valley, Escondido Freeways, it is named the Riverside Freeway. Control cities on SR 91 vary by location. For westbound, between SR 60/I-215 and the Orange County line, the control city is Beach Cities. With SR 241 heading towards Irvine, Laguna Beach, the rest of south Orange County, the control city becomes Los Angeles between the Orange–Riverside county line and I-5. I-5 directs travelers to Los Angeles so between I-5 and Pioneer Boulevard, the control city is Artesia. Between Pioneer Boulevard and SR 1, the control city becomes Beach Cities again. For eastbound, the control city, for the entire route is Riverside; the Beach Cities control city may have to do with SR 91's western terminus in Hermosa Beach. SR 91 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.
SR 91 is part of the State Scenic Highway System from SR 55 to the east city limit of Anaheim, in the western part of the Santa Ana Canyon, is eligible for the system through the canyon to Interstate 15. The Gardena Freeway is a freeway in southern Los Angeles County, it is the westernmost freeway portion of State Route 91. It begins just west of the Harbor Freeway at the intersection with Vermont Avenue in the eastern edge of the city of Gardena, proceeding eastward six miles until it intersects the Long Beach Freeway. Thereafter, SR 91 is known as the Artesia Freeway; until 1991, the Gardena Freeway was known as the Redondo Beach Freeway. The name change reflected the successful efforts of the cities of Torrance and Redondo Beach to block the extension of the freeway westward to its intended terminus at the cancelled Pacific Coast Freeway in Redondo Beach. In 1997, the California government dedicated the portion of SR 91 between Alameda Street and Central Avenue to former assemblyman Willard H. Murray Jr.
The Artesia Freeway is a freeway in southeastern Los Angeles northwestern Orange County. It runs east–west from its western terminus at the Long Beach Freeway in northern Long Beach to its eastern terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway in Buena Park; the "Artesia Freeway" name was assigned to the entire length of SR 91 west of the Santa Ana Freeway in the early 1970s since it was, in sense, the freeway realignment of SR 91 from the paralleling Artesia Boulevard. During the 1984 Summer Olympics, a 25 km stretch of the highway was home to the cycling men's road team time trial event; as the only freeway to link Los Angeles and Riverside counties, SR 91 is one of the most congested routes in Southern California. Between the Santa Ana Freeway, Interstate 5, in Buena Park and the 91 Freeway's eastern terminus at a junction with Interstate 215 and State Route 60 in Riverside, the 91 Freeway's assigned name is the Riverside Freeway. Past the I-215/CA-60/CA-91 junction, the Riverside Freeway continues as I-215.
A weigh station is available between the Imperial Weir Canyon Road exits. In 2003, Caltrans permanently closed off the Coal Canyon Road westbound and eastbound exits and entrances for environmental purposes. In 2015, Caltrans permanently closed off the Grand Boulevard eastbound exit and westbound entrance to accommodate the widening of the freeway. If the ramps had stayed open and houses would have to be demolished; the leftover ramps were scrapped with the widening and there is no emergency exit. The Riverside Freeway first opened in 1963 signed as U. S. Route 91 and U. S. Route 395 and the last section was built in 1975; the 91 Express Lanes are 18-mile high-occupancy toll lanes contained within the median of the Riverside Freeway in Orange and Riverside counties. The 91 Express Lanes run from the junction of SR 91 with the SR 55 Freeway in Anaheim to its junction with I-15 in Corona. Before the extension in 2017, they ended at the Riverside County line. With the extension of the toll lanes, the HOV lane between I-15 and Green River Road was removed
Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio