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Alans

The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity. The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan. Related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by modern historians with the Central Asian Yancai and Aorsi of Chinese and Roman sources, respectively. Having migrated westwards and become dominant among the Sarmatians on the Pontic Steppe, they are mentioned by Roman sources in the 1st century AD. At the time, they had settled the region north of the Black Sea and raided the Parthian Empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire. From 215–250 AD, their power on the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Goths. Upon the Hunnic defeat of the Goths on the Pontic Steppe around 375 AD, many of the Alans migrated westwards along with various Germanic tribes, they crossed the Rhine in 406 AD along with the Vandals and Suebi, settling in Valence. Around 409 AD, they joined the Vandals and Suebi in the crossing of the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, settling in Lusitania and Carthaginensis.

The Iberian Alans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths in 418 AD and subsequently surrendered their authority to the Hasdingi Vandals. In 428 AD, the Vandals and Alans crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa, where they founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until its conquest by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD; the Alans who remained under Hunnic rule founded a powerful kingdom in the North Caucasus in the Middle Ages, which ended with the Mongol invasions in the 13th century AD. These Alans are said to be the ancestors of the modern Ossetians; the Alans spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian. The various forms of Alan – Greek: Ἀλανοί Alanoi; this word was preserved in the modern Ossetian language in the form of Allon. These and other variants of Aryan were common self-designations of the Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and Iranian peoples to whom the Alans belonged.

Rarer spellings include Halani. The Alans were known over the course of their history by another group of related names including the variations Asi, As, Os, it is this name, the root of the modern Ossetian. The first mentions of names that historians link with the Alani appear at the same time in texts from the Mediterranean, Middle East and China. In the 1st century AD, the Alans migrated westwards from Central Asia, achieving a dominant position among the Sarmatians living between the Don River and the Caspian Sea; the Alans are mentioned in the Vologeses inscription which reads that Vologeses I, the Parthian king between around 51 and 78 AD, in the 11th year of his reign, battled Kuluk, king of the Alani. The 1st century AD. Josephus reports in the Jewish Wars how Alans living near the Sea of Azov crossed the Iron Gates for plunder and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I: 4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have mentioned somewhere as being Scythians, living around Tanais and Lake Maeotis.

This nation about this time laid a design of falling upon Media, the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them. This king gave; these Alans therefore plundered the country without opposition, with great ease, proceeded as far as Armenia, laying waste all before them. Now, Tiridates was king of that country, who met them and fought them but was lucky not to have been taken alive in the battle. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this sight, laid waste the country, drove a great multitude of the men, a great quantity of the other booty from both kingdoms, along with them, retreated back to their own country; the fact that the Alans invaded Parthia through Hyrcania shows that at the time many Alans were still based north-east of the Caspian Sea. By the early 2nd century AD the Alans were in firm control of Kuban; these lands had earlier been occupied by the Aorsi and the Siraces, whom the Alans absorbed, dispersed and/or destroyed, since they were no longer mentioned in contemporaneous accounts.

It is that the Alans' influence stretched further westwards, encompassing most of the Sarmatian world, which by possessed a homogenous culture. In 135 AD, the Alans made a huge raid into Asia Minor via the Caucasus, ravaging Armenia, they were driven back by Arrian, the governor of Cappadocia, who wrote a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or'War Ag

David Sheehy

David Sheehy was an Irish nationalist politician. He was a member of parliament from 1885 to 1900 and from 1903 to 1918, taking his seat as a member of the Irish Parliamentary Party in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Born in Limerick, he was a student for the priesthood at the Irish College in Paris, but left due to a cholera epidemic and married Bessie McCoy. In his youth he was active in the Land League, he was imprisoned on six occasions for his part in the Land War. At the 1885 general election he was elected unopposed as MP for South Galway and held that seat until the 1900 general election, his re-election in Galway was unopposed in 1886 and 1895. But at the 1892 general election, when the Irish Party split over the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell and Sheehy joined the anti-Parnellite majority, he was opposed by a Parnellite candidate, whom he defeated with a majority of nearly two to one. In the same election he failed to unseat the Parnellite John Redmond.

The two factions of the Irish Parliamentary Party reunited for the general election in 1900, but Sheehy did not stand again and was out of parliament for the next three years. After the death in August 1903 of James Laurence Carew, the Independent Nationalist MP for South Meath, Sheehy was selected as the Irish Parliamentary Party candidate in the resulting by-election in October 1903. Carew had been elected in 1900 as a result of a series of errors in nominations, his predecessor John Howard Parnell stood again, this time as an Independent Nationalist. Sheehy wonwith a majority of more than two to one, held the seat until he stood down at the 1918 general election. David was the son of Richard Sheehy and Johanna Shea, was the brother of Mary Sheehy and Eugene Sheehy, he and his wife, had seven children, of whom six survived to adulthood. One of his daughters, Mary married the MP Thomas Kettle. Hanna, became a teacher and married the writer Francis Skeffington. Kathleen married Irish Independent journalist Frank Cruise O'Brien.

Margaret, an elocutionist and playwright, married solicitor Frank Culhane. Sheehy's two sons and Eugene, were barristers; the writer James Joyce, who lived nearby as a youth visited the family home, 2 Belvedere Place, where musical evenings and theatricals took place every Sunday evening. Joyce entertained the family with Italian songs. In 1900 Margaret wrote a play in which their friends, including Joyce, acted. Joyce had a long-lasting but unrequited crush on Mary. Joyce's novel Ulysses wittily describes an encounter between David Sheehy's wife and Father John Conmee, SJ, rector of Clongowes, their daughter Mary is the spéirbhean longingly pursued by the protagonist in the story Araby in Joyce's collection Dubliners. Another daughter, may have been the model for the mockingly nationalist Miss Ivors in the story The Dead, which concludes Dubliners; when David Sheehy died in Dublin aged 88 it was reported that he had been the oldest surviving member of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by David Sheehy

Borinquen Air

Borinquen Air doing business as Amber Service, Air Puerto Rico or Diaz Aviation, is a charter airline from Puerto Rico, which operates regional passenger and cargo flights. The company is based at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport; the airline, which since 1985 has been in the business of selling aviation fuel, is led by founder Sixto Diaz Saldaña, the airline general manager, the sole shareholder and a licensed attorney. As of January 2013, Borinquen Air operates two aircraft: a Beechcraft Model 18, which can accommodate 7 passengers, a cargo-configured Douglas DC-3. Airplanes of the types Douglas DC-6, Douglas DC-9, Martin 4-0-4 and Short 330 had been included in the fleet. One of the DC-3s flown by Air Puerto Rico turned out to be a legendary airplane: During 1990, a group of retirees started searching for one of Delta Airlines's five original DC-3 aircraft. Shortly after, they found out that the airplane that had become famous as "Delta Ship 41" was still flying in Puerto Rico, flying cargo for Air Puerto Rico with the registration of N29PR.

The plane had been the second DC-3 acquired by Delta but as their first DC-3 was used as a pilot training aircraft, ship 41 was the first Delta DC-3 to carry passengers for the airline. Air Puerto Rico sold the aircraft back to Delta and it was flown to Atlanta in 1993, it is now on exhibit at Delta's Air Transport Heritage Museum. On 22 July 1986 at 13:53 local time, a Borinquen Air Douglas DC-3 crashed into a lagoon on approach to Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport; the cargo aircraft had been on a flight to Golden Rock Airport, Saint Kitts and Nevis when the starboard engine failed shortly after take-off and the decision was made to return to the departure airport. One of the two pilots on board died in the accident. On 1 March 1989, the DC-3 registered N28PR ditched into the sea off Puerto Rico; the cargo airplane had been on an Diaz Aviation branded flight from Golden Rock Airport to Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, when the port engine failed during landing approach. Although the landing gear was retracted, the crew did not feather the propeller, which resulted in an increased air drag and thus made further flight maneuvers impossible