The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments in Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and in the Eastern Catholic Churches, the equivalent vestment is the phelonion. "The vestment proper to the priest celebrant at Mass and other sacred actions directly connected with Mass is, unless otherwise indicated, the chasuble, worn over the alb and stole". Like the stole, it is of the liturgical colour of the Mass being celebrated; the chasuble originated as a sort of conical poncho, called in Latin a casula or "little house", the common outer traveling garment in the late Roman Empire. It was a oval piece of cloth, with a round hole in the middle through which to pass the head, that fell below the knees on all sides, it had to be gathered up on the arms to allow the arms to be used freely. In its liturgical use in the West, this garment was folded up from the sides to leave the hands free.
Strings were sometimes used to assist in this task, the deacon could help the priest in folding up the sides of the vestment. Beginning in the 13th century, there was a tendency to shorten the sides a little. In the course of the 15th and the following century, the chasuble took something like its modern form, in which the sides of the vestment no longer reach to the ankle but only, at most, to the wrist, making folding unnecessary. At the end of the sixteenth century the chasuble, though still quite ample and covering part of the arms, had become less similar to its traditional shape than to that which prevailed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the chasuble was reduced to a broad scapular, leaving the whole of the arms quite free, was shortened in front and back. Additionally, to make it easier for the priest to join his hands when wearing a chasuble of stiff material, in these centuries the front was cut away further, giving it the distinctive shape called fiddleback.
Complex decoration schemes were used on chasubles of scapular form the back, incorporating the image of the Christian cross or of a saint. In the 20th century, there began to be a return to an earlier, more ample, form of the chasuble, sometimes called "Gothic", as distinguished from the "Roman" scapular form; this aroused some opposition, as a result of which the Sacred Congregation of Rites issued on 9 December 1925 a decree against it,De forma paramentorum which it explicitly revoked with the declaration Circa dubium de forma paramentorum of 20 August 1957, leaving the matter to the prudent judgement of local Ordinaries. There exists a photograph of Pope Pius XI wearing the more ample chasuble while celebrating Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica as early as 19 March 1930. After the Second Vatican Council, the more ample form became the most seen form of the chasuble, the directions of the GIRM quoted above indicate that "it is fitting" that the beauty should come "not from abundance of overly lavish ornamentation, but rather from the material, used and from the design.
Ornamentation on vestments should, consist of figures, that is, of images or symbols, that evoke sacred use, avoiding thereby anything unbecoming". Hence, the prevalence today of chasubles that reach to the ankles, to the wrists, decorated with simple symbols or bands and orphreys. By comparison, "fiddleback" vestments were extremely embroidered or painted with detailed decorations or whole scenes depicted. Use of scapular "Roman" chasubles, whether with straight edges or in "fiddleback" form, is sometimes associated with traditionalism. However, some priests prefer them on grounds of taste and comfort, while for similar reasons some traditionalist priests prefer ampler chasubles of less stiff material. Pope Benedict XVI sometimes used chasubles of the transitional style common at the end of the 16th century. In the Slavic tradition, though not in the Greek, the phelonion, the Byzantine Rite vestment that corresponds to the chasuble, is cut away from the front and not from the sides, making it look somewhat like the western cope.
Many, but not all and Anglican churches make use of the chasuble. The chasuble has always been used by the Lutheran denominations of Scandinavia, although in earlier times its use was not directly connected to the communion. German Lutherans used it for the first two hundred years after the Reformation but replaced it with the Geneva Gown. A variety of practices emerged in North America but by the mid-20th century, the alb and stole became customary. More the chasuble has been readopted for Communion services in both Germany and North America, it is the stole, not the chasuble, the priestly vestment. The chasuble was never used by low-church Anglicans and used by high-church Anglicans until the Oxford Movement in the 19th century, then not until the second generation of the Oxford Movement, it is not customary and seen in Protestantism outside of the liturgical churches. In Oscar Wilde's 1895 play The Importance of Being Earnest, Dr. Chasuble is a clergyman who, in the 2002 film adaptation, is seen wearing his namesake vestment.
Ritualism in the Church of England Chasuble in Catholic Encyclopedia The Development of Vestments in the Roman Rite A chasuble, ascribed to Albert the Embroider, second half of the 15th century, in the Uppsala Cathedral Treasury. Image 1 Image 2 The chasuble from the vestments of the Order
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs. The term is taken from Latin minister. In the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox, Nordic Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasized. In other Christian denominations, such as the Baptist, Congregationalist, Methodist and Reformed churches, the term "minister" refers to members of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry. With respect to ecclesiastical address, many ministers are styled as "The Reverend"; the Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows: Priests are called to be servants and shepherds among the people to whom they are sent. With their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of God's new creation, they are to be messengers and stewards of the Lord. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christ's name the absolution and forgiveness of their sins.
With all God's people, they are to tell the story of God's love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit, to walk with them in the way of Christ, nurturing them in the faith, they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lord's table and lead his people in worship, offering with them a spiritual sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, they are to bless the people in God's name. They are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, intercede for all in need, they prepare the dying for their death. Guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all God's people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups assist in any general administrative service conduct marriage ceremonies and memorial services, participate in the ordination of other clergy, confirming young people as members of a local church encourage local church endeavors engage in welfare and community services activities of communities establish new local churches keep records as required by civil or church law plan and conduct services of public worship preach pray and encourage others to be theocentric preside over sacraments of the church.
Such as: the Lord's Supper known as the Lord's Table, or Holy Communion, the Baptism of adults or children provide leadership to the congregation, parish or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders refer people to community support services, psychologists or doctors research and study religion and theology supervise prayer and discussion groups and seminars, provide religious instruction teach on spiritual and theological subjects train leaders for church and youth leadership work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community provide pastoral care in various contexts provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness and family breakdown visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families administer Last Rites when designated to do so the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and supervises the congregation the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary.
All denominations require. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a bishop: This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.
The Tridentine Mass known as the Traditional Latin Mass, Usus Antiquior or Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite, is the Roman Rite Mass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962. The most used Mass liturgy in the world until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI in 1969, it is celebrated in ecclesiastical Latin; the 1962 edition is the most recent authorized text known as the Missal of Saint John XXIII after the now canonized Pope who promulgated it. "Tridentine" is derived from the Latin Tridentinus, "related to the city of Tridentum", where the Council of Trent was held. In response to a decision of that council, Pope Pius V promulgated the 1570 Roman Missal, making it mandatory throughout the Latin Church, except in places and religious orders with missals from before 1370. Despite being described as "the Latin Mass", the Mass of Paul VI that replaced it as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite has its official text in Latin and is sometimes celebrated in that language.
In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, accompanied by a letter to the world's bishops, authorizing use of the 1962 Tridentine Mass by all Latin Rite Catholic priests in Masses celebrated without the people. These Masses "may — observing all the norms of law — be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted". Permission for competent priests to use the Tridentine Mass as parish liturgies may be given by the pastor or rector. Benedict stated that the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal is to be considered an "extraordinary form" of the Roman Rite, of which the 1970 Mass of Paul VI is the ordinary, normal or standard form. Since, the only authorized extraordinary form, some refer to the 1962 Tridentine Mass as "the extraordinary form" of the Mass; the 1962 Tridentine Mass is sometimes referred to as the "usus antiquior" or "forma antiquior", to differentiate it from the Mass of Paul VI, again in the sense of being the only one of the older forms for which authorization has been granted.
In most countries, the language used for celebrating the Tridentine Mass is Latin. However, in Dalmatia and parts of Istria in Croatia, the liturgy was celebrated in Old Church Slavonic, authorisation for use of this language was extended to some other Slavic regions between 1886 and 1935. After the publication of the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, the 1964 Instruction on implementing the Constitution on Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council laid down that "normally the epistle and gospel from the Mass of the day shall be read in the vernacular". Episcopal conferences were to decide, with the consent of the Holy See, what other parts, if any, of the Mass were to be celebrated in the vernacular. Outside the Roman Catholic Church, the vernacular language was introduced into the celebration of the Tridentine Mass by some Old Catholics and Anglo-Catholics with the introduction of the English Missal; some Western Rite Orthodox Christians in the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, use the Tridentine Mass in the vernacular with minor alterations under the title of the "Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory".
Most Old Catholics use the Tridentine Mass, either in Latin. The Catholic Church uses the term extraordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass among other terms; the most widespread term for this form of the rite, other than "Tridentine Mass", is "Latin Mass". The ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass was promulgated in Latin and, except at Masses scheduled by the ecclesiastical authorities to take place in the language of the people, can everywhere be celebrated in that language; the term "Gregorian Rite" is used when talking about the Tridentine Mass, as is, more "Tridentine Rite". Pope Benedict XVI declared it inappropriate to speak of the versions of the Roman Missal of before and after 1970 as if they were two rites. Rather, he said, it is a matter of a twofold use of the same rite. Traditionalist Catholics, whose best-known characteristic is an attachment to the Tridentine Mass refer to it as the "Traditional Mass" or the "Traditional Latin Mass", they describe as a "codifying" of the form of the Mass the preparation of Pius V's edition of the Roman Missal, of which he said that the experts to whom he had entrusted the work collated the existing text with ancient manuscripts and writings, restored it to "the original form and rite of the holy Fathers" and further emended it.
To distinguish this form of Mass from the Mass of Paul VI, traditionalist Catholics sometimes call it the "Mass of the Ages", say that it comes down to us "from the Church of the Apostles, indeed, from Him Who is its principal Priest and its spotless Victim". At the time of the Council of Trent, the traditions preserved in printed and manuscript missals varied and standardization was sought both within individual dioceses and throughout the Latin West. Standardization was required in order to prevent the introduction into the liturgy of Protestant ideas in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. Pope St. Pius V accordingly imposed uniformity by law in 1570 with the papal bull "Quo primum", ordering use of the Roman Missal as revised by him, he allowed only those rites that were at least 200 years old to survive the promulgation of his 1570 Missal. Several of the rites that remained in existence were progressively abandoned, though the Ambrosian rite survives in Milan and neighbouring areas, stretching into Switzerland, the Mozarabic rite remains in use to a limited extent in Toledo and Madrid, Spain.
The Carmelite, Carthusian and
The stole is a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations. It consists of a band of colored cloth usually of silk, about seven and a half to nine feet long and three to four inches wide, whose ends may be straight or may broaden out; the center of the stole is worn around the back of the neck and the two ends hang down parallel to each other in front, either attached to each other or hanging loose. The stole is always decorated in some way with a cross or some other significant religious design, it is decorated with contrasting galloons and fringe is applied to the ends of the stole following Numbers 15:38-39. A piece of white linen or lace may be stitched onto the back of the collar as a sweat guard, which can be replaced more cheaply than the stole itself; the word stole derives via the Latin stola, from the Greek στολή, "garment" "array" or "equipment". The stole was a kind of shawl that covered the shoulders and fell down in front of the body. After being adopted by the Church of Rome around the seventh century, the stole became narrower and started to feature more ornate designs, developing into a mark of dignity.
Nowadays, the stole is wider and can be made from a wide variety of material. There are many theories as to the "ancestry" of the stole; some say it came from the tallit, because it is similar to the present usage but this theory is no longer regarded much today. More popular is the theory that the stole originated from a kind of liturgical napkin called an orarium similar to the sudarium. In fact, in many places the stole is called the orarium. Therefore, it is linked to the napkin used by Christ in washing the feet of his disciples, is a fitting symbol of the yoke of Christ, the yoke of service; the most origin for the stole, however, is to be connected with the scarf of office among Imperial officials in the Roman Empire. As members of the clergy became members of the Roman administration they were granted certain honors, one being a designator of rank within the imperial hierarchy; the various configurations of the stole grew out of this usage. The original intent was to designate a person as belonging to a particular organization and to denote their rank within their group, a function which the stole continues to perform today.
Thus, unlike other liturgical garments which were worn by every cleric or layman, the stole was a garment, restricted to particular classes of people based on occupation. Stoles were used in pre-Roman Italic religion. In the Umbrian Iguvine Tablets, a stole was used by an officiating priest during offering rituals, it was worn on the shoulder during a sacrifice, placed on an offering cake: While you are slaying it, wear a stole on your right shoulder. When you have slain it, place upon the mefa cake. While you are presenting it, wear the stole on your right shoulder. Present grain-offerings and sacrifice with mead. Together with the cincture and the now defunct maniple, the stole symbolizes the bonds and fetters with which Jesus was bound during his Passion. Another version is. A stole will be the liturgical color assigned by the church for the liturgical season or for the particular service. In the Latin Catholic tradition the stole is the vestment, it is conferred at the ordination of a deacon, by which one becomes a member of the clergy after the suppression of the tonsure and minor orders after the Second Vatican Council.
A bishop or other priest wears the stole around his neck with the ends hanging down in front, while the deacon places it over his left shoulder and ties it cross-wise at his right side, similar to a sash. Before the reform of the liturgy after the Second Vatican Council, priests who were not bishops were required to cross the stole over the breast, but only at Mass or at other functions at which a chasuble or cope was worn, it is now worn hanging straight down without being crossed across the breast. The General Instruction of the Roman Missal, the liturgical law for the Roman Catholic Church concerning the Mass, no longer makes explicit that a Priest must cross his stole, it states, "the stole is worn by the Priest around his neck and hanging down in front of his chest...". Unless there is a law promulgated by a particular diocese or other ordinary, it is left to the priest to interpret what this means. On solemn occasions, the Pope wears, as part of his choir dress, a special stole of state decorated and bearing his personal coat of arms.
For the celebration of the Mass, the principal celebrant as well as concelebrants wear the stole over the alb but under the chasuble. The deacon wears the stole over the alb but under the dalmatic; the stole is worn over the surplice or alb for the distribution and reception of Holy Communion. The priest or deacon who presides in paraliturgical celebrations, such as the Stations of the Cross wears the stole over the surplice, always under the cope. During the English Reformation, the stole, along with all other sacramental vestments were removed from the Church of England; the Oxford Movement began an interest in pre-Reformation worship, the stole were revived among Anglo-
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Solemn Mass is the full ceremonial form of the Tridentine Mass, celebrated by a priest with a deacon and a subdeacon, requiring most of the parts of the Mass to be sung, the use of incense. It is called High Mass or Solemn High Mass. However, in the United States the term "High Mass" is used to describe the less elaborate Missa Cantata, which lacks deacon and subdeacon and some of the ceremonies connected with them; this article deals with Solemn Mass as celebrated according to the Tridentine use. These terms distinguish the form in question from that of Missa Cantata; the parts assigned to the deacon and subdeacon are done by priests in vestments proper to those roles. A Solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop has its own particular ceremonies and is referred to as a Solemn Pontifical Mass; the terms "Solemn Mass", "Solemn High Mass" and "High Mass" are often used within Anglo-Catholicism, in which the ceremonial, sometimes the text, are based on those of the Sarum Rite or the Tridentine Mass. Lutherans sometimes use the term "High Mass" to describe a more solemn form of their Divine Service celebrated in a manner similar to that of Roman Catholics.
Examples of similarities include vestments and incense. Lutheran congregations in North America celebrate High Mass more or less, but use the term "Mass". Solemn or High Mass is the full form of Tridentine Mass and elements of the abbreviated forms can be explained only in its light: This high Mass is the norm. Thus, the rubrics of the Ordinary of the Mass always suppose. Low Mass, said by a priest alone with one server, is a shortened and simplified form of the same thing, its ritual can be explained only by a reference to high Mass. For instance, the celebrant goes over to the north side of the altar to read the Gospel, because, the side to which the deacon goes in procession at high Mass. Since its 1970 revision, the Roman Missal no longer categorizes Mass as High or Low, distinguishes Mass only as celebrated with a congregation or with participation by only one minister, as celebrated with or without concelebrating priests, it recommends singing at all Masses, for instance: "Although it is not always necessary to sing all the texts that are of themselves meant to be sung, every care should be taken that singing by the ministers and the people is not absent in celebrations that occur on Sundays and on holy days of obligation".
The distinction between High and Low Mass is observed where the Tridentine form of the Roman Rite continues to be used. The term "High Mass" is sometimes encountered both in Anglican and certain Roman Catholic circles, to describe any Mass celebrated with greater solemnity. In the sacristy, before vesting, all three sacred ministers wash their hands; the sacred ministers recite certain prayers. First, the amice is kissed and placed on top of the head while reciting one of the prayers during vesting, it is tied around the shoulders on top of the cassock. Next the alb is put on; the cincture, a long cloth cord called a girdle, is tied around the waist. The subdeacon completes his vesting by placing the maniple on his left arm, securing it either with pins or with the ribbons or elastic inside, the tunicle over all; the deacon places his stole over his left shoulder and binds it in place, at his right hip, with the cincture or girdle. He puts on the maniple and his dalmatic; the priest celebrant does the same except that he crosses his stole in front of him at the waist, binding it with the girdle or cincture.
After the maniple he puts on a cope. Following the Asperges, the celebrant, assisted by the acolytes, removes the cope and puts on the chasuble; the servers of the Mass and the clergy sitting in the liturgical choir stalls are vested in cassock and surplice or cotta, though in some places acolytes wore simple albs and cinctures instead. Anyone ordained to the subdiaconate or above wears the biretta while sitting. Members of religious orders in habit have on a surplice over the habit. If it is part of their "choir dress", they use the biretta. If not they use