Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is an American national park that protects portions of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska. The park is the northernmost national park in the United States, situated north of the Arctic Circle; the park is the second largest in the US at 8,472,506 acres larger in area than Belgium. Gates of the Arctic was designated as a national monument on December 1, 1978, before being redesignated as a national park and preserve upon passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. A large part of the park has additional protection as the Gates of the Arctic Wilderness which covers 7,167,192 acres; the wilderness area adjoins the Noatak Wilderness and together they form the largest contiguous wilderness in the United States. There are no roads in Gates of the Arctic National Preserve. Owing to its remoteness and lack of supportive infrastructure, the park is the least visited national park in the U. S. and one of the least visited areas in the entire U.
S. National Park System, which includes national monuments, recreation areas and historic sites. In 2016, the park received just 10,047 visitors, while Grand Canyon National Park received nearly 6 million visitors in the same year. Camping is permitted throughout the park, but may be restricted by easements when crossing Native Corporation lands within the park; the park headquarters is in Fairbanks. Park Service operations in the park are managed from the Bettles Ranger Station, to the south of the park. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies to the west of the Dalton Highway, centered on the Brooks Range and covering the north and south slopes of the mountains; the park includes the Endicott Mountains and part of the Schwatka Mountains. The majority of Gates of the Arctic is designated as national park, in which only subsistence hunting by local rural residents is permitted. Sport hunting is only permitted in the national preserve. To hunt and trap in the preserve, a person must have all required licenses and permits and follow all other state regulations.
The eastern boundary of the park follows the Dalton Highway at a distance of a few miles, with the westernmost part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 10 miles farther east. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge is near the park's southeast boundary. Noatak National Preserve adjoins the western boundary, the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska adjoins the northwest corner of the park. All of the park is designated as wilderness, with the exception of areas around Anaktuvuk Pass. A detached portion of the park surrounds the outlying Fortress Mountain and Castle Mountain to the north of the park. Ten small communities outside the park's boundaries are classified as "resident zone communities" and depend on park resources for food and livelihood, they are Alatna, Ambler, Anaktuvuk Pass, Bettles/Evansville, Kobuk, Nuiqsut and Wiseman. There are no established roads, visitor facilities, or campgrounds in the park; the Dalton Highway comes within five miles of the park's eastern boundary, but requires a river crossing to reach the park from the road.
The Arctic Interagency Visitor Center in nearby Coldfoot is open from late May to early September, providing information on the parks and refuges of the Brooks Range, Yukon Valley and the North Slope. About 259,000 acres of the park and preserve are owned by native corporations or the State of Alaska. 7,263,000 acres are protected in the Gates of the Arctic Wilderness. The park contains mountains such as the Arrigetch Peaks and Mount Igikpak; the park features six Wild and Scenic Rivers: Alatna River 83 miles John River 52 miles Kobuk River 110 miles the North Fork of the Koyukuk River 102 miles part of the Noatak River Tinayguk River 44 miles The park includes much of the central and eastern Brooks Range. It extends to the east as far as the Middle Fork of the Koyukuk River, paralleled by the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline; the park straddles the continental divide, separating the drainages of the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. The northernmost section of the park includes small portions of the Arctic foothills tundra.
The Brooks Range occupies the central section of the park. To the south of the Brooks Range the Ambler-Chandalar Ridge, with associated valleys and lakes, runs east-west; the southernmost portion of the park includes the Kobuk-Selawik Lowlands, with the headwaters of the Kobuk River. The Brooks Range has seen repeated glaciation, with the most recent called the Itkillik glaciation from about 24,000 years ago to 1500 to 1200 years before the present; the boreal forest extends to about 68 degrees north latitude, characterized by black and white spruce mixed with poplar. To the north of that line, which coincides with the spine of the Brooks Range, lies cold-arid land, described as "Arctic desert." During the long winters temperatures can reach −75 °F, but can reach 90 °F for a short time in summer. The park lies above the Arctic circle. Fauna include two species of fox, black bear, bald eagle, Dall sheep, snowshoe hare, northern hawk-owl, golden eagle, brown bear, lynx, polar bear, peregrine falcon, great horned owl, river otter, ospreys and Northwestern wolf.
Caribou are common in the park, one of Alaska's best known populations, the Porcupine herd, may spend some time in the park. Caribou are important as a food source to native peoples; the park is the northernmost range limit for the Dall sheep. Grizzly bears are p
The Endicott Mountains are a range of mountains, part of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska. They are run some 151 miles east -- west. To the east are the Philip Smith Mountains and to the west are the Schwatka Mountains; the Endicott Mountains are separated from the Philip Smith Mountains by the Middle Fork of the Koyukuk River, the Dalton Highway, Atigun Pass. The Endicott Mountains are separated from the Schwatka Mountains by Walker Lake, the upper reaches of the West Fork of the Kobuk River, Akabluak Pass, the Noatak River; the Endicott Mountains are separated from the mountains north of the Schwatka by Lucky Six Creek, Gull Pass, Gull Creek, a portion of the Alatna River and the Killik River. From south to north the Endicott Mountains present long, broad glaciated valleys with rounded hills between rising in the center of the range to steep tors and aretes; the northern slopes of the Endicotts are steeper and more incised, before they give way to the Arctic Coastal Plain. Peaks in the Endicott Mountains include the Arrigetch Peaks, highest to lowest: as well as a number of unnamed peaks over 7000 ft.
Above the crystalline basement PreCambrian and Paleozoic sediments that have undergone partial metamorphosis. Above these are the well documented Kanayuk Conglomerate; the Kanayuk Conglomerate is a fluvial deposit, made by a river in its flood plain, can be up to 8,000 feet thick. The Kanayuk Conglomerate began to be deposited in the Devonian and continued through into the Mississippian, it is believed to have formed a huge delta 500 miles long and 30 miles wide. Handschy, James William Sedimentology and structural geology of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, central Brooks Range, Alaska PhD Thesis, Rice University, Abstract "Endicott Mountains" from Peakbagger.com
The Koyukuk River' is a 425-mile tributary of the Yukon River, in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the last major tributary entering the Yukon before the larger river empties into the Bering Sea. Rising at the confluence of the North Fork Koyukuk River with the Middle Fork Koyukuk River, it flows southwest to meet the larger Yukon River at Koyukuk; the river, with headwaters above the Arctic Circle in the Endicott Mountains of the Brooks Range, drains an area north of the Yukon River that includes part of the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, as well as Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge and Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. The main stem of the river is lined by the communities of Evansville, Alatna, Allakaket and Huslia before reaching Koyukuk, its headwaters tributaries include the Koyukuk's south and north forks, the Alatna River, the John River. Major tributaries further downstream include the Kanuti, Hogatza, Dulbi and Gisasa rivers. Of these, the Alatna and North Fork are National Wild and Scenic Rivers, as is the Tinayguk River, a tributary of the North Fork.
Koyukuk was derived from the Central Yup'ik phrase kuik-yuk, meaning a river. The Koyukuk River was given this generic C. Yup'ik name by Russian explorer Petr Vasilii Malakhov, because he did not know the local Koyukon name for it; the Western Union Telegraph Expedition used the spelling of Coyukuk before the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on Koyukuk. The Russian Petr Vasilii Malakhov reached the river at its confluence with the Yukon in 1838; the United States acquired Alaska after the American Civil War, but it was 1885 before US representatives Lieutenant Henry Allen and Private Fred Fickett of the United States Army ascended and explored the river. The discovery of gold deposits by Johnnie Folger on the Middle Fork in 1893 on The Tramway bar led to a gold rush in 1898. In 1929, Robert "Bob" Marshall explored the North Fork of the Koyukuk River while studying plant life in the region for his PhD, he gave the name Gates of the Arctic to the high Brooks Range along the river.
In 1980 the United States Congress designated 100 mi of the North Fork of the Koyukuk River in the Brooks Range as the Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River, which authorized certain levels of protection for the habitat. In 1994 the river flooded, sweeping away three villages, forcing the wholesale relocation of the population. Vegetation along the Koyukuk River, sparse along the upper reaches, consists of tundra plants such as dwarf willows and other shrubs and lichens. Further downstream at lower elevations and boreal forest plants are common except in the Koyukuk Flats near the mouth, where sedges and other herbaceous plants dominate the poorly drained muskeg. Trees found in more well-drained areas along the river include mountain alder, trembling aspen and black spruce. Fish species frequenting the lower Koyukuk include Arctic sockeye salmon; the sockeye and other salmon species, including Chinook and chum thrive along the upper reaches and tributaries. Caribou migrate across the upper part of the Koyukuk watershed.
Other major vertebrates in the region include bald eagles and black bears, beaver and river otter. Beluga whales sometimes visit the lower Koyukuk. Moose herds, which thrive in parts of the watershed in riparian zones downstream of Hughes, attract local and non-local hunters and wolves. A consortium of moose hunters and state wildlife officials work to keep the moose population at sustainable levels. Through 2005, no one had published a study of invertebrates of the Koyukuk or its larger tributaries. General information included in a study related to pipeline construction through the watershed suggested the presence of a variety of true flies, black flies, mayflies and caddisflies. List of rivers of Alaska List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Reuben D'Aigle Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 17: Yukon River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1. OCLC 59003378. NPS: Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Koyukuk River Floods in Alaska History in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
The Brooks Range is a mountain range in far northern North America stretching some 700 miles from west to east across northern Alaska into Canada's Yukon Territory. Reaching a peak elevation of 8,976 feet on Mount Isto, the range is believed to be 126 million years old. In the United States, these mountains are considered an extension of the Rocky Mountains, whereas in Canada they are considered separate, the northern border of the Rocky Mountains regarded as the Liard River far to the south in the province of British Columbia. While the range is uninhabited, the Dalton Highway and Trans-Alaska Pipeline System run through the Atigun Pass on their way to the oil fields at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope; the Alaska Native villages of Anaktuvuk and Arctic Village, as well as the small communities of Coldfoot, Wiseman and Chandalar, are the range's only settlements. In the far west, near the Wulik River in the De Long Mountains is the Red Dog mine, the largest zinc mine in the world; the range was named by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1925 after Alfred Hulse Brooks, chief USGS geologist for Alaska from 1903 to 1924.
Various historical records referred to the range as the Arctic Mountains, Hooper Mountains, Meade Mountains and Meade River Mountains. The Canadian portion of the range is called the British Mountains. Ivvavik National Park is located in Canada's British Mountains. Mount Isto 8,975.1 ft Mount Hubley 8,914 ft Mount Chamberlin 8,898.6 ft Mount Michelson at 8,855 ft The Gates of Kiev at 7,775 ft, the highest point in the central part of the range, Black Mountain at 5,020 ft, the highest point in the far western part of the range. Mount Doonerak 7,457 ft Mount Igikpak 8,276 ft Frigid Crags West Gate 5,501 ft Boreal Mountain East Gate 6,654 ft Limestack Mountain 6,250 ft Cockedhat Mountain 7,410 ft The Brooks Range forms the northernmost drainage divide in North America, separating streams flowing into the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific; the range delineates the summer position of the Arctic front. It represents the northern extent of the tree line, with little beyond isolated balsam poplar stands occurring north of the continental drainage divide.
Trembling aspen and white spruce occur north of the Brooks Range, though they are limited to sites that have been disturbed by human activity. Southern slopes have some cover of black spruce, Picea mariana, marking the northern limit of those trees; as one of the most remote and least-disturbed wildernesses of North America, the mountains are home to Dall sheep, grizzly bears, black bear, gray wolf and porcupine caribou. In Alaska, the Western Arctic Caribou herd traverses the Brooks Range in its annual migration; the smaller Central Arctic herd, as well as the 123,000 animal Porcupine Caribou herd migrate through the Brooks range on their annual journeys in and out of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The migration path of the Porcupine Caribou herd is the longest of any terrestrial mammal on earth; because the rocks of the range were formed in an ancient seabed, the Brooks Range contains fossils of marine organisms. In addition to the coral fossils shown at left and brachiopods from the middle Cambrian have been found in the sandy limestones of the Central Brooks Range.
While other Alaskan ranges to the south and closer to the coast can receive 250 inches to 500 inches of snow, the average snow precipitation on the Brooks Range is reported at 30 inches to 51 inches. As measured at the Anaktuvuk Pass weather station, the average summer temperatures are 16 °C as a high and 3 °C as a low. During the winter the average high is −22 °C while the average low is −30 °C. 2007 - Gates of the Arctic: Alaska's Brooks Range 2008 - Alone Across Alaska: 1,000 Miles of Wilderness 2011 - The Edge of the Earth 2014 - The World Beyond the World Richardson Mountains Allan, C.. Arctic citadel: a history of exploration in the Brooks Range region of Northern Alaska. Washington, D. C,: U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Witmer, Dennis "Far to the North: Photographs from the Brooks Range" Far to the North Press ISBN 0-9771028-0-7 Kauffmann, John M. "Alaska's Brooks Range: The Ultimate Mountains" Mountaineers Books ISBN 1-59485-008-9 Brown, William E. "History of the Central Brooks Range: Gaunt Beauty, Tenuous Life" University of Alaska Press ISBN 1-60223-009-9 Cooper, David "Brooks Range Passage" Mountaineers Books ISBN 0-89886-061-X Dover, J.
H. I. L. Tailleur, J. A. Dumoulin.. Geologic and fossil locality maps of the west-central part of the Howard Pass quadrangle and part of the adjacent Misheguk Mountain quadrangle, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. Reston, Va.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Krumhardt, A. P. A. G. Harris, K. F. Watts.. Lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone, eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1568. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Marshall, R.. Alaska wilderness. ISBN 0-520-24498-2 Mayfield, C. F. et al.. Reconnaissance geologic map of southeastern Misheguk Mountain quadrangle, Alaska [Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The Arrigetch Peaks are a cluster of rugged granite spires in the Endicott Mountains of the central Brooks Range in northern Alaska. The name Arrigetch means'fingers of the outstretched hand' in the Inupiat language; the peaks ring the glacial cirques at the head of the Kobuk River and 2 tributaries of the Alatna River: Arrigetch Creek and Aiyagomahala Creek. They are located at latitude 67 degrees 24' N and longitude 154 degrees 10' W. All of the summits of the peaks are around 1825 m elevation; the Arrigetch Peaks area was designated as a National Natural Landmark in 1968 for its spectacular geography. The earliest recorded visit was in 1911 by a geologist; the renowned conservationist Robert Marshall traveled through the area in the 1930s. These trips were described in his 1933 book Arctic Village, posthumous Alaska Wilderness: Exploring the Central Brooks Range. A British climbing party completed the first successful rock climbing expedition to the peaks in 1964; the peaks have been visited by a number of rock climbing expeditions since then.
Marshall, Robert. Alaska Wilderness: Exploring the Central Brooks Range. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1956. ISBN 0-520-01711-0 Marshall, Robert. Arctic Wilderness. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1933. Wood and Colby Coombs. Alaska: A Climbing Guide. Seattle: The Mountaineers. 2001. ISBN 0-89886-724-X List of rock climbing routes in the Arrigetch Peaks Retrieved on 2008-3-1
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti