James Kimbrough Jones
James Kimbrough Jones was a United States Senator. Born in Marshall County, Jones moved with his father to Dallas County and he pursued classical studies under a private tutor, he would study law and was, in 1874, admitted to the bar, practicing in Washington, Arkansas. During the American Civil War, Jones served in the Confederate Army, from 1873 to 1879, he was a member of the Arkansas State Senate, and was president of that body from 1877 to 1879. In 1896 and 1900, he was the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Jones was reelected in 1891 and 1897 and served from March 4,1885, to March 3,1903, unsuccessfully seeking reelection in 1902. C. Where he died, he was buried in Rock Creek Cemetery, biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region
Abram Stevens Hewitt was a teacher, lawyer, an iron manufacturer, chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1876 to 1877, U. S. Congressman, and a mayor of New York City. He was the son-in-law of Peter Cooper, an industrialist, Hewitt was born in Haverstraw, New York. Hewitt worked his way through and graduated from Columbia College in 1842 and he taught mathematics at the school, and became a lawyer several years later. From 1843 to 1844, Hewitt traveled to Europe with his student, Edward Cooper, the son of industrialist entrepreneur Peter Cooper, during their return voyage, the pair were shipwrecked together. After this, Hewitt became virtually a member of the Cooper family, Hewitt invested in other companies, in many case serving on their boards. Hewitt was known for dedicated work for the U. S. government, after his marriage to Sarah Cooper, Hewitt supervised the construction of Cooper Union, Peter Coopers free educational institution, and chaired the board of trustees until 1903.
He first ventured into politics in 1874, when he won a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives. He became the head of the Democratic National Committee in 1876 and he served in the U. S. House again from March 4,1881 to December 30,1886. Hewitts most famous speech was made at the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge between Manhattan Island and Brooklyn in 1883, Tammany feared that a win by George might reorganize politics in the city along class lines, rather than along ethnic lines, which is where Tammany drew its power. Theodore Roosevelt, running as the Republican Party candidate, came in third, Hewitt refused to allow Tammany the control of patronage they wanted, and Croker saw to it that Hewittt was not nominated for a second term. Hewitt was considered a consistent defender of sound money practices and civil service reform, Hewitt had many investments in natural resources, including considerable holdings in West Virginia, where William Nelson Page was one of his managers. He was an associate of Henry Huttleston Rogers, a financier and industrialist who was a key man in the Standard Oil Trust, one of Hewitts investments handled by Rogers and Page was the Loup Creek Estate in Fayette County, West Virginia.
After rate disputes, the short line railroad was eventually expanded to extend all the way into Virginia. Planned secretly right under the noses of the railroads, it was renamed the Virginian Railway. As a philanthropist, Hewitt was especially interested in education, Columbia University gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1887, and he was the president of its alumni association in 1883, and a trustee from 1901 until his death. In 1876 he was elected president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers and he was a trustee of Barnard College and of the American Museum of Natural History. Abram Hewitt died at his New York City home on January 18,1903 and his last words, after he took his oxygen tube from his mouth, were And now, I am officially dead. His son, Peter Cooper Hewitt, was an inventor, while another son, Edward Ringwood Hewitt, was an inventor, a chemist
Lyndon B. Johnson
A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two more as Senate Majority Whip, Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate and they went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20,1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22,1963 and he successfully ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. He is one of four people who have served as President, Vice President, Senator. Johnson was renowned for his personality and the Johnson treatment. Assisted in part by an economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U. S. and abroad. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, while he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson, Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed.
After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, historians argue that Johnsons presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27,1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, and three sisters, Rebekah and Lucia, the nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJs cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry and he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana
Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System includes the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline,11 pump stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal. TAPS is one of the worlds largest pipeline systems, the crude oil pipeline is privately owned by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company. The pipeline was built between 1974 and 1977 after the 1973 oil crisis caused a rise in oil prices in the United States. This rise made exploration of the Prudhoe Bay oil field economically feasible, in building the pipeline, engineers faced a wide range of difficulties, stemming mainly from the extreme cold and the difficult, isolated terrain. The project attracted tens of thousands of workers to Alaska, causing a boomtown atmosphere in Valdez, the first barrel of oil traveled through the pipeline in 1977, and full-scale production began by the end of the year. Several notable incidents of oil leakage have occurred since, including those caused by sabotage, maintenance failures, as of 2010, the pipeline had shipped almost 16 billion barrels of oil.
Iñupiat people on the North Slope of Alaska had mined oil-saturated peat for possibly thousands of years, using it as fuel for heat, whalers who stayed at Point Barrow saw the substance the Iñupiat called pitch and recognized it as petroleum. Brooks report confirmed the observations of Thomas Simpson, an officer of the Hudsons Bay Company who first observed the seepages in 1836, similar seepages were found at the Canning River in 1919 by Ernest de Koven Leffingwell. Following the First World War, as the United States Navy converted its ships from coal to fuel oil, President Warren G. Harding established by executive order a series of Naval Petroleum Reserves across the United States. These reserves were areas thought to be rich in oil and set aside for future drilling by the U. S. Navy, Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 was sited in Alaskas far north, just south of Barrow, and encompassed 23,000,000 acres. Other Naval Petroleum Reserves were embroiled in controversy over government corruption in the Teapot Dome Scandal, the first explorations of NPR-4 were undertaken by the U. S.
These surveys were primarily pedestrian in nature, no drilling or remote sensing techniques were available at the time and these surveys named many of the geographic features of the areas explored, including the Philip Smith Mountains and quadrangle. The petroleum reserve lay dormant until the Second World War provided an impetus to new oil prospects. The first renewed efforts to identify strategic oil assets were a two pronged survey using bush aircraft, local Inupiat guides, and personnel from multiple agencies to locate reported seeps. Ebbley and Joesting reported on these initial forays in 1943 Starting in 1944, surveyors from the U. S. Geological Survey spread across the petroleum reserve and worked to determine its extent until 1953, when the Navy suspended funding for the project. The USGS found several oil fields, most notably the Alpine and Umiat Oil Field, four years after the Navy suspended its survey, Richfield Oil Corporation drilled an enormously successful oil well near the Swanson River in southern Alaska, near Kenai.
The resulting Swanson River Oil Field was Alaskas first major commercially producing oil field, by 1965, five oil and 11 natural gas fields had been developed. The problems came from the areas remoteness and harsh climate and it was estimated that between 200,000,000 barrels and 500,000,000 barrels of oil would have to be recovered to make a North Slope oil field commercially viable
Democratic National Committee
The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party. The committee coordinates strategy to support Democratic Party candidates throughout the country for local, state and it organizes the Democratic National Convention held every four years to nominate and confirm a candidate for president, and to formulate the party platform. While it provides support for party candidates, it not have direct authority over elected officials. The DNC is composed of the chairs and vice-chairs of each state Democratic Party committee and over 200 members elected by Democrats in all 50 states and its chairperson is elected by the committee. It conducts fundraising to support its activities, the DNC was established at the 1848 Democratic National Convention. The DNCs main counterpart is the Republican National Committee, the DNC is responsible for articulating and promoting the Democratic platform and coordinating party organizational activity. When the president is a Democrat, the party generally works closely with the president, there are state committees in every state, as well as local committees in most cities and towns.
The chairperson of the DNC is elected by vote of members of the Democratic National Committee, primary elections, in particular, are invariably conducted by state governments according to their own laws. Outside of the process of nominating a candidate, the DNCs role in actually selecting candidates to run on the party ticket is minimal. All DNC members are superdelegates to the Democratic National Convention whose role can influence a close primary race, sitting Democratic governors and members of Congress. Distinguished party leaders, consisting of current and former presidents, vice presidents, congressional leaders, in the 2002 election cycle, the DNC and its affiliated committees raised a total of US $162,062,084, 42% of which was hard money. The largest contributor, with US $7,297,937 was the Saban Capital Group, fred Eychaner, the owner of Newsweb Corporation, gave the second highest amount of money to the DNC and its affiliates, US $5,175,000. The third largest contributor was Steve Bing of Shangri-La Entertainment, who gave US $4,758,000, in the 2006 election cycle, the DNC raised a total of US $37,939,887.
The three largest contributors were investment bank Goldman Sachs, university of California and Pond North LLP. The DNC introduced a fund raising campaign, the Democracy Bonds program. There were only 31,000 Democracy Bond donors by May 2006, the program no longer is in place. In the 2016 election cycle, the DNC raised a total of US $75,945,536 as of July 21,2016, the three largest contributors were hedge fund Renaissance Technologies, Newsweb Corp and Total Wine. In July 2015, during the 2016 election cycle, the DNC, led by Debbie Wasserman-Schultz, Tom Perez, former U. S. Secretary of Labor under Barack Obama Deputy Chair, Keith Ellison, U. S. S
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Robert E. Hannegan
Robert Emmet Hannegan was a St. Louis, Missouri politician who served as Commissioner of Internal Revenue from October 1943 to January 1944. He served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1944 to 1947, after his political career, in 1947, Hannegan and partner Fred Saigh purchased the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball. But Hannegan, ill with disease, sold his share in the team to Saigh a few months before his death. He was born on June 30,1903 in St. Louis, Missouri and he earned an LL. B. from the Saint Louis University School of Law in 1925. On November 14,1929, Hannegan married the former Irma Protzmann, Truman re-won the seat with increased support in St. Louis, particularly from Catholic neighborhoods in which Hannegan wielded considerable influence. In his second term, Truman achieved national prominence by chairing a Senate committee investigating government waste in defense contracts, when Franklin D. Roosevelt offered Truman the position of DNC chairman, Truman declined but recommended Hannegan.
In 1944, Roosevelt appointed Hannegan, who had been the Collector of Internal Revenue in St. Louis, as Democratic chairman, Hannegan was responsible for brokering the deal that made Truman Roosevelts running mate that year. Shortly before the 1944 Democratic National Convention, Roosevelt famously sent Hannegan a letter stating he would be happy to run with either Truman or Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas. Vice president Henry A. Wallace nearly won the nomination, Hannegan joked he wanted his tombstone inscribed with the words Here lies the man who stopped Henry Wallace from becoming President of the United States. He promoted a policy agenda for the national party and was a strong advocate of labor unions. Hannegan died in St. Louis, Missouri, on October 6,1949 and he is interred in Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri. Hannegan was mentioned in the film Miracle on 34th Street in his role as Postmaster General, therefore, in the film, by implication, he was responsible for affirming that Mr.
Kris Kringle, the central character was the one and only Santa Claus. Hannegan was portrayed by actor John Finn in the 1995 film Truman
Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the U. S. state of Alaska. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 401,635 in 2016. Anchorage is located in the portion of Alaska at the terminus of the Cook Inlet on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north. The city limits span 1,961.1 square miles encompass the urban core. Due to its location on the globe, being almost equidistant from New York City, Anchorage has been named an All-America City four times, in 1956,1965, 1984–85, and 2002, by the National Civic League. It has named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States. Russian presence in south central Alaska was well established in the 19th century, in 1867, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Imperial Russia for $7.2 million. His political rivals lampooned the deal as Sewards folly, Sewards icebox, by 1888, gold was discovered along Turnagain Arm.
Alaska became a United States territory in 1912, unlike every other large town in Alaska south of the Brooks Range, was neither a fishing nor mining camp. The area surrounding Anchorage lacks significant economic metal minerals, a number of Denaina settlements existed along Knik Arm for years. By 1911 the families of J. D. Bud Whitney, jack Brown, and his bride, Nellie, in 1912 to have lived in the Ship Creek valley in the 1910s prior to the large influx of settlers. The city grew from its choice as the site, in 1914, under the direction of Frederick Mears. The area near the mouth of Ship Creek, where the headquarters was located. A town site was mapped out on higher ground to the south of the tent city, greatly noted in the years since for its order and rigidity compared with other Alaska town sites. In 1915, territorial governor John Franklin Alexander Strong encouraged residents to change the name to one that had more significance. In the summer of year, residents held a vote to change the citys name.
However, the government ultimately declined to change the citys name. Anchorage was incorporated on November 23,1920, construction of the Alaska Railroad continued until its completion in 1923
Norman E. Mack
Norman Edward Mack was editor and publisher of the Buffalo Daily Times. He was Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1908 to 1912 and he was born July 24,1856, in West Williams, Canada. He was editor and publisher of the Buffalo Daily Times and he was Chairman of the New York State Commission for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. He sold his paper in 1929 to Scripps-Howard for $6,000,000 and he retired in 1931 and died on December 26,1932 in Buffalo, New York
John Sidney McCain III is an American politician who currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for the 2008 U. S. presidential election, McCain followed his father and grandfather, both four-star admirals, into the United States Navy, graduating from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1958. He became an aviator, flying ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, in October 1967, while on a bombing mission over Hanoi, he was shot down, seriously injured, and captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973, McCain experienced episodes of torture, and refused an out-of-sequence early repatriation offer. His war wounds have left him with physical limitations. He retired from the Navy as a captain in 1981 and moved to Arizona, elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1982, McCain served two terms. He was first elected to the U. S. Senate in 1986, winning re-election easily five times, while generally adhering to conservative principles, McCain at times has had a media reputation as a maverick for his willingness to disagree with his party on certain issues.
He is known for his work in the 1990s to restore relations with Vietnam. McCain ran for the Republican nomination in 2000 but lost a primary season contest to George W. Bush of Texas. He subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, by 2013, however, he had become a key figure in the Senate for negotiating deals on certain issues in an otherwise partisan environment. In 2015, McCain became chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, John McCain was born on August 29,1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He has a brother named Joe and an elder sister named Sandy. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control, McCains family tree includes Scots-Irish and English ancestors. Both his father and his grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. became four-star United States Navy admirals. The McCain family followed his father to various postings in the United States.
Altogether, he attended about 20 schools, in 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, and McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria. He excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954, following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis