Katherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. The character first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129 and was co-created by writer-artist John Byrne and Chris Claremont. A mutant, Pryde possesses a "phasing" ability that allows her, as well as objects or people she is in contact with, to become intangible; this power disrupts any electrical field she passes through, lets her simulate levitation. The youngest person to join the X-Men, she was first portrayed as a "kid sister" to many older members of the X-Men, filling the role of literary foil to the more established characters. During this time she uses the codenames Sprite and Ariel, undergoing many costume changes for each codename until settling for her trademark black and gold costume. During the miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine she is renamed Shadowcat, the alias she would be most associated with, transitions to the more mature depiction of her subsequent appearances.
She was one of the main cast of characters depicted in the original Excalibur title. After joining the Guardians of the Galaxy, she assumes her fiancé's superhero identity as the Star-Lord. In the X-Men film series, Kitty was portrayed by young actresses in cameos: Sumela Kay in X-Men and Katie Stuart in X2. Ellen Page portrayed the character in X-Men: X-Men: Days of Future Past, she is ranked #47 in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes. Kitty Pryde was introduced into the X-Men title as the result of an editorial dictate that the book was supposed to depict a school for mutants. Uncanny X-Men artist John Byrne named Kitty Pryde after a classmate he met in art school, Alberta College of Art and Design in Calgary in 1973, he had told Pryde he liked her name and asked for permission to use it, promising to name his first original comics character after her. Byrne drew the character to resemble an adolescent Sigourney Weaver; the fictional Kitty Pryde first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129, by writer Chris Claremont and artist Byrne, as a intelligent 13-year-old girl.
Claremont said several elements of the character's personality were derived from those of X-Men editor Louise Simonson's daughter, Julie. Claremont and Byrne made the new character a full-fledged X-Man in issue #139, where she was codenamed "Sprite", she was the main character in issues #141–142, the "Days of Future Past" storyline, where she is possessed by her older self, whose consciousness time travels to the past to prevent a mass extermination of mutants. The six-issue miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine, written by Claremont, is a coming-of-age storyline in which she matures from a girl to a young woman, adopting the new name "Shadowcat". In the late'80s, she joined the British-based super team, where she remained for ten years before coming back to the X-Men. In the early 2000s, she disappeared from the spotlight after semi-retiring from superhero work, she was featured in the 2002 mini-series Mekanix and came back to the main X-Men books in 2004 under the pen of Joss Whedon in Astonishing X-Men.
She remained a part of the X-Men books until 2008 when she left again for 2 years. After coming back, she was featured in Jason Aaron's Wolverine and the X-Men and Brian Michael Bendis' All-New X-Men books. In early 2015, she joined the Guardians of the Galaxy. After the Secret Wars event, she adopted her new alias, Star-Lord. Shadowcat's popularity had a profound effect on the real-life Kitty Pryde: the latter became so overwhelmed by attention from Shadowcat fans, she abbreviated her name to K. D. Pryde to avoid association with her fictional counterpart, she has since stated she has mixed feelings about her fame, saying she values Byrne's comics for their entertainment and artistic value, but wishes more people would appreciate her as more than just Shadowcat's namesake. Katherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde was born in Illinois, to Carmen and Theresa Pryde, she is Jewish, her paternal grandfather, Samuel Prydeman, was held in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. Kitty started signaling the emergence of her mutant powers.
She was approached by both the X-Men's Charles Xavier and the Hellfire Club's White Queen, Emma Frost, both of whom hoped to recruit her for their respective causes. Kitty was unnerved by Frost, observing that the White Queen looked at her as if she were "something good to eat." She got along better with Xavier and the three X-Men who escorted him becoming friends with Ororo Munroe. Ororo told Kitty who she was and about the X-Men, which made the teenager more enthusiastic about attending Xavier's school, their conversation was cut short when they were attacked by armored mercenaries in the employ of Frost and the Hellfire Club. The X-Men defeated their assailants, but were subdued by the White Queen's telepathic powers after. In the confusion, Kitty was separated from the X-Men, not captured along with them, she managed to contact Cyclops and Nightcrawler. With the help of Dazzler and Pryde, those X-Men rescued their teammates from the Hellfire Club; the White Queen appeared to perish in the battle, which meant she was no longer competing with Xavier for the approval of Kitty's parents.
Kitty's parents had not heard from her in more than a day, because during that time she was first being pursued by the Hellfire Club's men and working with the X-Men to save their friends. All they knew was Kitty had left with Xavier's "students" to get a soda, there had been reports that the soda shop had been blown up, Kitty had been missing since. Therefore, they were angry
Rachel Anne Summers is a fictional superheroine appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Rachel was created by artist/co-writer John Byrne. In her first appearance, the character's surname was not revealed, she is the daughter of the alternate future counterparts to Cyclops and Jean Grey-Summers from a harsh dystopia, the sister of Nate Grey and half sister of Cable, a niece of Havok and Vulcan, a powerful mutant in her own right. Rachel Summers inherited her mother's vast telekinetic talents, she inherited her mother's original code names Phoenix and Marvel Girl. Although the character is considered unique to the Marvel Comics "multiverse", her name has been used to designate the mother of Marvel characters Hyperstorm and Dream Richards in respective timelines. Rachel first appeared in The Uncanny X-Men #141 and has since been affiliated with several comic book superhero teams including the X-Men and Excalibur. Rachel Anne Summers comes from an alternate future Earth known as Earth-811, as seen in the "Days of Future Past" storyline from The Uncanny X-Men #141–142.
In this reality, the assassination of Senator Robert Kelly provoked the ratification of the Mutant Registration Act, leading to a dystopian future where the mutant-hunting Sentinel robots rule North America. Rachel was abducted by operatives working for Ahab, who used drugs and hypnotherapy to turn Rachel into a "Hound", a mutant who tracks down other mutants, she fulfilled her duties. In return, he sent her to the mutant concentration camps. There, she befriended the surviving mutant rebels, including Wolverine, Colossus, Kate Pryde, her lover, the adult Franklin Richards. Rachel managed to send Kate's consciousness into the past to her younger self to prevent the assassination, but it did not change their time. Rachel sent her astral form into the past to find out why and discovered she had sent Kate into an alternate past. On the way back, she encountered the disembodied Phoenix Force and it followed her to her present. Rachel passed out from the strain of astral projection and the Phoenix Force revealed itself to Kate, who asked it to give Rachel a fresh start.
When Rachel and Kate broke into "Project: Nimrod" on a suicide mission to destroy a new model of Sentinel, they became trapped. When Kate spoke the words "Dark Phoenix," the Phoenix Force ripped Rachel from her timeline and sent her body back to the alternate past to which she had sent Kate's consciousness; this was a past where she learned Jean Grey was dead and that her father was married to someone else. Rachel experienced additional heartache and displacement trauma when she discovered that her father's new wife, Madelyne Pryor, was pregnant with a son, because in her timeline she was the first-born child of Scott Summers. Rachel had a brief membership in the X-Men before finding a Shi'ar holoempathic crystal at her grandparents' home; the crystal was imprinted with a portion of Rachel's mother's essence inside it as a tribute to the family shortly after Jean Grey's death. After Rachel took a vow to remember her mother with the uniform and name of Phoenix, the Phoenix Force bonded with her.
She was granted access to its power on a cosmic magnitude, albeit in a much more limited fashion than the Dark Phoenix. Soon after, the grudge which she had begun with Selene boiled over when Rachel secretly invaded the Hellfire Club, she did this with the intention of taking vengeance on Selene for the murders she had committed that of nightclub owner Nicholas Damiano, who had taken Rachel into his home after Selene had attacked her. Selene proved to be no match for Rachel's newly increased powers, but just as she was about to finish Selene, Wolverine arrived and was forced to stab Rachel in the chest. Mortally injured, Rachel was lured into Spiral's "Body Shoppe." Months while recuperating from injuries on Muir Island and Nightcrawler both had the same dream, where they were actors on a weird set and helped Rachel, trapped there, escape. Shortly thereafter, Rachel escaped from the alternate reality of Mojoworld. Rachel has once been cited having a flashback to her time there where she is held in chains and tortured.
The three former X-Men were joined by Captain Britain and Meggan and founded the British superhero team Excalibur. While part of the team, she discovered that this universe's version of her mother, Jean Grey, was alive, she attempted to bond with Jean, but Jean, upon discovering Rachel was the present host for the Phoenix, rejected any contact with her. Jean still resented the Phoenix Force for stealing a portion of her life, she rejected Rachel because she felt that Rachel's existence was a constant reminder of the dystopian future she feared could still come to pass. However, Jean moved past those feelings and formally welcomed Rachel into her life. Rachel remained with Excalibur until an incident caused Captain Britain to be lost in the timestream, she exchanged places with the time-lost Captain Britain and emerged two thousand years in the future, in a world conquered by Apocalypse and crushed under his iron fist. She founded the Askani, she trained one of her followers to travel back in time and bring her "brother" Nathan forward in time when he was infected with a techno-organic virus.
The Askani cloned Nathan in case he was not able to survive the virus. Apocalypse's followers attacked the Askani and took the clone (who would become the s
James N. Aparo was an American comic book artist best known for his 1960s and 1970s DC Comics work, including on the characters Batman and the Spectre. Aparo was raised in New Britain and was self-trained as an artist, he attempted to enter the comic book profession in his early 20s, approaching EC Comics, which declined to hire him. He worked in the advertising industry in Connecticut drawing fashion illustrations for newspaper advertisements, he continued to pursue a career in comic strips while working in advertising. His first break in the comics field was with the comic strip Stern Wheeler, written by Ralph Kanna, published in 1963 in a Hartford, Connecticut newspaper for less than a year. In 1966, editor Dick Giordano at Charlton Comics hired him as a comic book artist, where his first assignment was a humorous character called "Miss Bikini Luv" in "Go-Go Comics." Over the next few years at Charlton, Aparo drew stories in many genres—Westerns, science fiction, horror and suspense. Most of his work was for standalone stories in anthology titles, but he drew the historical-adventure feature "Thane of Bagarth" in the comic book Hercules.
Aparo was one of the few artists in mainstream comics at that time to serve as penciller and letterer for all of his work. In the late 1960s, Dick Giordano left Charlton for an editorial position at DC Comics and offered Aparo a job drawing the Aquaman comic book. After an initial issue for which Aparo provided only pencil art, Aparo resumed producing pencils and letters for most issues of the series until its cancellation. Aparo continued for a time to provide art to Charlton for The Phantom, alternating between the two series month by month as both series were being released on a bimonthly basis at the time. Aparo resigned his assignment on The Phantom and worked exclusively for the remainder of his career for DC Comics. Aparo's next series assignment at DC was Phantom Stranger. After Aquaman was cancelled, the bimonthly frequency of Phantom Stranger was insufficient to fill his typical production rate of one page per day, so DC assigned him several short jobs such as mystery stories for House of Mystery and House of Secrets.
In 1971, Aparo was assigned a fill-in job as the artist for The Brave and the Bold #98. This series featured team-ups of DC's Batman with other characters, in this case, the Phantom Stranger; as the regular artist on the Phantom Stranger's own series, Aparo was considered an appropriate choice. Murray Boltinoff, the editor of The Brave and the Bold, soon assigned Aparo the regular artistic responsibilities for the series, which he continued until its cancellation with issue #200, missing only a few issues. Aparo "co-starred" as himself in The Brave and the Bold #124. During the more than 10 years as the artist for The Brave and the Bold, its bimonthly frequency permitted Aparo to do many other significant works for DC. In addition to numerous covers, he served as the regular artist for a notorious series starring a ruthless avenging ghost called the Spectre, which ran in Adventure Comics, which in 2005 was collected in a trade paperback edition, he provided art for a revival of Aquaman in both Adventure Comics and a continuation of the previously-cancelled Aquaman.
He was assigned the solo Batman series in Detective Comics as of issue #437 for a rather short time and drew occasional stories for anthology series. Aparo and writer Len Wein introduce Sterling Silversmith in Detective Comics #446, he drew The Untold Legend of the Batman, the first Batman miniseries in 1980, inking John Byrne's pencils in the first issue and providing full art for the second and third issues. Aparo was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200; when The Brave and the Bold was cancelled in 1983, it was replaced with a series called Batman and the Outsiders, a superhero team led by Batman. This series, which Aparo co-created with writer Mike W. Barr, would be described by DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz as being "a team series more fashionable to 1980s audiences." The Masters of Disaster were among the supervillains created by Aparo for the series. It would run for several years, continuing with a Baxter paper spinoff titled The Outsiders that did not include Batman and introduced Looker.
For the final few issues, DC began to request that Aparo provide only pencils, a long and nearly unbroken string of Aparo inking and lettering his own work came to an end. Aparo's next major work consisted of pencils for Batman and Detective Comics, where his art was always inked by Mike DeCarlo. Aparo returned to the Batman title with issue #414 in collaboration with writer Jim Starlin. One of their first storylines for the title was "Ten Nights of The Beast" in issues #417 - 420 which introduced the KGBeast; the most notable product of this period remains "A Death in the Family", depicting the death of Jason Todd. The "A Lonely Place of Dying" storyline crossed over with The New Titans title and introduced Tim Drake as the new Robin. Aparo continued to draw Batman stories in Batman until the early 1990s. During this time he was the regular artist on Batman when Bane broke Bruce Wayne's back during the "KnightFall" storyline. In 1992, Aparo returned to do pencils and lettering for his Batman stories
Richard Joseph "Dick" Giordano was an American comics artist and editor whose career included introducing Charlton Comics' "Action Heroes" stable of superheroes and serving as executive editor of DC Comics. Dick Giordano, an only child, was born in New York City on July 20, 1932, in the borough of Manhattan to Josephine and Graziano "Jack" Giordano, he attended the School of Industrial Art. Beginning as a freelance artist at Charlton Comics in 1952, Giordano contributed artwork to dozens of the company's comics, including such Western titles as Annie Oakley, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, the war comic Fightin' Army, scores of covers. Giordano's artwork from Charlton's Strange Suspense Stories was used as inspiration for artist Roy Lichtenstein's 1965/1966 Brushstroke series, including Brushstroke, Big Painting No. 6, Little Big Painting and Yellow and Green Brushstrokes. By the mid-1960s a Charlton veteran, Giordano rose to executive editor, succeeding Pat Masulli, by 1965; as an editor, he made his first mark in the industry, overseeing Charlton's revamping of its few existing superheroes and having his artists and writers create new such characters for what he called the company's "Action Hero" line.
Many of these artists included new talent Giordano brought on board, including Jim Aparo, Dennis O'Neil, Steve Skeates. DC Comics vice president Irwin Donenfeld hired Giordano as an editor in April 1968, at the suggestion of Steve Ditko, with Giordano bringing over to DC some of the creators he had nurtured at Charlton. Giordano was given several titles such as Teen Titans and Young Love, but none of DC's major series, he launched the horror comics series The Witching Hour in March 1969. and the Western series All-Star Western vol. 2 in September 1970. He continued to freelance for DC as a inker; as an artist, Giordano was best known as an inker. His inking was associated with the pencils of Neal Adams, for their run in the early 1970s on the titles Batman and Green Lantern/Green Arrow. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "The influential Adams style moved comics closer to illustration than cartooning, he brought a menacing mood to Batman's adventures, augmented by Dick Giordano's dark, brooding inks."
By 1971, frustrated by what he felt was a lack of editorial opportunities, Giordano had left DC to partner with fellow artist Neal Adams for their Continuity Associates studios, which served as an art packager for comic book publishers, including such companies as Giordano's former employer Charlton Comics, Marvel Comics, the one-shot Big Apple Comix. Several comics artists began their careers at Continuity and many were mentored by Giordano during their time there, he had a brief run as penciler of the Wonder Woman series which included a two-issue story in issues #202–203 written by science-fiction author Samuel R. Delany. Giordano drew several backup stories in Action Comics featuring the Human Target character as well as the martial arts feature "Sons of the Tiger" in Marvel's black-and-white comics magazine The Deadly Hands of Kung Fu, he was a frequent artist on Batman and Detective Comics and he and writer Denny O'Neil created the Batman supporting character Leslie Thompkins in the story "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" in Detective Comics #457.
Giordano inked the large-format, first DC/Marvel intercompany crossover, Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man, over the pencils of Ross Andru. Giordano inked Adams on the one-shot Superman vs. Muhammad Ali in 1978. Throughout the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Ross Andru and Giordano were DC's primary cover artists, providing cover artwork for the Superman titles as well as covers for many of the other comics in the DC line at that time. In 1980, DC publisher Jenette Kahn brought Giordano back to DC; the editor of the Batman titles, Giordano was named the company's new managing editor in 1981, promoted to vice president/executive editor in 1983, a position he held until 1993. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz observed in 2010 that "Giordano held the respect of talent as one of their own, kept their affection with his reassuring calm and warmth."Giordano provided art for several anniversary issues of key DC titles. He and television writer Alan Brennert crafted the story "To Kill a Legend" in Detective Comics #500.
Giordano was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200 as well as Wonder Woman #300 He was promoted to Vice-President/Executive Editor in 1984, with Kahn and Levitz, oversaw the relaunch of all of DC's major characters with the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series in 1985. This was followed by Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1986. Giordano inked several major projects during this time such as George Pérez's pencils on Crisis on Infinite Earths and John Byrne's pencils on The Man of Steel and Action Comics, though during this period he always employed assistants for inking backgrounds, filling in large black areas, making final erasures. From 1983 to 1987, Giordano wrote a monthly column published in DC titles called "Meanwhile..." which much like Marvel's "Bullpen Bulletins" featured news and information about the company and its creators. Unlike "Bullpen Bulletins,", characterized by an ironic, over-hyped tone, Giordano's columns "... were written in a sober friendly voice, like a friend of your father's you liked and didn't mind sitting down to listen to."
Giordano closed each "Meanwhile..." column with the characteristic words, "Thank you and good afternoon." The Vertigo imprint was launched in early 1993 built upon the success several titles edited by Karen Berger including Sw
The Outsiders is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. As its name suggests, the team consists of metahuman superheroes who do not fit the norms of the "mainstream" superhero community; the Outsiders has had a number of different incarnations. They were founded by Batman, whose ties to the League had become strained, introduced the classic line-up of Batman, Black Lightning, Geo-Force, Katana and Looker. A incarnation of the Outsiders from early 2000s comics was led by Nightwing and Arsenal following the dissolution of the Teen Titans superhero group, depicted the team as a pro-active group hunting for super-criminals. For the team's third incarnation, Batman reforms the team as a special strike team featuring classic members Katana and Metamorpho alongside new recruits such as Catwoman and Black Lightning's daughter Thunder. After the Batman R. I. P. Storyline, Alfred Pennyworth acts on Batman's instructions to reassemble the team once more, recruiting new members and more of the team's original lineup.
Another version of the team with a familiar lineup featured in Batman Incorporated in 2011 as the black ops section of Batman's organisation. Following DC's 2011 reboot, a new version of the Outsiders is introduced in the pages of Green Arrow as a secret society represented by seven weapon-themed clans. Members in this incarnation include Katana and several new characters; the original Outsiders are returned to continuity in 2017, following DC Rebirth, once again as a secret team founded by Batman. The Outsiders first appeared in a special insert in the final issue of The Brave and the Bold in 1983; the team was given its own comic and the Outsiders, which debuted in August 1983. It was created and written by Mike W. Barr and illustrated by Jim Aparo. After Batman left the group in issue #32 the title was changed to Adventures of the Outsiders, continuing until its cancellation after issue #46. Issue #38 featured the last original story in the series, as issues #39-46 were reprints of stories from companion series The Outsiders.
The cast of the Outsiders was notable for having new characters. The other members were two characters who refused membership in the Justice League and former Leaguer Batman; the Outsiders formed in the fictional East European country of Markovia, ravaged by war at the time. Batman had attempted to enlist the Justice League's aid, but was told they had been ordered to stay out of the conflict; because he disagreed with the order, Batman resigned to strike out on his own. He and Black Lightning traveled to Markovia to free captive Lucius Fox from Baron Bedlam. One of the king's sons became Geo-Force after gaining powers from Markovia's top scientist to stop Bedlam. Metamorpho was searching for Dr. Jace for the doctor to help him with his powers. Katana arrived in Markovia to kill General Karnz as vengeance for her family's death. Batman found a young, amnesiac girl in the woods exhibiting light-based powers whom he names Halo, an Aurakle that possessed the body of Violet Harper after she was killed by Syonide.
These heroes banded together to defeat Baron Bedlam and decided to stay together as a team fighting such villains as Agent Orange, the Fearsome Five and the Cryonic Man. Recurring foes include the Masters of Disaster, who at one point were able to kill Black Lightning. Windfall became disenchanted with her team and joined the Outsiders. Another recurring opponent was the Force of July, a group of patriotic metahumans who regularly came into contact with the Suicide Squad. During this time, Geo-Force's half-sister Terra died as a traitor against the Teen Titans. Batman revealed his real identity as Bruce Wayne to the team. Halo's origins were revealed. Emily Briggs was introduced. Denise Howard appeared for the second time. Baron Bedlam returned to life. With the assistance of the Bad Samaritan, the Masters of Disaster and Soviet forces, he again tried to seize control of Markovia. Batman withheld this information; this led to Batman disbanding the team and returning to the Justice League. The team traveled to Markovia, discovering many Markovian military casualties.
They were defeated by the Masters, learn that Bedlam cloned Adolf Hitler. The Outsiders became unofficial agents of Markovia to receive Markovian funding, they moved to Los Angeles. This series again featured the original group, was printed in the Baxter paper format used on such titles as The New Teen Titans and the Legion of Super-Heroes, it lasted in addition to annual and special issues. The series ran alongside the Adventures of the Outsiders title, chronicling events a year after that series. In the end, the first few issues of this series were reprinted in Adventures of the Outsiders before that title was canceled; the team has moved into a new headquarters in Los Angeles, once again becomes involved in an adventure with the Force of July. Villains such as the Duke of Oil and the Soviet super-team the People's Heroes are introduced
2000 AD (comics)
2000 AD is a weekly British science fiction-oriented comic magazine. As a comics anthology it serialises stories in each issue and was first published by IPC Magazines in 1977, the first issue dated 26 February. IPC shifted the title to its Fleetway comics subsidiary, sold to Robert Maxwell in 1987 and to Egmont UK in 1991. Fleetway continued to produce the title until 2000. 2000 AD is most noted for its Judge Dredd stories, has been contributed to by a number of artists and writers who became renowned in the field internationally, such as Alan Moore, Dave Gibbons, Grant Morrison, Brian Bolland and Mike McMahon. Other characters in 2000 AD include Strontium Dog and the ABC Warriors. 2000 AD has been a successful launchpad for getting British talent into the larger American comics market. In December 1975, Kelvin Gosnell, a sub-editor at IPC Magazines, read an article in the London Evening Standard about a wave of forthcoming science fiction films, suggested that the company might get on the bandwagon by launching a science fiction comic.
IPC asked Pat Mills, a freelance writer and editor who had created Battle Picture Weekly and Action, to develop it. Mills brought fellow freelancer John Wagner on board as script adviser and the pair began to develop characters; the then-futuristic name 2000 AD was chosen by the publisher, John Sanders, as no-one involved expected the comic to last that long. The original logo and overall look of the comic were designed by art assistant Doug Church. Mills' experiences with Battle and Action in particular had taught him that readers responded to his anti-authoritarian attitudes. Wagner, who had written a Dirty Harry-inspired tough cop called One-Eyed Jack for Valiant, saw that readers responded to authority figures, developed a character that took the concept to its logical extreme, imagining an ultra-violent lawman patrolling a future New York with the power to arrest, if required execute criminals on the spot. Meanwhile, Mills had developed a horror strip, inspired by the novels of Dennis Wheatley, about a hanging judge, called Judge Dread.
The idea was abandoned as unsuitable for the new comic, but the name, with a little modification, was adopted by Wagner for his ultimate lawman. The task of visualising the newly named Judge Dredd was given to Carlos Ezquerra, a Spanish artist who had worked with Mills on Battle, on a strip called Major Eazy. Wagner gave Ezquerra an advertisement for the film Death Race 2000, showing the character Frankenstein clad in black leather, as a suggestion for what the character should look like. Ezquerra elaborated on this adding body-armour and chains, which Wagner thought over the top. Wagner's initial script was rewritten by Mills and drawn up by Ezquerra, but when the art came back a rethink was necessary; the hardware and cityscapes Ezquerra had drawn were far more futuristic than the near-future setting intended, Mills decided to run with it and set the strip further into the future. By this stage, however and Ezquerra had both quit. IPC owned the rights to Dan Dare, Mills decided to revive the character to add immediate public recognition for the title.
Paul DeSavery, who owned Dare's film rights, offered to buy the new comic and give Mills and Wagner more creative control and a greater financial stake. The deal fell through, however. Mills was reluctant to lose Judge Dredd and farmed the strip out to a variety of freelance writers, hoping to develop it further, their scripts were given to a variety of artists as Mills tried to find a strip which would make a good introduction to the character, all of which meant that Dredd would not be ready for the first issue. The story chosen was one written by freelancer Peter Harris, extensively rewritten by Mills and including an idea suggested by Kelvin Gosnell, drawn by newcomer Mike McMahon; the strip debuted in prog 2. Mills had created Harlem Heroes, about the future sport of aeroball, a futuristic, violent version of basketball with jet-packs. Similar future sport series had been a fixture of Action, the similarly-themed film Rollerball had been released the previous year. Wanting to give the new comic a distinctive look, Mills wanted to use European artists, but the work turned in on Harlem Heroes by Trigo was disappointing.
Veteran British artists Ron Turner and Barrie Mitchell were tried out, but the newcomer Dave Gibbons won the editor over with his dynamic, American-influenced drawings and got the job. Mills wrote the first five episodes before handing the strip to Roy of the Rovers writer Tom Tully. Dan Dare was extensively revamped to make it more futuristic. In the new stories he had been put into suspended animation and revived several centuries in the future. Several artists were tried out before Mills settled on Italian artist Massimo Belardinelli, whose imaginative, hallucinatory work was fantastic at visualising aliens, although less satisfying on the hero himself; the scripts were endlessly rewritten in an attempt to make the series work, but few Dan Dare fans remember this version of the character fondly. Belardinelli and Gibbons switched strips, with Gibbons drawing Dare and Belardinelli drawing the Harlem Heroes sequel Inferno; when Gibbons took over Dare in Prog 28 the strip was refashioned as a'Star Trek' style space opera.
The other opening strips were M. A. C. H. 1, a super-powered secret agent inspired by The Six Million Dollar Man.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer. Their line of bolt-action rifles and semi-automatic pistols have been produced since the 1870s for the German armed forces. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mauser designs were exported and licensed to a large number of countries which adopted them as military and civilian sporting firearms; the Mauser Model 98 in particular was adopted and copied, is the foundation of many of today's sporting bolt action rifles. Founded as Königliche Waffen Schmieden on 31 July 1811 by Frederick I. Located at Ludwigsburg and in Christophsthal, the factory was transferred to Oberndorf in the former Augustine Cloister. Andreas Mauser was the master gunsmith there. Of his seven sons who worked with him there Peter Paul Mauser showed an outstanding ability to develop methods of operation that were faster and more efficient, his older brother Wilhelm assumed many of his father's duties. Peter Paul Mauser referred to as Paul Mauser, was born on 27 June 1838, in Oberndorf am Neckar, Württemberg.
His brother Wilhelm was four years older. A brother, Franz Mauser, worked at E. Remington & Sons. Peter Paul was conscripted in 1859 as an artilleryman at the Ludwigsburg arsenal, where he worked as a gunsmith. By December 1859 he had so impressed his superiors that he was placed on inactive military service and assigned to the royal factory at Oberndorf. Paul engaged his older brother Wilhelm in working on a new gun system in their spare time after work. Paul was the engineer and designer but Wilhelm took on the task of manager for their interests with the Oberndorf factory. Paul's first invention was its ammunition, his ability to produce both the gun and the ammunition for it was followed during his entire career and made him unique in this ability. Following the success of the Dreyse needle gun Paul turned his energies to improving on that design and producing a new one. Paul and Wilhelm had separated due to differences during this time. After Paul developed a new turning bolt design Wilhelm was impressed enough to rejoin the business and succeeded in obtaining the financing to purchase machinery and continue development.
While the original needle gun used a pin that pierced the base of the cartridge to ignite the primer in the middle, Mauser soon developed a needle that ignited the charge at the base, a superior design. Locally the Dreyse Needle gun had just been adopted so the brother turned to the Austrian Ambassador to try to sell their gun, he forwarded their new gun to Vienna for testing. It was here. In 1867 Norris hired the Mauser brother to go to Luttich to work on a new design, he stipulated that patents were to be taken out in his name and that a royalty would be paid to the Mauser brothers for rifles sold. Norris was convinced; the Norris-Mauser patent was taken out in the United States. Remington was never made an effort to sell the new rifle. Based on the Dreyse needle gun, he developed a rifle with a turn-bolt mechanism that cocked the gun as it was manipulated by the user; the rifle used a firing needle. The rifle was shown to the Austrian War Ministry by Samuel Norris of E. Sons. Norris believed the design could be adapted to convert Chassepot needle guns to fire metallic cartridges.
Shortly thereafter, a partnership was formed in Oberndorf between the Mauser brothers. The partners went to Liège in 1867, but when the French government showed no interest in a Chassepot conversion, the partnership was dissolved. Paul Mauser returned to Oberndorf in December 1869, Wilhelm arrived in April 1870. Before leaving Luttich, the Mausers insisted that he submit the rifle to Royal Prussian School of Riflemanship; the results were impressive and Wilhelm was invited to the arsenal at Spandau. Peter Paul and Wilhelm Mauser continued development of their new rifle in Paul's father-in-law's home; the Mauser rifle was accepted by the Prussian government on 2 December 1871, was accepted for service until 14 February 1872, after a requested design change to the safety lock. The Mauser brothers received an order for 3,000 rifle sights, but actual production of the rifle was given to government arsenals and large firms; the sights were produced at the Xaver Jauch house starting 1 May 1872. After an order for 100,000 rifle sights was received from the Bavarian Rifle Factory at Amberg, the Mauser brothers began negotiations to purchase the Württemberg Royal Armoury.
A delay in the purchase forced them to buy real estate overlooking the Neckar River Valley, where the upper works was built that same year. A house in Oberndorf was rented to fulfill the Bavarian order; the Königlich Württembergische Gewehrfabrik was acquired on May 23, 1874, after an agreement between the Württemberg government and the Mausers to produce 100,000 Model 71 rifles. The partnership of Mauser Brothers and Company was formed between the Württemberg Vereinsbank of Stuttgart and Paul and Wilhelm Mauser on February 5, 1874. By 23 May 1874, the Mauser partnership had three factories in Oberndorf. Wilhelm Mauser suffered from health problems throughout his life, which were aggravated by his frequent business travels. A combination of these led to his death on 13 January 1882; the partnership became a stock company with the name of Waffenfabrik Mauser on 1 April 1884. The shares held by the Württemberg Vereinsbank and Paul Mauser were sold to Ludwig Löwe & Company on 28 December 1887, Paul Mauser stayed as the technical lea