The Alawis, or Alawites, are a sect of Islam centred in Syria. The Alawites revere Ali, considered the first Imam of the Twelver school; the group is believed to have been founded by Ibn Nusayr during the 9th century and established as a religion. For this reason, Alawites are sometimes called Nusayris, although the term has come to be used as a pejorative in the modern era. Another name, Ansari, is believed to be a mistransliteration of "Nusayri". According to Mehrdad Izady, Alawites represent 17.2 percent of the Syrian population, an increase from 11.8 percent in 2010 and are a significant minority in the Hatay Province of Turkey and northern Lebanon. There is a population living in the village of Ghajar in the Golan Heights. Alawites form the dominant religious group on the Syrian coast and towns near the coast which are inhabited by Sunnis and Ismailis, they are confused with the Alevis of Turkey. Alawites identify as a separate ethnoreligious group; the Quran is only one of their holy books and texts, their interpretation thereof has little in common with the Shia Muslim interpretation but in accordance with the early Batiniyya and other Muslim ghulat sects.
Alawite theology and rituals break from mainstream Shia Islam in several remarkable ways. For one, the Alawites drink wine as Ali's transubstantiated essence in their rituals, they believe in reincarnation. Alawites have kept their beliefs secret from outsiders and non-initiated Alawites, so rumours about them have arisen. Arabic accounts of their beliefs tend to be partisan. However, since the early 2000s, Western scholarship on the Alawite religion has made significant advances. At the core of Alawite belief is a divine triad; these aspects, or emanations, appear cyclically in human form throughout history. The establishment of the French Mandate of Syria marked a turning point in Alawi history, it gave the French the power to recruit Syrian civilians into their armed forces for an indefinite period and created exclusive areas for minorities, including an Alawite State. The Alawite State was dismantled, but the Alawites continued to be a significant part of the Syrian Armed Forces. Since Hafez al-Assad took power through the 1970 Corrective Movement, the government has been dominated by a political elite led by the Alawite Al-Assad family.
During the Islamist uprising in Syria in the 1970s and 1980s, the establishment came under pressure. Greater pressure has resulted from the Syrian Civil War. In older sources, Alawis are called "Ansaris". According to Samuel Lyde, who lived among the Alawites during the mid-19th century, this was a term they used among themselves. Other sources indicate that "Ansari" is a Western error in the transliteration of "Nusayri". However, the term "Nusayri" had fallen out of currency by the 1920s, as a movement led by intellectuals within the community during the French Mandate sought to replace it with the modern term "Alawi", they characterised the older name as an "invention of the sect's enemies", ostensibly favouring an emphasis on "connection with mainstream Islam"—particularly the Shia branch. As such, "Nusayri" is now regarded as antiquated, has come to have insulting and abusive connotations; the term is employed as hate speech by Sunni fundamentalists fighting against Bashar al-Assad's government in the Syrian civil war, who use its emphasis on Ibn Nusayr in order to insinuate that Alawi beliefs are "man-made" and not divinely inspired.
Recent research has shown that the Alawi appellation was used by the sect's adherents since the 11th century. The following quote from Alkan illustrates this point: "In actual fact, the name'Alawī' appears as early as in an 11th century Nuṣayrī tract. Moreover, the term'Alawī' was used at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1903 the Belgian-born Jesuit and Orientalist Henri Lammens visited a certain Ḥaydarī-Nuṣayrī sheikh Abdullah in a village near Antakya and mentions that the latter preferred the name'Alawī' for his people. Lastly, it is interesting to note that in the above-mentioned petitions of 1892 and 1909 the Nuṣayrīs called themselves the'Arab Alawī people"our ʿAlawī Nuṣayrī people' or'signed with Alawī people'; this early self-designation is, of triple importance. Firstly, it shows; the Alawites are distinct from the Alevi religious sect in Turkey, although the terms share a common etymology and pronunciation. The origin of the genetics of Alawites is disputed. Local folklore suggests that they are descendants of the followers of the eleventh Imam, Hasan al-Askari and his pupil, Ibn Nusayr.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, some Western scholars believed that Alawites were descended from ancient Middle Eastern peoples such as the Arameans, Canaanites and Mardaites. Many prominent Alawite tribes are descended from 13th century settlers from Sinjar. In his Natural History, Book V, P
Plover is a town in Portage County, United States. The population was 2,415 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Meehan is located in the town. The unincorporated community of Kellner is located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.6 square miles, of which, 42.3 square miles of it is land and 1.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,000 people, 861 households, 699 families residing in the town; the population density was 57.1 people per square mile. There were 916 housing units at an average density of 21.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.98% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.54 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 861 households out of which 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.3% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.7% were non-families.
14.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,313, the median income for a family was $59,569. Males had a median income of $37,784 versus $27,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,186. About 1.8% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Town of Plover, Wisconsin
Jaime Ramírez was a Chilean footballer. He was skillful with the ball, he had great technique and at his height, he did great heading, playing at the junior divisions of Badminton FC, Universidad de Chile in 1949-1952, 1962 and 1966, he was a Colo-Colo champion with the team in 1956, Club Deportivo O'Higgins, Audax Italiano, Unión San Felipe and outside of his country of origin he played for Racing Club of Argentina, Espanyol from Barcelona and Granada from Spain. In this country, he showed so much ability that he was nicknamed "Superclase" meaning "Super-Class" by sports commentators and the media, he participated in 56 games for Chile, where 36 games were official games and he scored 13 goals. He made his debut in the national team on September 17, 1954, in a game against Peru, where Chile defeated Peru 2 to 1, but his most memorable presentations in the national team took place in 1962, where he scored 2 goals, one against Switzerland, one against Italy. On the other hand, he was one of the best players of the tournament, playing as a right winger and left defender taking advantage of his many talents.
His great performance attracted to Racing de Avellaneda from Argentina. At the end of his career and being aged 35 years old, he was a member of the Chilean team that competed in the 1966 World Cup. Jaime Ramírez at National-Football-Teams.com