The Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) is a marine fish species of the cod family Gadidae. It is a semipelagic schooling fish widely distributed in the North Pacific with largest concentrations found in the eastern Bering Sea.
While belonging to the same family as the Atlantic pollock, the Alaska pollock is not a member of the same genus, Pollachius. Alaska pollock was long put in its own genus, Theragra and classified as Theragra chalcogramma, but more recent research has shown it is rather closely related to the Atlantic cod and should be moved back to genus Gadus, in which it was originally described. Furthermore, Norwegian pollock (Theragra finnmarchica), a rare fish of Norwegian waters, is likely the same species as the Alaska pollock.
The speckled coloring of Alaska pollock makes it more difficult for predators to see them when they are near sandy ocean floors. They are a relatively fast-growing and short-lived species, currently representing a major biological component of the Bering Sea ecosystem. It has been found that catches of Alaska pollock go up three years after stormy summers. The storms stir up nutrients, and this results in phytoplankton being plentiful for longer, which in turn allows more pollock hatchlings to survive. The Alaska pollock has well-developed drumming muscles that the fish use to produce sounds during courtship, like many other gadids.
The primary factor in determining the foraging behavior of the Alaskan pollock is age. Young pollocks can be divided into two sub-groups, with lengths below or above 60 mm. Both groups mainly feed on copepods. A limited supply of copepods may lead to food depletion. However, the larger group is also capable of foraging for euphausiids and is able to diversify its food sources. Therefore, food depletion has a larger effect on smaller pollocks.
The variation in size of each subgroup also affects seasonal foraging behavior. During the winter, when food is scarce, foraging can be costly due to the fact that longer hunting time increases the risk of meeting a predator. The larger young pollocks have no need to hunt during the wintertime because they have a higher capacity for energy storage while smaller individuals do not and, therefore, have to continue foraging thereby putting themselves at greater risk. To maximize their chances of survival, the larger group increases their calorie intake to gain weight in autumn, while the smaller group focuses solely on growing in size.
Lastly, Alaskan pollock exhibit diel vertical migration, following the seasonal movement of their food. Although pollocks exhibit vertical movement during the day, their average depth changes following the seasons. Originally, the change in depth was attributed to the amount of light or the ambient water temperature, but currently, it is exclusively connected to the movement of food species. In August, when food is abundantly available near the surface, pollocks will be found at lower depths, but in November, they are found at greater depths along with their planktonic food source.
The Alaska pollock has been said to be "the largest remaining source of palatable fish in the world." Around 3 million tons of Alaska pollock are caught each year in the North Pacific from Alaska to northern Japan. Alaska pollock is the world's second most important fish species in terms of total catch.
The Alaska pollock landings are the largest of any single fish species in the U.S, the average annual Eastern Bering Sea catch between 1977 and 2014 being 1.174 million tons. Alaska pollock catches from U.S. fisheries have been quite consistent at about 1.5 million tons a year, almost all of it from the Bering Sea. Each year's quota is adjusted based on stock assessments conducted by the Alaska Fisheries Science Centre. For instance, stock declines in 2008 meant decreased allowable harvests for 2009 and 2010. This decline led some scientists[according to whom?] to worry that Alaska pollock could be about to repeat the kind of collapse experienced by Atlantic cod, which could have negative consequences for the world food supply and the entire Bering Sea ecosystem. Halibut, salmon, endangered Steller sea lions, fur seals, and humpback whales all eat pollock and rely on healthy populations to sustain themselves. Alaska pollock stocks (and catch levels) subsequently returned to above average in 2011 and remained so through to 2014. Greenpeace however has long been critical of the management of Alaska pollock, placing the fish on its "red list" of species and retaining it through to the present day (October 2015), the stated reason being damage of trawling to the seabed.
Other groups have hailed the fishery as an example of good management, and the Marine Stewardship Council declared it "sustainable". The Marine Conservation Society rates Alaska pollock trawled from the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Aleutian Islands as sustainable, but not those from the Western Bering Sea and Okhotsk Sea.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Compared with pollock, Alaska pollock has a milder taste, whiter color and lower oil content.
High-quality, single-frozen whole Alaska pollock fillets may be layered into a block mold and deep-frozen to produce fish blocks that are used throughout Europe and North America as the raw material for high-quality breaded and battered fish products. Lower-quality, double-frozen fillets or minced trim pieces may also be frozen in block forms and used as raw material for lower-quality, low-cost breaded and battered fish sticks and portions.
Single-frozen Alaska pollock is considered to be the premier raw material for surimi; the most common use of surimi in the United States is imitation crabmeat (also known as crab stick).
Alaska pollock is commonly used in the fast food industry, in products such as McDonald's Filet-O-Fish sandwich and (now-discontinued) Fish McBites, Arby's Classic Fish sandwich, Long John Silver's Baja Fish Taco, and Birds Eye's Fish Fingers in Crispy Batter.
Alaska pollock is considered the "national fish" of Korea. The Korean name of the fish, myeongtae (명태,明太), has also spread to some neighbouring countries: It is called mintay (минтай) in Russia, and its roe is called mentaiko (明太子) in Japan although the Japanese name for the fish itself is suketōdara (介党鱈). In Korea, myeongtae is called by thirty-odd names including: saengtae (생태, fresh), dongtae (동태, frozen), bugeo (북어, dried), hwangtae (황태, dryed in winter with repeated freezing and thawing), nogari (노가리, dried young), and kodari (코다리, half-dried young).
Koreans have been enjoying Alaska pollock since the Joseon era. One of the earliest mentions are from Seungjeongwon ilgi (Journal of the Royal Secretariat), where a 1652 entry stated: "The management administration should be strictly interrogated for bringing in pollock roe instead of cod roe." Alaska pollocks were the most commonly caught fish in Korea in 1940, when more than 270,000 tonnes were caught from the East Sea. It outnumbers the current annual consumption of Alaska pollock in South Korea, estimated at about 260,000 tonnes in 2016. Nowadays, however, Alaska pollock consumption in South Korea rely heavily on import from Russia, due to rises in sea water temperatures.
Pollock roe is a popular culinary ingredient in Korea, Japan, and Russia. In Korea, the roe is called myeongnan (명란, literally "Alaska pollock's roe"), and the salted roe is called myeongnan-jeot (명란젓, literally "pollock roe jeotgal"). The food was introduced to Japan after World War II, and since has been called mentai-ko (明太子) in Japanese. A milder, less spicy version is usually called tarako (鱈子, literally "cod's roe"), which is also the Japanese name for pollock roe itself. In Russia, pollock roe is consumed as a sandwich spread. The product, resembling liquid paste due to the small size of eggs and oil added, is sold canned.
- "Walleye Pollock Research". Alaska Fisheries Science Center. NOAA. 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- Byrkjedal, I.; Rees, D. J.; Christiansen, Jørgen S.; Fevolden, Svein-Erik (2008-10-01). "The taxonomic status of Theragra finnmarchica Koefoed, 1956 (Teleostei: Gadidae): perspectives from morphological and molecular data". Journal of Fish Biology. 73 (5): 1183–1200. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.01958.x.
- Carr, Steven M.; Marshall, H. Dawn (2008). "Phylogeographic analysis of complete mtDNA genomes from walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1811) shows an ancient origin of genetic biodiversity". Mitochondrial DNA. 19 (6): 490–496. doi:10.1080/19401730802570942. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- Ursvik, Anita; Breines, Ragna; Christiansen, Jørgen S.; Fevolden, Svein-Erik; Coucheron, Dag H.; Johansen, Steinar D. "A mitogenomic approach to the taxonomy of pollocks: Theragra chalcogramma and T. finnmarchica represent one single species". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (1): 86. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-86. PMC 1894972. PMID 17555567.
- "Alaska Pollock". FishWatch. NOAA. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- Pearson, Aria (6 January 2009). "Why storms are good news for fishermen". New Scientist. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 27 January 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- Hawkins, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. J. (1978). "The calls of gadoid fish". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 58: 891–911. doi:10.1017/s0025315400056848.
- Yong-Seok Park; Yasunori Sakurai; Tohru Mukai; Kohji Iida; Noritatsu Sano (2004). "Sound production related to the reproductive behavior of captive walleye pollack Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas)". Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (in Japanese and English). 60: 467–472. doi:10.2331/suisan.60.467.[permanent dead link]
- Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Meager, Justin J.; Heino, Mikko (2012). "Secondary sexual characteristics in codfishes (Gadidae) in relation to sound production, habitat use and social behaviour". Marine Biology Research. Taylor & Francis. 8 (3): 201–209. doi:10.1080/17451000.2011.637562. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- Ciannelli. L.; Brodeur, R.D.; Napp J.M. (2004). "Foraging impact on zooplankton by age-0 walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) around a front in the southeast Bering Sea". Marine Biology. 144: 515–526. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1215-4.
- Heintz, Ron A.; Vollenweider, Johanna J. (2010-09-30). "Influence of size on the sources of energy consumed by overwintering walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 393 (1–2): 43–50. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2010.06.030.
- Adams, Charles F.; Foy, Robert J.; Kelley, John J.; Coyle, Kenneth O. (2009-08-08). "Seasonal changes in the diel vertical migration of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the northern Gulf of Alaska". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 86 (2): 297–305. doi:10.1007/s10641-009-9519-y. ISSN 0378-1909.
- Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas, 1811) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
- Clover, Charles (2004). The End of the Line: How Overfishing Is Changing the World and What We Eat. Ebury Press. ISBN 0-09-189780-7.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2010). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. Rome: FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-106675-1.
- Assessment of the walleye pollock stock in the Eastern Bering Sea, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, December 2014
- North Pacific Groundfish Stock Assessments, Alaska Fisheries Science Center
- Bernton, Hal. "Business & Technology | Seattle trawlers may face new limits on pollock fishery | Seattle Times Newspaper". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- "Rethinking Sustainability - A new paradigm for fisheries management" (PDF). greenpeace.org. March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Greenpeace Seafood Red List
- "WWF - Alaskan & Russian Pollock". wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Marine Conservation Society
- Tepper, Rachel (24 January 2013). "McDonald's Sustainable Fish: All U.S. Locations To Serve MSC-Certified Seafood". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- "Classic Fish". Arby's. 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- "Ingredient Statements" (PDF). Long John Silver's. June 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- "Fish Fingers in Crispy Batter". Birds Eye. 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
- 정, 빛나 (11 October 2016). "국민생선 명태가 돌아온다…세계최초 '완전양식' 성공" [Return of the national fish: the first success in the world in completely controlled culture of Alaska pollock]. Yonhap (in Korean). Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- 박, 효주 (6 January 2017). "동태·북어·노가리, 겨울엔 황태·코다리로… '국민생선' 제철만났네" [Dongtae, bugeo, and nogari; as hwangtae and kodari in winter... the "national fish" is in season]. Bridgenews (in Korean). Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Cha, Sang-eun (12 September 2015). "A hit abroad, pollock roe is rallying at home". Korea Joongang Daily. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- 박, 구병. "명태" [myeongtae]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Gergen, Eugene (21 November 2016). "South Korea Facing Pollock Shortage, Aims to Rebuild Imports and Trade Ties to Russia". SeafoodNews. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Lee, Hyo-sik (19 January 2012). "PyeongChang: birthplace of yellow dried pollack". The Korea Times. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- NOAA NMFS: U.S. Seafood Facts
- FISHINFOnetwork Market Report 04/07
- FishBase: Alaska Pollock
- Alaska pollock-Theragra chalcogramma fishery profiles Status of these fisheries, summarised on FisheriesWiki