The Congressional International Exchange and Study Caucus is a caucus of the United States Congress that aims to raise awareness of the importance and benefits of international exchange and study abroad programs, which enable international citizens to have meaningful exchange experiences in the United States, Americans to have such beneficial experiences in other countries. It's co-chaired in the 114th Congress by Representatives Steve Pearce of New Mexico and Jim Himes of Connecticut. International exchange and study programs are a proven and cost-effective way for the United States to remain internationally competitive, develop leaders, promote American values; these programs support global engagement, critical to our economy and national security. Professional and cultural exchange programs reach a diverse set of participants of all ages, in the United States and nearly 200 countries around the world. Exchanges increase America's global reach and build durable connections based on mutual understanding and respect.
These programs serve a valuable and effective diplomatic function, encouraging goodwill towards the U. S. and are a singularly effective way for American students and professionals to develop the foreign language skills and cultural awareness that U. S. employers need. These exchanges play important diplomatic and economic roles, while encouraging goodwill towards the U. S. globally. In addition to enhancing America's competitiveness, international exchange and study programs provide significant immediate benefits to our nation's economy. Most of the U. S. Department of State's exchange program budget is spent either on Americans, American businesses and organizations, or in the United States. Exchange participants do business with U. S. small businesses, airlines and non-governmental organizations in local communities and their presence in our colleges and universities supports U. S. academic institutions and enriches the experience of American students. International exchange and study programs are of particular importance in today's global economy.
These programs provide an unequaled understanding of world cultures – one that can translate into the success of American businesses, growth of the U. S. economy, increased global and national security. The U. S. Department of State funds an exceptional range of international exchange programs, such as the Fulbright Program, Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and Study Program, Congress Bundestag Youth Exchange Program, Critical Language Scholarship Program, American Council of Young Political Leaders, SportsUnited, virtual exchange programs via digital platforms that bring international engagement to classrooms and to communities where travel options may be limited; these programs create vital opportunities for our young people, helping them not only to develop the critical skills they need to succeed in a global marketplace but to serve as ambassadors of American youth around the world. Other federally funded programs, including the International Visitor Leadership Program and the Young African Leaders Initiative, bring talented leaders from a variety of fields to the U.
S. to expand their professional networks. State Department evaluations show that these and other participants who visit the United States through exchange programs leave with a better impression of our country, the American people, our values. U. S. ambassadors rank exchange programs among the most useful catalysts for long-term political change and mutual understanding. The U. S. Department of State's J-1 Exchange Visitor Program annually engages nearly 300,000 future leaders from around the world and advances key U. S. foreign policy priorities – at no cost to the American taxpayer. All of these exchange programs are funded and allow the U. S. to engage a wide variety of international participants at different points in their studies and careers, exposing them to the U. S. the American people, American values and customs. These programs reach high priority audiences across the globe, including in countries key to U. S. foreign policy and national security interests: 86% of J-1 participants are under the age of 30, 46% are age 21 or under, 53% of participants are female.
71,000 J-1 participants studied at U. S. high schools and universities across all 50 states just last year. More than 90% of all of J-1 participants have reported a more positive opinion of the U. S. and Americans following their programs, according to J-1 sponsor surveys. J-1 exchange programs include a wide variety of participant categories, including: Au Pair, Camp Counselor and University Student, Intern and Research Scholar, Secondary School Student, Short-Term Scholar, Summer Work Travel and Trainee; the U. S. Department of Education, U. S. Department of Defense, all government agencies support programs encouraging the creation of international connections and expertise; the Caucus will provide a vital function for members of Congress and their constituents by serving as a clearinghouse of information for members who would like to notify constituents of exchange opportunities and engage with international exchange participants in their districts. The Caucus may sponsor occasional events to inform members and staff about the purpose and efficacy of various exchange programs.
Additionally, Caucus members can be a voice for international exchanges and the important diplomatic function our citizens serve in spreading American values and culture through their involvement as both overseas participants and hosts of international citizens in the U. S; the efforts to establish the Caucus were led by AFS-USA (formerly the American
Four ships of the French Navy have been named in honour of Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, considered to be one of the founders of the French Navy. French ironclad Richelieu, a central battery ironclad. French patrol boat Richelieu, an auxiliary patrol boat. French battleship Richelieu, a fast battleship. French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was to have been named Richelieu. French aircraft carrier PA2 would have been named Richelieu. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours. 2. Group Retozel-Maury Millau. P. 423. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922
To Your Soul is the second studio album by American rapper and producer The Jaz from New York, New York. It was released on July 16, 1990, via EMI USA; the album was recorded at D&D Studios, in New York City, New York, was produced by Jaz-O. The album received production contributions from Prince Paul, Vandy C, Chad Elliott. Similar to the previous album, the LP only other artists to appear on the album is Jay-Z, being featured on two tracks. Despite the album not reaching the Billboard charts, its two singles, "The Originators" and "A Groove", however peaked at No. 13 and No. 18 on the Hot Rap Songs chart. Jonathan Burks – main performer, producer Shawn Corey Carter – featured performer Chad "Dr. Cuess" Elliott – producer Vandy Colter – producer, engineering Paul Edward Huston – producer Dwayne Alexander – executive producer Gary Clugston – engineering Kieran Walsh – engineering Mike Rogers – engineering Herb Powers Jr. – mastering Henry Marquez – art direction Lu Ann Graffeo – design Jeffrey Scales – photography Singles To Your Soul at Discogs
"Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal" is an essay about computer programming written by Ed Post of Tektronix, Inc. and published in July 1983 as a letter to the editor in Datamation. Circulated on Usenet in its day, well-known in the computer software industry, the article compares and contrasts real programmers, who use punch cards and write programs in FORTRAN or assembly language, with modern-day "quiche eaters" who use programming languages such as Pascal which support structured programming and impose restrictions meant to prevent or minimize common bugs due to inadvertent programming logic errors. Mentioned are feats such as the inventor of the Cray-1 supercomputer toggling in the first operating system for the CDC 7600 through the front panel without notes when it was first powered on; the next year Ed Nather’s The Story of Mel known as The realest programmer of all, extended the theme. Immortalized in the piece is Mel Kaye of the Royal McBee Computer Corporation; as the story famously puts it, "He wrote in machine code—in'raw, inscrutable hexadecimal numbers.
Directly.'" Since the computer folklore term Real Programmer has come to describe the archetypical "hardcore" programmer who eschews the modern languages and tools of the day in favour of more direct and efficient solutions—closer to the hardware. The term is used in many subsequent articles, webcomics and in-jokes—although the alleged defining features of a "Real Programmer" differ with time and place. No true Scotsman Pascal criticism Real Programmer syndrome Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal
A broadcast auxiliary service or BAS is any radio frequency system used by a radio station or TV station, not part of its direct broadcast to listeners or viewers. These are internal-use backhaul channels not intended for actual reception by the public, but part of the airchain required to get those signals back to the broadcast studio from the field. To be integrated into a live production. Examples include: studio/transmitter link transmitter/studio link remote pickup unit electronic news gathering Several of these bands exist, but the most used band is the 2GHz microwave BAS band for point-to-point transmission from mobile newsgathering units to mountaintop receivers. Seven 12-MHz wide channels exist in the band. In North America, DVB-T. Precisely the same modulation technique as European Broadcast, is used, using a constellation of QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM, enabling sufficient digital bandwidths at 6MHz deviation for transmission of an MPEG transport stream at 10 or more megabits per second, producing three "lower", "center", "upper" overlapping 6MHz channels within each 12MHz channel.
In the United States between 2005 and 2010, the Federal Communications Commission moved TV channels in the 2 GHz TV BAS band at the request of Sprint Nextel, so that it could use a portion, adjacent to PCS frequencies it uses. The report and order resulting from this rulemaking specified that Sprint/Nextel must pay for every TV station using the band to buy and install new BAS equipment to work in the new band structure. There had been seven analog TV channels, each 17 or 18 MHz wide, between 1990 and 2110 MHz; the new allocation created seven digital TV channels, each 12 MHz wide, from 2025.5 to 2109.5 MHz. Begun in 2005, the relocation was 94% complete as of October 2008, was expected to be complete in mid 2009. After multiple extensions granted by the FCC, it was done in July 2010, with the completion of the Anchorage, Alaska TV market; the cleared band is now used for PCS, AWS, MSS services, including mobile broadband. Broadcast Engineering article on completion TV Technology article on completion, with insider details