click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alan Bond

Alan Bond was an Australian businessman noted for his high-profile and corrupt business dealings, including his central role in the WA Inc scandals of the 1980s, what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. The Alan Cup road hockey tournament is held at Bond University in his name. Alan Bond was born on 22 April 1938, the son of Frank and Kathleen Bond in the Hammersmith district of London, England. In 1950, aged 12, he emigrated to Australia with his parents and his elder sister Geraldine, living in Fremantle, near Perth. At the age of 14, he was charged with being unlawfully on premises. Aged 18, he was arrested for being unlawfully on premises, admitted planning a robbery. Born in London and raised in Australia from the age of 12, Bond began his career as a signwriter and formed what became the Bond Corporation in 1959, he became a public hero in his adopted country after bankrolling challenges for the America's Cup, which resulted in his selection in 1978 as Australian of the Year.

His Australia II syndicate won the 1983 America's Cup, held by the New York Yacht Club since 1851, thus breaking the longest winning streak in the history of sport. The Perth-based Bond made his fortune in property development, at one time was one of Australia's most prominent businesspeople. In 1970 he bought three America's Cup challenge yachts from Sir Frank Packer, he extended his business interests into other fields including brewing, gold mining and airships. Australia's first private university, Bond University, was founded by Bond Corporation in 1987, he purchased QTQ-9 Brisbane and settled an outstanding defamation dispute the station had with the Queensland premier, Joh Bjelke-Petersen by paying out A$400,000. He said in a television interview several years that he paid because "Sir Joh left no doubt that if we were going to continue to do business in Queensland he expected the matter to be resolved". In 1987, Bond purchased Vincent van Gogh's renowned painting Irises for $54 million—the highest price paid for a single painting.

However, the purchase was funded by a substantial loan from the auctioneer Sotheby's, which Bond failed to repay. The transaction was criticised by art dealers as a manipulated sale designed to artificially inflate values generally; the painting was subsequently re-sold in 1990 to the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. In 1987, he built and developed the Bond Centre in Hong Kong, it was bought by the Lippo Group of Indonesia and is now known as the Lippo Centre. In 1987, Bond paid $1 billion to purchase the Australia-wide Channel Nine television network from Kerry Packer's PBL. In a 2003 interview with Andrew Denton, Bond described the negotiations as follows: "...when we first sat down, we said,'We're either going to sell our stations to you for $400 million, or you're going to sell your stations to us.' And said,'Well, I don't want to sell my stations.' And I said,'Oh, is that right?' So, after much discussion, Kerry thumped the table and said,'Listen, if you can pay me $1 billion, I'll sell them to you, otherwise bugger off'....

Hen I rang the National Australia Bank. I said,'Look, I'm in discussions here to buy these television stations. Kerry will sell to me, what I want to do is put our stations together and with Sky Channel, I'm going to float it off as a separate entity and raise the capital to pay for it... said $1 billion, but I think I'll get it for $800 million.'... duly rang back and said yes. I said,'Thank God. I'll have some further negotiations with Kerry,' which I did, and true to his word, he never budged one penny off it. So I settled the deal with a $200 million note. So he put his own $200 million in. So I had $1 billion, and we put our other two stations up as collateral, which were worth $400 million." In fact, the agreed price was $1.05 billion. Packer took $250 million in subordinated debt in Bond Media. Once Bond went bankrupt, Packer was able to turn the debt into a 37% equity in Bond Media, which now included Channel 9 in Brisbane, was worth about $500 million, it had $500 million in debt on the books.

Still, Packer was quoted as saying "You only get one Alan Bond in your lifetime, I've had mine". In 1992, Bond was declared bankrupt after failing to repay a $194 million personal guarantee on a loan for a nickel mining project, his debts totalled $1.8 billion at the time. In 1995, his family bought him out of bankruptcy, with creditors accepting a payment of A$12 million, a little over half a cent per dollar. In 1992, Bond was declared bankrupt with personal debts totaling A$1.8 billion. In 1997, Bond was sentenced to seven years in prison after pleading guilty to using his controlling interest in Bell Resources to deceptively siphon off A$1.2 billion into the coffers of Bond Corporation. The funds were used to shore up the cash resources of the ailing Bond Corporation, which spectacularly collapsed, leaving Bell Resources in a precarious situation. At this time, Bond was stripped of his 1984 honour as an Officer of the O

Green Lama

The Green Lama is a fictional pulp magazine hero of the 1940s. He is portrayed as a powerful Buddhist Lama, dressing in green robes with a red scarf and using his powerful skill set to fight crime. Different versions of the same character appeared in comic books and on the radio. Unlike many contemporary characters from smaller publishers, Green Lama character is not in the public domain, as the author "wisely retained all rights to his creation." The Green Lama first appeared in a short novel entitled The Green Lama in the April 1940 issue of Double Detective magazine. The novel was written by Kendell Foster Crossen using the pseudonym of "Richard Foster." Writing in 1976, Crossen recalled that the character was created because the publishers of Double Detective, the Frank Munsey company, wanted a competitor for The Shadow, published by their rivals Street & Smith. The character inspired by explorer Theos "the White Lama" Bernard, was conceived as "The Gray Lama," but tests of the cover art proved to be unsatisfactory, so the color was changed to green.

The Green Lama proved to be successful, Crossen continued to produce Green Lama stories for Double Detective up until March 1943, for a total of 14 stories. Although appearing in a detective fiction magazine, the Green Lama tales can be considered science fiction or supernatural fantasy in that the Green Lama and other characters are possessed of superhuman powers and super-science weapons; the Green Lama is an alias of Jethro Dumont, a rich resident of New York City, born July 25, 1903, to millionaires John Pierre Dumont and Janet Lansing. He received his A. B. from Harvard University, M. A. from Oxford, Ph. D. from the Sorbonne. He inherited his father’s fortune, estimated at ten million dollars, when his parents were both killed in an accident while he was still at Harvard, he returned to America intending to spread the doctrines of Tibetan Buddhism, but realized that he could accomplish more by fighting crime, since Americans were not ready to receive spiritual teachings. He never carried a gun, believing that "this would make me no better than those I fight."

Dumont was endowed with superhuman powers acquired through his scientific knowledge of radioactive salts. Dumont had two main alter egos: the Buddhist priest Dr. Pali. Additional alter egos included the adventurer "Hugh Gilmore." Among the Green Lama's associates were a Tibetan lama named Tsarong, the college-educated reformed gangster Gary Brown, the post-debutante Evangl Stewart, radiologist Dr. Harrison Valco, New York City police detective John Caraway, actor Ken Clayton, Montana-born actress Jean Farrell, magician Theodor Harrin; the Green Lama was frequently assisted by a mysterious woman known as "Magga," whose true identity was never revealed. Crossen's pseudonym "Richard Foster" was established as a character and friend of Jethro Dumont; the first six stories have been reprinted in the pulp reprint fanzine High Adventure. Altus Press has reprinted the entire series in three volumes. 1923–1933 "The Case of the Final Column" by Adam Lance Garcia The Green Lama: Unbound by Adam Lance Garcia Black Bat / The Green Lama: Homecoming by Adam Lance Garcia "Shiva Endangered" by Kevin Noel Olson Eye of the Beholder by Adam Lance Garcia1935 “Case of the Crimson Hand” by Kendell Foster Crossen “Croesus of Murder” by Kendell Foster Crossen1936 “Babies for Sale” by Kendell Foster Crossen “Wave of Death” by Kendell Foster Crossen1937 “The Man Who Wasn’t There” by Kendell Foster Crossen “Death’s Head Face” by Kendell Foster Crossen1938 The Green Lama: Horror in Clay by Adam Lance Garcia “The Case of the Clown Who Laughed” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Invisible Enemy” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Mad Magi” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Vanishing Ships” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Fugitive Fingerprints” by Kendell Foster Crossen The Green Lama: Scions by Adam Lance Garcia “The Case of the Crooked Cane” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Hollywood Ghost” by Kendell Foster Crossen1939 “The Case of the Beardless Corpse” by Kendell Foster Crossen “The Case of the Final Column” by Adam Lance Garcia The Green Lama: Unbound by Adam Lance Garcia The Green Lama: “Dæmon’s Kiss” by Adam Lance Garcia The Green Lama: Crimson Circle by Adam Lance Garcia In 2009, Airship 27 Productions and publisher Cornerstone Book Publishers began releasing a series of new pulp anthologies and novels.

These new stories treat the original pulps as a vague history, though they shift the time period from the early 1940s to the late 1930s and portray the Lama as younger and less experienced. While the books were produced without the Crossen Estate, neither the authors nor the publisher were aware of the estate's claim at the time; the book was produced in good faith under the belief that the character was in the Public Domain, with no intention to infringe on any unknown rights. One of the stories, set in 1939, sought to portray the origin of the Green Lama; the other stories, while preceding the pulps in narrative order, would be set in the 1940s preceding the first publication in April 1940. The first new Green Lama anthology was released on August 14, 2009; the anthology, edited by Ron Fortier, featured three new stories—two short stories, one novella—written by Kevin Noel Olson, W. Peter Miller, Adam L. Garcia, respectively. Olson's story, "Shiva Endangered", tel

Operation Barga

Operation Barga was a land reform movement throughout rural West Bengal for recording the names of sharecroppers while avoiding the time-consuming method of recording through the settlement machinery. It bestowed on the bargadars, the legal protection against eviction by the landlords, entitled them to the due share of the produce. Operation Barga was concluded by the mid-1980s. Introduced in 1978, given legal backing in 1979 and 1980, Operation Barga became a popular but controversial measure for land reforms; the ultimate aim of these land reforms was to facilitate the conversion of the state's bargadars into landowners, in line with the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Indian Constitution. To date, Op Barga has recorded the names of 1.5 million bargadars. Since it has been marked as one of the more successful land reforms programs in India; the Land Reforms Act of India and its subsequent amendments stated that all sharecroppers would have permanent use rights on land that they had lease and that such rights would be inheritable.

Such incumbency rights could be claimed as long as sharecroppers paid the legal share of the crop to their landlords or did not leave the land uncultivated or unless the landlords wished to take back the land for personal cultivation. However, landlords used the personal cultivation clause to evict tenants. There was another major barrier. A tenant would have to formally register his status with the government, but few tenants registered, faced as they were with potential intimidation from their landlords, the removal of other forms of support such as consumption credit, the prospect of a long and arduous legal battle if they wanted to dispute an eviction. Given this imbalance, landlords exploited their tenants, either evicting them just before the harvest season, or giving them a lower share of the produce they were entitled to, or refusing to give loans or charging high rates of interest on loans taken for agricultural investments by the bargadar. Enumeration of the sharecroppers and legal recording of their tenancy would have provided them with protection from eviction and exploitation under the existing laws itself.

However, most bargadars did not know their rights under these laws, given their financial status, they were financially dependent on their landlords. Additionally, the long and tedious recording process, the fear of reprisals by the landlords meant that most bargadars did not record their names. Recording drives before Operation Barga had managed to record only 400,000, out of the estimated total of 2.2-2.5 million bargadars. The Left Front came to power in West Bengal in 1977 as the ruling state government. In existing tenant laws they found possibilities to advance their agenda of agrarian reform; the Left Front carried out a two-pronged attack. It took the no-cultivation clause and closed off this loophole, it encouraged the registration of tenants through the much publicized Operation Barga. In June 1978, based on discussions held during a workshop on Land Reforms, the West Bengal government launched Operation Barga; this was given legal backing through the Bengal Land Holding Revenue Act, 1979 and the Revenue Rules of 1980.

In 1981 the West Bengal Government passed a law to remove the exemptions given to orchards, plantations and religious trusts from the purview of the land reforms. Operation Barga aimed to record the names of the sharecroppers, who formed a major part of the agrarian population in West Bengal and to educate them about their cultivation rights. Operation Barga depended on collective action by the sharecroppers and was qualitatively different from the traditional Revenue Court approach, biased in favour of the richer and more influential landowners; the enumeration and recording of Sharecroppers and educating them about their rights was an important step in raising their economic and social status. By giving these farmers more rights, protecting them from exploitation by the landowners, they were assured of a stable livelihood, which would improve their living standards as well, give them an opportunity to become landowners themselves. While Operation Barga did not directly attempt to turn the bargadars into landowners, the legislation included two provisions intended to facilitate that conversion.

Firstly, the legislation gave bargadars priority rights to purchase the barga land if the landlord decided to sell it. Secondly, the legislation authorized the state government to establish a "land corporation" that would advance funds to bargadars to purchase barga land using this priority right; the second provision has not yet been implemented due to lack of funding. To implement Operation Barga, the government adopted the principle of people's participation in land reforms, collective action by the stakeholders; this movement was launched with the active assistance of not only the bargadars themselves but of rural workers' organizations and self-governing institutions. The operation was divided into the following five distinct steps: Identification of the priority pockets with large concentration of bargadars. Camping by the Government Officials at the priority pockets. Meeting between the bargadars and the government officials; the collective participation of the villagers in the reconnaissance and field verification to establish the claims of sharecroppers.

Issue of temporary certificates called `parchas' to confirm sharecroppers as evidence of their rights enabling them to obtain bank credit. To begin with, group meetings between Officials and Bargadars were organized during "settlement

Shepherd's Bush murders

The Shepherd's Bush murders known as the Massacre of Braybrook Street, involved the murder of three police officers in London by Harry Roberts and two others in 1966. The officers had stopped to question the three occupants of a car waiting on Braybrook Street, near Wormwood Scrubs prison. Roberts shot dead Temporary Detective Constable David Wombwell and Detective Sergeant Christopher Head, whilst John Duddy, another occupant in the vehicle, shot dead Police Constable Geoffrey Fox; the three suspects went on the run. All three were arrested and subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment. Duddy died in prison in 1981. John Witney, the driver of the suspects' vehicle, was convicted of the murders. Roberts became one of the longest-serving prisoners in the country, serving 48 years before his controversial release in 2014. Public sympathy for the families of the victims resulted in the establishment of the Police Dependants' Trust to assist the welfare of families of British police officers who have died in the line of duty.

On 12 August 1966, a Metropolitan Police crew in an unmarked Triumph 2000 Q-car, registration plate GGW 87C and call sign "Foxtrot One One", was patrolling East Acton in west London. Detective Sergeant Christopher Tippett Head, aged 30, Temporary Detective Constable David S Bertram Wombwell, aged 25, were both members of the Criminal Investigation Department based at Shepherd's Bush police station in F Division, their driver was Police Constable Geoffrey Roger Fox, aged 41, class 1 advanced driver, a beat constable who had served for many years in F Division and acted as a Q-car driver due to his vast local knowledge. All three officers were in plain clothes. At about 3:15 pm, the car turned into Braybrook Street, a residential road on the Old Oak council estate bordering Wormwood Scrubs and Wormwood Scrubs prison; the officers spotted a battered blue Standard Vanguard estate van, registration plate PGT 726, parked at the roadside with three men sitting inside it. Since escapes were sometimes attempted from the prison with the assistance of getaway vehicles driven by accomplices, the officers decided to question the occupants.

It is possible that PC Fox recognised the van's driver, John Witney, as a known criminal. The vehicle had no tax disc on display, a legal requirement. DS Head and DC Wombwell got out of their car and walked over to the van, where they questioned Witney about the lack of a tax disc, he replied that he had not yet obtained his MOT test certificate, required before a tax disc could be issued. DS Head asked Witney for his driving vehicle insurance certificate. Witney protested that he had been caught for the same offence two weeks before and pleaded to be given a break. However, as he did so his front seat passenger, Harry Roberts, produced a Luger pistol and shot DC Wombwell through the left eye, killing him instantly. DS Head ran back towards his car but Roberts chased and, after missing with the next shot, shot him in the head. John Duddy, the back seat passenger got out, grabbing a.38 Webley Service Revolver from the bag next to him. He ran over to the Q-car and shot PC Fox three times through the window as he tried to reverse towards him and Roberts, who fired several shots.

As he died, Fox's foot jerked down on the accelerator pedal causing the car to lurch forward over the prone body of DS Head, dying of his wounds. Duddy and Roberts got back into the van and Witney reversed down a side street and pulled out onto Wulfstan Street before driving away at speed. However, a passer-by, suspicious of a car driving so fast near the prison, had written down the registration plate. Witney, the van's owner, was arrested at his home six hours after the incident. Following a tip-off, the van was discovered the next day in a lock-up garage rented by Witney under a railway bridge in Vauxhall, it contained some spent equipment that could be used for stealing cars. Witney pretended that he had sold the van for £15 to an unknown man in a pub earlier in the day, but confessed on 14 August, admitting what had happened, naming his accomplices. Duddy had fled to his native Glasgow but was arrested on 17 August using information obtained from his brother. Roberts hid out in Thorley Wood near Bishop's Stortford in Hertfordshire to avoid the huge manhunt.

He used his military training to avoid police capture for three months. A £1,000 reward was offered for information leading to his arrest, he was captured on 15 November whilst sleeping in a barn at Blount's Farm near Thorley Wood. Roberts was familiar with the area as he had visited it as a child with his mother; the three suspects were John Duddy and Harry Maurice Roberts. Witney was a known petty criminal with ten convictions for theft, he lived with his wife in a basement flat in Paddington. Duddy was a long-distance lorry driver, he had been in trouble for theft several times when he was younger, but had been straight since 1948. Prior to the offence he had started to drink and had met Roberts and Witney in a club. Roberts was a career criminal with convictions for attempted store-breaking and robbery with violence, he was a former soldier who ha

Haig Minibat

The Haig Minibat is a high-wing, single-seat flying wing motor glider, designed by Larry Haig and at one time available as plans or in kit form for amateur construction. The kit is no longer available; the Minibat was designed by Haig as a motor glider, but without self-launching capabilities, instead the aircraft is launched by aerotow, winch launching or auto-tow. The small chainsaw engine provides enough power to ensure a positive rate of climb and prevent land-outs, but not enough power for launching; the design goal was a glider with greater performance than the Schweizer 1-26. The Minibat is constructed predominately from foam and fiberglass and features a monowheel landing gear; the engine is mounted in the rear fuselage in pusher configuration, with the propeller mounted unconventionally between the fuselage and the rudder. Wingtip extensions are available which increase the wingspan to 32.7 ft and raise the aircraft's glide ratio from 23:1 with the standard 25 ft wings to 30:1. In March 2011 there were ten Minibats registered with the Federal Aviation Administration in the USA.

Data from SoaringGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 32 ft 8 in Wing area: 76.5 sq ft Aspect ratio: 14:1 Empty weight: 130 lb Gross weight: 350 lb Powerplant: 1 × chain saw engine single cylinderPerformance Maximum glide ratio: 30:1 Rate of sink: 180 ft/min List of gliders Aircraft of comparable role and era Marske Monarch Three view drawing Photo of Minibat

Bocage

Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture characteristic of parts of France and Ireland, as well as in the Netherlands and in northern Germany, in regions where pastoral farming is the dominant land use. Bocage may refer to a small forest, a decorative element of leaves, or a type of rubble-work, comparable with the English use of "rustic" in relation to garden ornamentation. In the decorative arts porcelain, it refers to a leafy screen spreading above and behind figures. Though found on continental figures, it is something of an English speciality, beginning in the mid-18th century in Chelsea porcelain, spreading to more downmarket Staffordshire pottery figures. In English, bocage refers to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with fields and winding country lanes sunken between narrow low ridges and banks surmounted by tall thick hedgerows that break the wind but limit visibility, it is the sort of landscape found for example in Devon. However the term is more found in technical than general usage in England.

In France the term is in more general use for Normandy, with a similar meaning. Bocage landscape in France is confined to Normandy and parts of the Loire valley. Bocage is a Norman word that comes from the Old Norman boscage, from the Old French root bosc > Modern French bois cf. Medieval Latin boscus; the Norman place names retain it as Bosc-, -bosc, Bosc-, pronounced traditionally or. The suffix -age means "a general thing"; the boscage form was used in English for leafy decoration such as is found on eighteenth-century porcelain. Similar words occur in other Germanic languages; the boscage form seems to have developed its meaning under the influence of eighteenth-century romanticism. The 1934 Nouveau Petit Larousse defined bocage as'a bosquet, a little wood, an agreeably shady wood' and a bosquet as'a little wood, a clump of trees'. By 2006, the Petit Larousse definition had become' Region where the fields and meadows are enclosed by earth banks carrying hedges or rows of trees and where the habitation is dispersed in farms and hamlets.'

In Southeast England, in spite of a sedimentary soil which would not fit this landscape, a bocage resulted from the movement of the enclosure of the open fields. England developed in the 17th century an ambitious sea policy, it imported cheaper than English wheat. The enclosures favoured limited English cereal production; as a consequence of this policy, the rural exodus was amplified, accelerating the Industrial Revolution. The surplus of agricultural workers migrated to the cities to work in factories. In Normandy, the bocage acquired a particular significance in the Chouannerie during the French Revolution, it was significant during the Battle of Normandy in World War II, as it made progress against the German defenders difficult. In response, "Rhino tanks" fitted with bocage-cutting modifications were developed. American personnel referred to bocage as hedgerows; the German army used sunken lanes to implement strong points and defenses to stop the American troops on the Cotentin peninsula and around the town of Saint-Lô.

All of lowland Ireland is characterised by bocage landscape, a consequence of pastoral farming which requires enclosure for the management of herds. 5% of Ireland's land area is devoted to hedges, field walls and shelterbelts. In the more fertile areas these consist of earthen banks, which are planted with or colonised by trees and shrubs; this pattern of hedgerows was established in the late 18th and 19th centuries, a period when Ireland was devoid of natural woodland. Modern intensive agriculture has tended to increase field size by removing hedgerows, a trend, countered by the European Union's agricultural policies favouring the conservation of wildlife habitats. Notes Sources Oxford English Dictionary Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré Petit Larousse Illustré 2007 Media related to Boscages at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of bocage at Wiktionary