Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge
Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge located in southern Colorado. The refuge is located in the San Luis Valley south of the town of Monte Vista, Colorado in southeastern Rio Grande County, Colorado, in the watershed of the Rio Grande, it was established in 1953 by the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission to provide a habitat for wildlife waterfowl, in the San Luis Valley. The site was an agricultural area and thus water is intensively managed on the refuge in comparison to the nearby Alamosa refuge. Irrigation includes numerous dikes and other water control structures that provide water to a patchwork of diverse wetland habitats ranging from shallow wet meadows to open water; the refuge includes Artesian wells, pumped wells and irrigation canals, some dating to the "ditch boom" of the 1880s. The refuge is a major stopover for migrating greater sandhill cranes moving between their wintering area around Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and breeding grounds in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Up to 20,000 cranes pass through in the spring and again in the fall. Three remaining endangered whooping cranes from a failed attempt to establish a wild migratory population in the 1980s can be seen migrating with their foster species, the sandhill crane. Beginning in the l980s, a herd of elk began using the refuge. At present, several hundred elk may be seen on the refuge seeking winter food and sanctuary from hunting pressure on nearby public lands
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Conejos County, Colorado
Conejos County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,256; the county seat is the unincorporated community of Conejos. The first European known to visit this area was Don Diego de Vargas in 1694, but he left behind no colonists. In 1708, Juan de Uribarri passed through searching for run-away Indian slaves. Conejos County was one of the original 17 counties created by the General Assembly of the Territory of Colorado on 1861-11-01, although it was named Guadalupe County and renamed Conejos County a week on November 7, its name coming from the Spanish word "conejo", meaning rabbit, for the large abundance of rabbits in the area. Early in its existence, the county seat was moved from the town of Guadalupe to Conejos; the original boundaries of the county included a large portion of southwestern Colorado. In 1874, most of the western and northern portions of the county were broken away to form parts of Hinsdale, La Plata and Rio Grande counties, Conejos County achieved its modern borders in 1885 when its western half was taken to create Archuleta County.
The community of Conejos is the location of the oldest church in Colorado, called Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish. This church was constructed in 1856; the first settlers into the area were from New Mexico from Abiquiu, San Juan de los Caballeros and Santa Cruz. As more people arrived, mission churches were set up and all had the records housed with Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish; when the neighboring town of Antonito was built, the Theatines, priests from Spain, came into the area and built St. Augustine church in 1880 within Antonito; the church records from Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish are now housed at the church offices of Saint Augustine. Conejos is a mile northwest of Antonito. Presbyterians came into Conejos County in 1880 establishing churches in Antonito, Cenicero, Del Norte, San Rafael, Monte Vista, they established schools in the area and had a large number of Hispanic converts. A jacal went up in 1854 in Guadalupe, now known as Conejos, the beginning of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish. There is a large Mormon population within Conejos County.
Settlers belonging to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints began settling in the towns of La Jara and Sanford. Fox Creek, a village 11 miles west of Antonito, is the newest community to have an LDS meetinghouse erected, although there had been a meetinghouse there. Fox Creek, does not have a predominantly Mormon population. Records available for this area are marriage records. Divorce records are maintained by the clerk of the district court. Agencies that hold records for marriages and divorces from 1900 to 1939 are the Colorado State Archives and Denver Public Library Genealogy Department. Other records available are marriage records from 1871 and death records from 1877-1907; this include land records from 1871, probate records from 1875, court records from 1877. However, some records were lost due to a fire. Websites that will be of use when doing genealogical research are The Colorado Genealogical Society and Conejos County WW II Enlistments; when Colorado Amendment 64 was being voted into effect by Coloradans, Conejos County residents voted against approving the measure to legalize and regulate recreational Marijuana consumption and possession for those 21 or older.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,291 square miles, of which 1,287 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. Conejos County is in a broad high mountain valley in South Central Colorado, it has an area of 825,446 acres in 1,290 square miles. Half the area is on the nearly level floor of the valley, where the average elevation is about 7,700 feet; the western half of the county ranges from rolling to steep foothills with mountains that rise in elevation to about 13,000 feet. Conejos County is situated with the National Forest to the west and the Rio Grande to the east, along Colorado's southern border with the state of New Mexico. Only about 34 percent of Conejos County is owned with the other 66 percent being National Forest, Bureau of Land Management or State owned lands. In winter, the average temperature is 21.6 degrees Fahrenheit, the average daily minimum temperature is 4 degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 61.4 degrees, the average maximum temperature is 79.6 degrees.
Seventy-one percent of the annual precipitation falls in the months of April through September. Average seasonal snowfall is 28 inches; the average relative humidity in mid-afternoon in spring is less than 35 percent. The percentage of possible sunshine is 73 in the winter. Rio Grande County - north Alamosa County - northeast Costilla County - east Taos County, New Mexico - southeast Rio Arriba County, New Mexico - south Archuleta County- west Rio Grande National Forest San Juan National Forest South San Juan Wilderness Old Spanish National Historic Trail Pike's Stockade, a National Historic Landmark Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Los Caminos Antiguos Scenic & Historic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 8,400 people, 2,9
Alamosa is a city under Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Alamosa County, United States. The city population was 8,780 at the 2010 United States Census; the city is the commercial center of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado, is the home of Adams State University. Alamosa was established in May 1878 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and became an important rail center; the railroad had an extensive construction and shipping facility in Alamosa for many years and headquartered its remaining narrow gauge service here with trackage reaching many points throughout southwest Colorado and northern New Mexico. Alamosa is now a notable tourist town with many nearby attractions, including the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and Colorado Gators Reptile Park; the town hosts "Summer Fest on the Rio" which occurs the first weekend in June, the Early Iron car show over the Labor Day weekend, "Weekends on the Rio" on various Sundays throughout the summer The city takes its name from the Spanish adjective Alamosa, meaning "of cottonwood", for the cottonwood forests which grow along the Rio Grande and throughout town.
Alamosa is located at 37°28′N 105°52′W, at the junction of U. S. Routes 160 and 285. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.4 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 2.26%, is water. Alamosa is located along the Rio Grande in the San Luis Valley, in the highest general agricultural land in the United States. Elevation is about 7,500 feet in Alamosa with peaks over 14,000 feet within 23 miles of town in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Alamosa features a cold desert climate with long, cold winters and warm summers, dry weather year-round. Normals range from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July. Annual precipitation is only 7.25 inches, with summer being the wettest. The aridity depresses mean snowfall to around 32 inches, the median to only 22.3 inches. The altitude and dryness of the air cause day-night temperature differences to be severe year-round. Alamosa's geography and nighttime temperatures account for it being listed as the coldest city in the contiguous United States, with a record average of 227 nights per year with a minimum temperature of 32 °F or less, 48.7 nights with minima below 0 °F.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,960 people, 2,974 households, 1,769 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,995.0 people per square mile. There were 3,215 housing units at an average density of 805.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.53% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 2.20% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 22.36% from other races, 4.28% from two or more races. 46.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,974 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 21.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,453, the median income for a family was $33,017. Males had a median income of $27,100 versus $22,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,405. About 18.1% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 17.0% of those age 65 or over. The city of Alamosa is a Home Rule Municipality like many other Colorado towns; the City Council has four elected from wards and two at large. The Council has authority to make and repeal laws and ordinances; the city elects a mayor-at-large on a non-partisan ballot. The current mayor of Alamosa is Ty Coleman. Alamosa Public Schools are part of the Alamosa School District RE-11J, include Alamosa Elementary School, Ortega Middle School, Alamosa High School. Robert Alejo is the Superintendent of Schools.
Adams State University, founded in 1921 as a teacher's college, offers both undergraduate and graduate programs. Graduate level programs emphasize teaching and education, art and business. Many courses are available online. In 2015, the college reached an all-time high enrollment of 3,701 students; the University's location in Alamosa, with an elevation of about 7,800 ft above sea level, attracts many athletes to the school's athletic program. In 2014, ASU added a cycling program. Alamosa is on the Rio Grande River, crossed by two auto bridges, one pedestrian bridge and one rail bridge in town. Auto traffic is served by U. S. Highway 160 running east and west and U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 17 running north and south. Alamosa is served by the San Rio Grande Railroad; the local airport is San Luis Valley Regional Airport. Alamosa is the shopping center for the San Luis Valley and has a Walmart Supercenter, a Walgreens and two supermarkets and City Market. There are a number of fast food restaurants, two medical clinics, a regional hospital, San Luis Valley Regional Medical Center.
Adams State University is located in Alam
San Luis Valley Regional Airport
San Luis Valley Regional Airport is two miles south of Alamosa, in Alamosa County, Colorado. It sees one airline, subsidized by the Essential Air Service program. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 7,161 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 6,279 in 2009 and 6,737 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a non-primary commercial service airport. The first airline flights were Monarch DC-3s in 1946-47; the airport covers 1,700 acres at an elevation of 7,539 feet. It has one runway: 2/20 is 8,519 by 100 feet asphalt. In the year ending January 1, 2011 the airport had 30,772 aircraft operations, average 84 per day: 73% general aviation, 23% air taxi, 3% military. 44 aircraft were based at the airport: 84% single-engine, 14% multi-engine, 2% helicopter. The airport is an uncontrolled airport. Scheduled passenger service: Official website San Luis Valley Regional Airport at Colorado DOT website FAA Terminal Procedures for ALS, effective March 28, 2019 Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association - Airport Information
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may