A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
Virgin America was an American airline that operated between 2007 and 2018, when it was integrated into Alaska Airlines. The airline focused on operating low-fare service between cities on the West Coast and other major metropolitan areas, with higher quality service, it was headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area city of Burlingame, operated domestic flights to major U. S. cities from hubs at San Francisco and Los Angeles as well as a smaller focus city operation at Love Field in Dallas. The airline began operations in 2007 as an independent airline using branding licensed from the United Kingdom-based Virgin Group, which controls the brand of the Virgin Atlantic and Virgin Australia airlines; the Alaska Air Group acquired Virgin America in April 2016, at a cost of $4 billion and continued to operate Virgin America under its own name and brand until the airline was merged into Alaska Airlines on April 24, 2018. In early 2004, Virgin Group announced its intention to found a United States-based, low-fare airline called "Virgin USA".
At the time, Virgin USA expected flights to begin by mid-2005. After considering several key areas, the San Francisco Bay Area was chosen as the location of its flight operations center and as its corporate headquarters; the airline changed its name from "Virgin USA" to "Virgin America" and due to the difficulty in finding U. S. investors willing to gamble on a new airline in an congested industry, the launch date was pushed back from mid-2005 to early 2006. Virgin America secured U. S. investors Black Canyon Capital and Cyrus Capital Partners in late 2005. Once the new owners were on board, Virgin's General Counsel submitted the required U. S. Department of Transportation certificate application on December 9, 2005. Despite significant public support for the new California-based airline, the approval process was mired in debate between the supportive city and state representatives from California and New York and the opposing national aviation labor union, Air Line Pilots Association, as well as potential competitor Continental Airlines.
The review of Virgin America's application was prolonged due to this opposition, which claimed Virgin America, being a subsidiary of the United Kingdom-based Virgin Group, would not be under U. S. ownership or control. The application was denied by the Department of Transportation on December 27, 2006. In order to achieve the necessary approval, Virgin America's General Counsel David Pflieger and CEO Fred Reid filed a revised application that proposed a restructuring of the airline in January 2007. Additionally, Virgin America was open to removing Richard Branson from the airline's board of directors and removing the "Virgin" brand from the title altogether. Virgin America was tentatively cleared to fly by the U. S. Department of Transportation on March 20, 2007, on the condition that the airline would alter its business structure, including the limitation of foreign ownership shares to 25% and the replacement of Fred Reid; the airline protested the stipulation concerning Reid's removal to the federal regulators, arguing that the other stipulations ensured that the business would not be ruled by foreign interests.
The Department of Transportation's final agreement allowed Reid to remain involved with Virgin America until February 2008, after which he was required to leave the company. Virgin America began selling tickets in July 2007. On August 8, 2007 the airline made its inaugural New York and Los Angeles to San Francisco flights — the aircraft was named "Air Colbert", after comedian Stephen Colbert. In December 2007, C. David Cush replaced Reid as CEO of the airline. From the beginning of operations, Virgin America reported losses, beginning with $270 million in its first month, until the third quarter of 2010, when it achieved its first profit of $7.5 million. On May 21, 2009, Virgin America became the first U. S. airline to offer Wi-Fi access via Gogo Inflight Internet on every flight. Between November 10, 2009, January 15, 2010, the airline offered free WiFi with a subsidy from Google. On December 17, 2014, Virgin America announced that it would offer faster fleet-wide ATG-4 in-flight WiFi service from Gogo, with speeds three times faster than the first generation system.
In March 2010, Virgin America announced its intention to start flying to Toronto from Los Angeles and San Francisco, making it the airline's first international destination. Following the Department of Transportation's approval of Virgin America's proposal to fly to Canada, international service began on June 29, 2010. However, due to high operating costs and higher demand for Dallas/Fort-Worth, Virgin America terminated Toronto service on April 6, 2011. Virgin America began its service to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in December 2010, continued until after the repeal of the Wright Amendment in October 2014, when the airline leased two gates and established a focus city at Dallas Love Field and enhanced the number of connecting destinations; as a result, Virgin America transported 31,000 passengers through Dallas Love Field in the first month, achieving 3.58% market share at Dallas Love Field. Virgin America announced in January 2011 a firm order for sixty new Airbus A320 aircraft, including thirty new Airbus A320neos, that would be delivered starting in 2016, as a formal expansion of an initial commitment made by Richard Branson at the Farnborough Airshow in July 2010.
In April 2011, Virgin America's hub at San Francisco International Airport relocated to the newly remodeled Terminal 2, sharing the gates with American Airlines. In late October 2011, the
Embraer E-Jet family
The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body short- to medium-range twin-engine jet airliners, carrying 66 to 124 passengers commercially, manufactured by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer. The aircraft family was first introduced at the Paris Air Show in 1999 and entered production in 2002; the series has been a commercial success due to its ability to efficiently serve lower-demand routes while offering many of the same amenities and features of larger jets. The aircraft is used by mainline and regional airlines around the world but has proven popular with regional airlines in the United States. Embraer first disclosed that it was studying a new 70-seat aircraft, which it called the EMB 170, in 1997, concurrently with announcing the development of its ERJ 135; the EMB 170 was to feature a new wing and larger-diameter fuselage mated to the nose and cockpit of the ERJ 145. The proposed derivative would have cost $450 million to develop. While Alenia and British Aerospace through AI were studying the Airjet 70 based on the ATR 42/72 fuselage for a 2,200 km range, AI and Embraer were studying a joint development of a 70-seater jet since their separate projects were not yet launched.
In February 1999, Embraer announced it had abandoned the derivative approach in favour of an all-new design. The E-jet family was formally launched at the Paris Air Show on 14 June 1999 as the ERJ-170 and ERJ-190, designations changed to Embraer 170 and Embraer 190. Launch customers for the aircraft were the French airline Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne with ten orders and five options for the E170. Production of parts to build the prototype and test airframes began in July 2000; the first prototype rolled out on October 2001 at São José dos Campos, Brazil. Its first flight occurred 119 days on February 19, 2002, marking the beginning of a multi-year flight test campaign; the aircraft was displayed to the public in May 2002 at the Regional Airline Association convention. Full production began at a new factory built by Embraer at its São José dos Campos base. After a positive response from the airline community, Embraer launched the E175, which stretched the fuselage of the E170 by 1.78 metres.
The first flight of the E175 took place on June 2003. In 2003, JetBlue ordered 100 Embraer 190s, delivered from 2005. After several delays in the certification process, the E170 received type certification from the aviation authorities of Brazil and the United States in February 2004; the first E170s were delivered in the second week of March 2004 to LOT Polish Airlines, followed by Alitalia and US Airways-subsidiary MidAtlantic Airways LOT operated the first commercial flight of an E-jet on 17 March 2004, from Warsaw to Vienna. Launch customer Crossair had in the meantime ceased to exist after its takeover of Swissair; the first E175 was delivered to Air Canada and entered service in July 2005. In 2008, the 400th E-jet was delivered to Republic Airlines in the U. S. In September 2009, the 600th E-jet built was delivered to LOT Polish Airlines. On October 10, 2012, Embraer delivered the 900th E-Jet to Kenya Airways, its 12th Ejet. On 13 September 2013, the delivery of the 1,000th E-jet, an E175 to Republic Airlines for American Eagle, was marked by a ceremony held at the Embraer factory in São José dos Campos, with a special "1,000th E-Jet" decal above the cabin windows.
On 6 December 2017, the 1,400th E-Jet was delivered, an E175. On 18 December 2018, Embraer delivered the 1,500th E-Jet, an E175 to Alaska Air subsidiary Horizon Air, as Embraer claims a 80% market share of the North American 76-seaters. By the fleet had completed 25 million flight hours in 18 million cycles with a 99.9% dependability. On 6 November 2008, the longest flight of an E190 was flown by JetBlue from Anchorage Airport to Buffalo International Airport over 2,694 nmi, a re-positioning flight after a two-month charter for Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin. On 14 October 2017, an Airlink Embraer E190-100IGW with 78 passengers aboard inaugurated the first scheduled commercial airline service in history to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, arriving at Saint Helena Airport after a flight of about six hours from Johannesburg, South Africa, with a stop at Windhoek, Namibia; the flight began a once-a-week scheduled service by Airlink between Johannesburg and Saint Helena using Embraer 190 aircraft.
The inaugural flight was only the second commercial flight to Saint Helena in the island's history, the first since a chartered Airlink Avro RJ85 landed at Saint Helena Airport on 3 May 2017. In November 2011, Embraer announced that it would develop revamped versions of the E-Jet to be called the E-Jet E2 family; the new jets would feature improved engines that would be more fuel efficient and take advantage of new technologies. Beyond the new engines, the E2 family would feature new wings, improved avionics, other improvements to the aircraft; the move came amid a period of high global fuel costs and better positions Embraer as competitors introduced new and more fuel efficient jets, including the Mitsubishi Regional Jet. The new aircraft family includes a much larger variant, the E195-E2 capable of carrying between 120 and 146 passengers; this jet better positions Embraer against the competing Airbus A220 aircraft. The PW1000G was selected for use on competing aircraft. In January 2013, Embraer selected the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G geared turbofan engine to power the E2 family.
On February 28, 2018
San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport known as Lindbergh Field, is an international airport 3 mi northwest of Downtown San Diego, United States. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. San Diego International Airport covers 663 acres of land. In 2015, traffic at San Diego International exceeded 20 million passengers, serving more than 500 scheduled operations carrying about 50,000 passengers each day. While serving domestic traffic, San Diego has nonstop international flights to Canada, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area in the United States, not an airline hub or secondary hub; the top five carriers in San Diego during 2015, by seat capacity, were Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines. San Diego International is the busiest single runway airport in the United States and third-busiest single runway in the world, behind Mumbai and London Gatwick. Due to the short usable length of the runway, proximity to the skyscrapers of Downtown San Diego, steep landing approach as a result of the nearby Peninsular Ranges, SAN has been called "the busiest, most difficult single runway in the world."
SAN operates in controlled airspace served by the Southern California TRACON, some of the busiest airspace in the world. The airport is near the site of the Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic 1927 transatlantic flight; the site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway neighborhood, near the intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues. Inspired by Lindbergh's flight and excited to have made his plane, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for the construction of a two-runway municipal airport. Lindbergh agreed to lend his name to it; the new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field. The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes; the original terminal was on Pacific Highway. The airport was a testing facility for several early US sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus who operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930.
The airport was the site of a national and world record for women's altitude established in 1930 by Ruth Alexander. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego–Los Angeles airmail route started; the airport gained international airport status in 1934. In April 1937, United States Coast Guard Air Base was commissioned next to the airfield; the Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft used Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when their fixed-wing aircraft were assigned elsewhere. A major defense contractor and contributor to World War II heavy bomber production, Consolidated Aircraft known as Convair, had their headquarters on the border of Lindbergh Field, built many of their military aircraft there. Convair used the airport for test and delivery flights from 1935 to 1995; the US Army Air Corps took over the field in 1942, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. Two camps were established at the airport during World War II and were named Camp Consair and Camp Sahara; this transformation, including an 8,750 ft runway, made the airport "jet-ready" long before jet airliners came into service.
The May 1952 C&GS chart shows an 8,700-ft runway 9 and a 4,500-ft runway 13. Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and started service at Lindbergh Field in 1949; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures per day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza, 3 PSA. American had a nonstop flight to one to El Paso. Nonstop flights to Chicago started in 1962 and to New York in 1967; the first scheduled jet flights at Lindbergh Field were in 1960, with American Airlines flying to Phoenix and United Airlines to San Francisco, using the Boeing 720. The original terminal was used until the 1960s. Terminal 2 opened on July 11, 1979; these terminals were designed by Paderewski Associates. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was expanded by 300,000 square feet in 1998, opened on January 7, 1998; the expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning. As downtown San Diego developed, the airport's 3,600 ft second runway was closed as its short length provided no operational benefits other than to support the smallest of aircraft.
The airport was built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users. In 1962 it was transferred to the San Diego Unified Port District by a state law. In 2001 the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority was created, assumed jurisdiction over the airport in December 2002; the Authority changed the airport's name from Lindbergh Field to San Diego International Airport in 2003 considering the new name "a better fit for a major commercial airport." San Diego International Airport's expansion and enhancemen
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States or the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, all other off-shore insular areas; these differ from the related term continental United States which includes Alaska but excludes Hawaii and insular territories. The greatest distance within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U. S. land area, similar to the area of Australia. 160,820.25 square miles of the contiguous United States is water area, composing 62.66% of the nation's total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of sovereign states and dependencies by area. Brazil is the only country, larger in total area than the contiguous United States, but smaller than the entire United States, while Russia and China are the only three countries larger than both.
The 2010 census population of this area was 306,675,006, comprising 99.33% of the nation's population, a density of 103.639 inhabitants/sq mi, compared to 87.264/sq mi for the nation as a whole. The contiguous United States does not include overseas U. S. territories such as American Samoa, U. S. Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico, the latter of which has a higher population than Alaska and Hawaii. While conterminous U. S. has the precise meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. Because Alaska is on the North American continent, the term continental United States includes that state, so the term is qualified with the explicit inclusion of Alaska to resolve any ambiguity. On May 14, 1959, the United States Board on Geographic Names issued the following definitions based on the reference in the Alaska Omnibus Bill, which defined the continental United States as "the 49 States on the North American Continent and the District of Columbia..."
The Board reaffirmed these definitions on May 13, 1999. However before Alaska became a state, it was properly included within the continental U. S. due to being an incorporated territory. CONUS, a technical term used by the U. S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/National Weather Service, others, has been defined both as the continental United States, as the 48 contiguous states; the District of Columbia is not always mentioned as being part of CONUS. OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States; the term lower 48 is used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, unless used in the context of Alaska. During World War II, the first four numbered Air Forces of the United States Army Air Forces were said to be assigned to the Zone of the Interior by the American military organizations of the time—the future states of Alaska and Hawaii each only organized incorporated territories of the Union, were covered by the Eleventh Air Force and Seventh Air Force during the war.
Alaskans and non-continental territories have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3, 1959. Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States Pacific coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, the term "continental United States" is unheard of when referring to the contiguous 48 states. Several other terms have been used over the years; the term Lower 48 has, for many years, been a common Alaskan equivalent for "contiguous United States". Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959, it is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America and halfway to Asia. In Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U.
S. Mainland are used to refer to the contiguous United States. Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico are free to move to the mainland. A Stateside Puerto Rican is a term for residents in a U. S. state who were trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico. Apart from off-shore US islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous US are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada. Point Roberts, Washington. Alburgh, Vermont, is not directly connected by land, but