Alan Curtis Kay is an American computer scientist. He has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Royal Society of Arts, he is best known for his pioneering work on object-oriented programming and windowing graphical user interface design. He was the president of the Viewpoints Research Institute before its closure in 2018 and an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of California, Los Angeles, he is on the advisory board of TTI/Vanguard. Until mid-2005, he was a senior fellow at HP Labs, a visiting professor at Kyoto University, an adjunct professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kay is a former professional jazz guitarist and theatrical designer, an amateur classical pipe organist. In an interview on education in America with the Davis Group Ltd. Kay said: I had the misfortune or the fortune to learn how to read fluently starting about the age of three, so I had read maybe 150 books by the time I hit first grade, I knew the teachers were lying to me.
From Springfield, Kay's family relocated several times due to his father's career in physiology before settling in the New York metropolitan area when he was nine. He attended the prestigious Brooklyn Technical High School, where he was suspended due to insubordination in his senior year. Having accumulated enough credits to graduate, Kay attended Bethany College in Bethany, West Virginia, he majored in biology and minored in mathematics before he was asked to leave by the administration for protesting the institution's Jewish quota. Thereafter, Kay taught guitar in Denver, Colorado for a year and hastily enlisted in the United States Air Force when the local draft board inquired about his nonstudent status. Assigned as a computer programmer after passing an aptitude test, he devised an early cross-platform file transfer system. Following his discharge, Kay enrolled at the University of Colorado Boulder, earning a bachelor's degree in mathematics and molecular biology in 1966. Before and during this time, he worked as a professional jazz guitarist.
During his studies at CU, he wrote the music for an adaptation of The Hobbit and other campus theatricals. In the autumn of 1966, he began graduate school at the University of Utah College of Engineering, he earned an M. S. in electrical engineering in 1968 before taking his Ph. D. in computer science in 1969. His doctoral dissertation, FLEX: A Flexible Extendable Language, described the invention of a computer language known as FLEX. While there, he worked with "fathers of computer graphics" David C. Evans and Ivan Sutherland, their mentorship inspired Kay's evolving views on objects and programming. As he grew busier with DARPA research, he ended his musical career. In 1968, he met Seymour Papert and learned of the Logo programming language, a dialect of Lisp optimized for educational purposes; this led him to learn of the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky, of constructionist learning, further influencing his professional orientation. Leaving Utah as an associate professor of computer science in 1969, Kay became a visiting researcher at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in anticipation of accepting a professorship at Carnegie Mellon University.
Instead, in 1970, he joined the Xerox PARC research staff in California. Throughout the decade, he developed prototypes of networked workstations using the programming language Smalltalk; these inventions were commercialized by Apple in their Lisa and Macintosh computers. Kay is one of the fathers of the idea of object-oriented programming, which he named, along with some colleagues at PARC; some of the original object-oriented concepts, including the use of the words'object' and'class', had been developed for Simula 67 at the Norwegian Computing Center. He said: I'm sorry that I long ago coined the term "objects" for this topic because it gets many people to focus on the lesser idea; the big idea is "messaging" While at PARC, Kay conceived the Dynabook concept, a key progenitor of laptop and tablet computers and the e-book. He is the architect of the modern overlapping windowing graphical user interface; because the Dynabook was conceived as an educational platform, Kay is considered to be one of the first researchers into mobile learning.
The field of computing is awaiting new revolution to happen, according to Kay, in which educational communities and children will not see in it a set of tools invented by Douglas Engelbart, but a medium in the Marshall McLuhan sense. He wrote: As with Simulas leading to OOP, this encounter hit me with what the destiny of personal computing was going to be. Not a personal dynamic vehicle, as in Engelbart's metaphor opposed to the IBM "railroads", but something much more profound: a personal dynamic medium. With a vehicle one could wait until high school and give "drivers ed", but if it was a medium, it had to extend into the world of childhood. From 1981 to 1984, Kay was Atari's Chief Scientist, he became an Apple Fellow in 1984. Following the closure of the company's Advanced Technology Group in 1997, he was recruited by his friend Bran Ferren, head of research and development at Disney, to join Walt Disney Imagineering as a Disney Fellow, he remained there until Ferren l
Aldo Nova is the self-titled debut album by Canadian hard rock musician Aldo Nova, released in 1982. It reached number 8 on the Billboard 200 and was certified Gold by the RIAA on May 14, 1982, Platinum on February 14, 1989, Double Platinum on December 5, 1994. All songs written by Aldo Nova. "Fantasy" – 5:05 "Hot Love" – 3:54 "It's Too Late" – 3:23 "Ball and Chain" – 4:01 "Heart to Heart" – 3:42 "Foolin' Yourself" – 3:35 "Under the Gun" – 3:47 "You're My Love" – 3:33 "Can't Stop Lovin' You" – 3:57 "See the Light" –3:56Recent remastered/reissued versions of the album feature a demo of "Foolin' Yourself" as a bonus track. Executive Producers: Lennie Petze, Val Azzoli Produced by Aldo Nova Recorded By Aldo Nova, Billy Szawlowski & Louis Mercier Mixed By Aldo Nova, Tony Bongiovi & Ray "We Don't Know What You Do" Willard Mastered by Bob Ludwig All Songs Published By ATV Music. Aldo Nova: vocals and rhythm guitars, bass guitar, synthesizers Dennis Chartrand: acoustic piano Michel Pelo, Roberto Biagioni: bass guitar Michael LaChapelle, Terry Martel: drums, percussion Daniel Barbe, Dwight Druck: backing vocals Aldo Nova at Discogs
Konrad Zuse was a German civil engineer, pioneering computer scientist and businessman. His greatest achievement was the world's first programmable computer. Thanks to this machine and its predecessors, Zuse has been regarded as the inventor of the modern computer. Zuse was noted for the S2 computing machine, considered the first process control computer, he founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941, producing the Z4, which became the world's first commercial computer. From 1943 to 1945 he designed Plankalkül. In 1969, Zuse suggested the concept of a computation-based universe in his book Rechnender Raum. Much of his early work was financed by his family and commerce, but after 1939 he was given resources by the Nazi German government. Due to World War II, Zuse's work went unnoticed in the United Kingdom and the United States, his first documented influence on a US company was IBM's option on his patents in 1946. There is a replica of the Z3, as well as the original Z4, in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
The Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin has an exhibition devoted to Zuse, displaying twelve of his machines, including a replica of the Z1 and several of Zuse's paintings. Born in Berlin on 22 June 1910, he moved with his family in 1912 to East Prussian Braunsberg, where his father was a postal clerk. Zuse attended the Collegium Hosianum in Braunsberg. In 1923, the family moved to Hoyerswerda, where he passed his Abitur in 1928, qualifying him to enter university, he enrolled in the Technische Hochschule Berlin and explored both engineering and architecture, but found them boring. Zuse pursued civil engineering, graduating in 1935. For a time, he worked for the Ford Motor Company, using his considerable artistic skills in the design of advertisements, he started work as a design engineer at the Henschel aircraft factory in Schönefeld near Berlin. This required the performance of many routine calculations by hand, which he found mind-numbingly boring, leading him to dream of doing them by machine.
Beginning in 1935 he experimented in the construction of computers in his parents' flat on Wrangelstraße 38, moving with them into their new flat on Methfesselstraße 10, the street leading up the Kreuzberg, Berlin. Working in his parents' apartment in 1936, he produced his first attempt, the Z1, a floating point binary mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from a perforated 35 mm film. In 1937, Zuse submitted two patents, he finished the Z1 in 1938. The Z1 contained some 30,000 metal parts and never worked well due to insufficient mechanical precision. On 30 January 1944, the Z1 and its original blueprints were destroyed with his parents' flat and many neighbouring buildings by a British air raid in World War II. Between 1987 and 1989, Zuse recreated the Z1, it cost 800,000 DM, required four individuals to assemble it. Funding for this retrocomputing project was provided by a consortium of five companies. Zuse completed his work independently of other leading computer scientists and mathematicians of his day.
Between 1936 and 1945, he was in near-total intellectual isolation. In 1939, Zuse was called to military service, where he was given the resources to build the Z2. In September 1940 Zuse presented the Z2, covering several rooms in the parental flat, to experts of the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt; the Z2 was a revised version of the Z1 using telephone relays. The DVL granted research subsidies so that in 1941 Zuse started a company, Zuse Apparatebau, to manufacture his machines, renting a workshop on the opposite side in Methfesselstraße 7 and stretching through the block to Belle-Alliance Straße 29. Improving on the basic Z2 machine, he built the Z3 in 1941. On 12 May 1941 Zuse presented the Z3, built in his workshop, to the public; the Z3 was a binary 22-bit floating point calculator featuring programmability with loops but without conditional jumps, with memory and a calculation unit based on telephone relays. The telephone relays used in his machines were collected from discarded stock.
Despite the absence of conditional jumps, the Z3 was a Turing complete computer. However, Turing-completeness was never considered by Zuse and only demonstrated in 1998; the Z3, the first operational electromechanical computer, was financed by German government-supported DVL, which wanted their extensive calculations automated. A request by his co-worker Helmut Schreyer—who had helped Zuse build the Z3 prototype in 1938—for government funding for an electronic successor to the Z3 was denied as "strategically unimportant". In 1937, Schreyer had advised Zuse to use vacuum tubes as switching elements. Zuse's workshop on Methfesselstraße 7 was destroyed in an Allied Air raid in late 1943 and the parental flat with Z1 and Z2 on 30 January the following year, whereas the successor Z4, which Zuse had begun constructing in 1942 in new premises in the Industriehof on Oranienstraße 6, remained intact. On 3 February 1945, aerial bombing caused devastating destruction in the Luisenstadt, the area around Oranienstraße, including neighbouring houses.
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