Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the U. S. state of Alaska. With an estimated 298,192 residents in 2016, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains more than 40 percent of the state's total population. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 401,635 in 2016, which accounts for more than half of the state's population. At 1,706 square miles of land area, the city is the fourth largest city by land in the United States and larger than the smallest state, Rhode Island, at 1,212 square miles. Anchorage is in the south-central portion of Alaska, at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north and the Turnagain Arm to the south; the city limits span 1,961.1 square miles which encompass the urban core, a joint military base, several outlying communities and all of Chugach State Park. Due to its location equidistant from New York City and Tokyo, Anchorage lies within 9 1⁄2 hours by air of nearly 90% of the industrialized world.
For this reason, the Anchorage International Airport is a common refueling stop for many international cargo flights and home to a major FedEx hub, which the company calls a "critical part" of its global network of services. Anchorage has won the All-America City Award four times: in 1956, 1965, 1984–85, 2002, by the National Civic League, it has been named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States. Russian presence in south-central Alaska was well-established in the 19th century. In 1867, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Imperial Russia for $7.2 million, or about two cents an acre. His political rivals lampooned the deal as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and "Walrussia." In 1888, gold was discovered along Turnagain Arm. Alaska became an organized incorporated United States territory in 1912. Anchorage, unlike every other large town in Alaska south of the Brooks Range, was neither a fishing nor mining camp; the area surrounding Anchorage lacks significant economic metal minerals.
A number of Dena'ina settlements existed along Knik Arm for years. By 1911 the families of J. D. "Bud" Whitney and Jim St. Clair lived at the mouth of Ship Creek and were joined there by a young forest ranger, Jack Brown, his bride, Nellie, in 1912; the city grew from its happenstance choice as the site, in 1914, under the direction of Frederick Mears, of a railroad-construction port for the Alaska Engineering Commission. The area near the mouth of Ship Creek, where the railroad headquarters was located became a tent city. A townsite was mapped out on higher ground to the south of the tent city noted in the years since for its order and rigidity compared with other Alaska town sites. In 1915, territorial governor John Franklin Alexander Strong encouraged residents to change the city's name to one that had "more significance and local associations". In the summer of that year, residents held a vote to change the city's name. However, the territorial government declined to change the city's name.
Anchorage was incorporated on November 23, 1920. Construction of the Alaska Railroad continued until its completion in 1923; the city's economy in the 1920s and 1930s centered on the railroad. Col. Otto F. Ohlson, the Swedish-born general manager of the railroad for nearly two decades, became a symbol of residents' contempt due to the firm control he maintained over the railroad's affairs, which by extension became control over economic and other aspects of life in Alaska. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became important. Aviation operations in Anchorage commenced along the firebreak south of town, which residents used as a golf course. An increase in air traffic led to clearing of a site directly east of town site boundaries starting in 1929. However, Merrill Field still sees a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson were constructed in the 1940s, served as the city's primary economic engine until the 1968 Prudhoe Bay discovery shifted the thrust of the economy toward the oil industry.
The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process led to the combining of the two bases to form Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. On March 27, 1964, the magnitude 9.2 Good Friday earthquake hit Anchorage, killing 115 people and causing $116 million in damages. The earth-shaking event lasted nearly five minutes, it was the world's second-largest earthquake in recorded history. Rebuilding dominated the remainder of the 1960s. In 1968, ARCO discovered oil in Prudhoe Bay on the Alaska North Slope, the resulting oil boom spurred further growth in Anchorage. In 1975, the City of Anchorage and the Greater Anchorage Area Borough merged into the geographically larger Municipality of Anchorage The city continued to grow in the 1980s, capital projects and an aggressive beautification campaign took place. During this time Anchorage became known as the "Gree
Wasilla is a city in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States and the sixth-largest city in Alaska. It is located on the northern point of Cook Inlet in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley of the southcentral part of the state; the city's population was 7,831 at the 2010 census, up from 5,469 in 2000. Estimates in 2016 put the population at 9,748. Wasilla is the largest city in the borough and a part of the Anchorage metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 396,142 in 2013. Established at the intersection of the Alaska Railroad and Old Carle Wagon Road, the city prospered at the expense of the nearby mining town of Knik. Entrepreneurial, the economic base shifted in the 1970s from small-scale agriculture and recreation to support for workers employed in Anchorage or on Alaska's North Slope oilfields and related infrastructure; the George Parks Highway turned the town into a commuter suburb of Anchorage. Several state and federal agencies have offices in Wasilla, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation and Divisions of Public Assistance, Social Services.
Wasilla gained international attention when Sarah Palin, who served as Mayor of Wasilla before her election as Governor of Alaska, was chosen by John McCain as his running mate for Vice President of the United States in the 2008 United States presidential election. Wasilla is named after a local Dena'ina chief. "Wasilla" is the anglicized spelling of the chief's Russian-given name, Васи́лий Vasilij, which corresponds to the English name Basil. Glacial ice sheets covered most of the northern hemisphere during the last glacial period, between 26,500 and 19,000–20,000 years ago, until they disappeared between 10,000 and about 7,000 years ago. Early humans left evidence of their passage; the Matanuska-Susitna valley was settled by the Dena'ina Alaska natives who utilized the fertile lands and fishing opportunities of Cook Inlet. The Dena'ina are one of the eleven sub-groups comprising the indigenous Athabaskan Indian groups extending down Canada's western coast; the area around downtown Wasilla was known to the Dena'ina as "Benteh", which translates as "among the lakes".
Near the mouth of the Matanuska River, the town of Knik was settled about 1880. In 1900, the Willow Creek Mining District was established to the north and Knik thrived as a mining settlement. In 1917, the U. S. government planned the Alaska Railroad to intersect the Carle Wagon Road which connected Knik and the mines. Knik businesses and residents rushed to buy land nearby, the town declined. Wasilla Station was named for the nearby Wasilla Creek. Local miners used referring to Wassila, a chief of the Dena'ina. There are two sources cited for the name, one being derived from a Dena'ina word meaning "breath of air" while another stating Dena'ina derived it from the Russian name "Vasili." As Knik declined into a ghost town, Wasilla served early fur trappers and miners working the gold fields at Cache Creek and Willow Creek. More than 200 farm families from the Upper Midwest were moved into the Matanuska and Susitna valleys in 1935 as part of a U. S. government program to start a new farming community to counteract this trend.
The area was a supply base for gold mines near Hatcher Pass through World War II. Until construction of the George Parks Highway around 1970, nearby Palmer was the leading city in the Matanuska Valley. Wasilla was at the end of the Palmer-Wasilla highway and the road to Big Lake provided access to land west of Wasilla; the Parks Highway put Wasilla at mile 40–42 of what became the major highway and railroad transportation corridor linking Southcentral Alaska to Interior Alaska. As a result, population growth and community development shifted from the Palmer area to Wasilla and the surrounding area. Wasilla was incorporated as a city in 1974. All non-borough municipalities throughout Alaska are designated cities. In 1994, a statewide initiative to move Alaska's capital to Wasilla was defeated by a vote of about 116,000 to 96,000. About that time, the Matanuska Valley began to recover from an economic collapse, beginning a sustained boom that involved dramatic population growth, increased local employment, a boom in residential and commercial real estate development.
The local real estate market slowed in 2006. In 2008, suburban growth and dwindling snow forced organizers of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race to bypass Wasilla permanently, due to a warming climate; the race had its start in Wasilla from 1973 to 2002, the year when reduced snow cover forced a "temporary" change to Willow. Wasilla is located at 61°34′54″N 149°27′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 12.4 square miles. 11.7 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Located near Wasilla Lake and Lake Lucille, Wasilla is one of two cities in the Matanuska Valley; the community surrounds Mi. 39–46 of the George Parks Highway 43 mi by highway northeast of Anchorage. Nearly one third of the people of Wasilla drive the 40-minute commute to work in Anchorage every day. Six miles to the southeast is Mount POW/MIA. Wasilla has a climate similar to that of Anchorage, but with warmer daytime maxima and colder nighttime minima due to its inland location.
Classified as subarctic climate by Köppen-Geiger climate classification. On average, over the course of the entire year, there are 30–31 days of sub-0 °F lows, 37–38 days of 70 °F + highs, 1.4 days of 80 °F + highs. The average annual precipitation is 17 inches, with 52 inches of snowfall. Wasilla first appeared on the 1930 U. S. Census as
Bryce Edgmon is Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 37th District since 2006. After his party won 17 seats in 2016, 2 Independents and 3 moderate Republicans decided to caucus with the Democrats, elevating him to Speaker, he is the first Alaskan Native in the history of the state to hold the position. In addition to his duties as Speaker, Edgmon is serves as vice-chair of the Health & Social Services Committee and chair of the Committee on Committees, he is a member of the Commerce, Community & Economic Development. Prior to the 30th Alaska Legislature, Edgmon was seated on the House Finance Committee, with chairmanships of the Department of Public Safety and Department of Corrections Budget Subcommittees. During the 26th Legislature, Edgmon was co-chair of the House Energy Committee and chairman of the House Special Committee on Fisheries. Additionally, he has served on the Resources and Education Standing Committees and the ADF&G, Revenue and Transportation Budget Subcommittees.
Edgmon was born and raised in Dillingham, where he fished commercially for salmon and herring for more than twenty years and where he was a longtime chairman of the board of Choggiung Ltd. the Alaska Native village corporation for the communities of Dillingham and Portage Creek. Edgmon is married to Melody Nibeck, they have three children: Evan and Magy, he lives in Dillingham. He received his Bachelor of Business Administration from the University of Anchorage. List of Native American politicians List of state legislature Speakers Alaska State House Majority Site Alaska State Legislature Biography Project Vote Smart profile Follow the Money – Bryce Edgmon 2006 1994 campaign contributions Bryce Edgmon at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
Adam Wool is an American politician from Alaska. A Democrat, he serves in the Alaska House of Representatives from District 5, he is from Fairbanks. Wool defeated Republican Representative Pete Higgins in 2014, picking up his seat for the Democratic minority. In 2017, Wool was responsible for pushing legislation through the Alaska House of Representatives that legalized the use of ride-sharing apps such as Uber and Lyft in Alaska. Wool is from Boston, Massachusetts, he lives in Fairbanks with their two daughters. He owns Fairbanks's Blue Loon bar, which he founded
David Eastman (politician)
David Eastman is a Republican member of the Alaska House of Representatives, serving the 10th district. He has served since January 17, 2017, he was elected to office on November 2016, with 73.98 % of the vote. Named 2010 Alaska State Volunteer of the Year by First Lady Sandy Parnell for volunteer work with children and families. Selected in April 2012 by Republicans in House District 13 as their first choice to fill the House Seat left vacant by the death of Rep. Carl Gatto. Selected as one of 15 aspiring conservative policy leaders nationally in 2010-2011 to join Lt. Gov. Mead Treadwell in being named an Abraham Lincoln Fellow by the Claremont Institute for Statesmanship and Political Philosophy, he was removed from his position on the ethics committee after it was found that he violated ethics law. He denied the allegations. David Eastman, at 15, was the youngest delegate at the RNC in 1996 because “they liked my essay about how awesome Bob Dole was,” Eastman was a Tea Party activist and is considered right-wing.
He ran to the right of a conservative candidate in his 2016 election as member of the Alaska House of Representatives. Eastman is an ardent Trump supporter, was involved early in the Trump candidacy. Eastman is against abortion in all forms, he once tried to add a right-to-life amendment to a non-controversial resolution in 2017 that designated April as Sexual Assault Awareness Month, filed a complaint when the committee wouldn't consider his amendment. In April 2017, Rep. David Eastman voted against a bill in Alaska to honor Hmong veterans and the more than 100,000 Hmong people who died in the Vietnam War supporting the United States, he voted against a bill honoring black soldiers who worked on the Alaska Highway. His reasoning is. In May 2017, Eastman was involved in a controversy regarding his remarks suggesting that native Alaskan women in villages try to get pregnant on purpose to get a "free trip to the city" for abortion, he claims there are too many incentives to get an abortion and said, "We have folks who try to get pregnant in this state so that they can get a free trip to the city, we have folks who want to carry their baby past the point of being able to have an abortion in this state so that they can have a free trip to Seattle."
The Alaska House of Representatives voted to censure Eastman because of his remarks. Profile at Vote Smart
Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. 2016 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,751, the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 97,121, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. The Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, located 196 driving miles south of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the founding campus of the University of Alaska system. Though, as of yet, there is not a known permanent Alaska Native settlement at the site of Fairbanks, Athabascan peoples have used the area for thousands of years. An archaeological site excavated on the grounds of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uncovered a Native camp about 3,500 years old, with older remains found at deeper levels.
From evidence gathered at the site, archaeologists surmise that Native activities in the area were limited to seasonal hunting and fishing as fridge temperatures precluded berry gathering. In addition, archeological sites on the grounds of nearby Fort Wainwright date back well over 10,000 years. Arrowheads excavated from the University of Alaska Fairbanks site matched similar items found in Asia, providing some of the first evidence that humans arrived in North America via the Bering Strait land bridge in deep antiquity. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a trading post; the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River; the sight of smoke from the steamer's engines caught the attention of gold prospectors working in the hills to the north, most notably an Italian immigrant named Felice Pedroni and his partner Tom Gilmore.
The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated around the newly founded Fairbanks. After some urging by James Wickersham, who moved the seat of the Third Division court from Eagle to Fairbanks, the settlement was named after Charles W. Fairbanks, a Republican senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving under Theodore Roosevelt during his second term. In these early years of settlement, the Tanana Valley was an important agricultural center for Alaska until the establishment of the Matanuska Valley Colonization Project and the town of Palmer in 1935. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was the farm of Paul J. Rickert, who came from nearby Chena in 1904 and operated a large farm until his death in 1938.
Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, an early resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road and became known as "the Strawberry King". Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers, whose farms were in the immediate vicinity of their respective namesake roads. Despite early efforts by the Alaska Loyal League, the Tanana Valley Agriculture Association and William Fentress Thompson, the editor-publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, to encourage food production, agriculture in the area was never able to support the population, although it came close in the 1920s; the construction of Ladd Army Airfield starting in 1939, part of a larger effort by the federal government during the New Deal and World War II to install major infrastructure in the territory for the first time, fostered an economic and population boom in Fairbanks which extended beyond the end of the war.
In the 1940s the Canol pipeline extended north from Whitehorse for a few years. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55; the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960. Fairbanks suffered from several floods in its first seven decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or heavy rainfall; the first bridge crossing the Chena River, a wooden structure built in 1904 to extend Turner Street northward to connect with the wagon roads leading to the gold mining camps washed out before a permanent bridge was constructed at Cushman Street in 1917 by the Alaska Road Commission. On August 14, 1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding the entire town of Fairbanks overnight; this disaster led to the creation of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, which built and operates the 50-foot-high Moose Creek Dam in the Chena River and accompanying 8-mile-long spillway.
The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to
Big Lake, Alaska
Big Lake is a census-designated place in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States. It is part of Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 3,350 at the 2010 census, up from 2,635 in 2000. Big Lake is located at 61°32′15″N 149°53′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 144.8 square miles, of which, 131.9 square miles of it is land and 12.9 square miles of it is water. Big Lake, Alaska experiences an average of 51.4 inches of snowfall per year, 109 precipitation days, 131 sunny days, an average annual wind speed of 8.18 MPH. Big Lake first appeared on the 1960 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. Within Big Lake is the former short-lived city of Long Island, which existed from 1965-1975 and had just 7 residents on the 1970 census; this is not to be confused with the former logging camp of Long Island. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,635 people, 971 households, 647 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 20.0 people per square mile. There were 2,122 housing units at an average density of 16.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 87.13% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 7.32% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.87% from other races, 4.02% from two or more races. 1.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 971 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.10. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 118.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $43,382, the median income for a family was $47,542. Males had a median income of $40,000 versus $30,139 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,285. About 9.8% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 1.0% of those age 65 or over