Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shorts, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection.
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition.
The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Luis Miguel Ramis
Luis Miguel Ramis Monfort is a Spanish retired footballer who played mainly as a central defender, and the current manager of UD Almería. He amassed La Liga totals of 165 games and eight goals over the course of nine seasons, mainly in representation of Deportivo, Real Madrid and Tenerife. Born in Tarragona, Ramis started his career with hometown club Gimnàstic de Tarragona and, already in his 20s, in the 1992–93 season he appeared in seven La Liga games with the main squad, being definitely promoted for the following campaign. In the 1994 Iberoamerican Cup, Ramis appeared in the leg against Boca Juniors as a substitute. Ramis moved to firmly established Deportivo de La Coruña in 1997–98, after a relatively good first year, his career was severely marred by a double Anterior cruciate ligament/fibula injury from which he never fully recovered. In his last professional years after leaving Depor, he appeared in only 45 contests combined, Ramis retired from the game in 2006, after three years in the fourth level.
His first steps in coaching were spent in Real Madrids youth categories, on 5 January 2016, after Zinedine Zidane was promoted to the first team following the sacking of Rafael Benítez, Ramis was appointed as head coach of Real Madrid Castilla. After failing to promote his team in the playoffs, he left his post by mutual consent, on 14 March 2017, Ramis was appointed manager of UD Almería in the second tier
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash.
Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season.
The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Albacete is a city and municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha, and capital of the province of Albacete. The municipality of Albacete is the seventh largest in Spain by area, Albacete is the economic and judicial capital of Castilla-La Mancha, being home to the regional High Court of Justice. The writer, novelist and literary critic Azorin described the city of Albacete in a poem as The New York of La Mancha. The city increased in prominence in the early 20th century during the Spanish Civil War due its importance as national headquarters of the International Brigades. At present, Albacete is a capital with large areas for pedestrians. Further its flat area and the elimination of barriers have led it to be one of the most accessible cities across the country, with better quality of life. Other of its attractions in this regard are the traditional Tascas de la Feria or the outdoor market of Los Invasores. Albacete is a commercial and industrial city par excellence, reflected in its commercial area that includes more than 556723 people from 154 municipalities.
The industry is one of the pillars of the city, Albacete is home to major multinationals and has five large industrial zones, including Campollano, which is the largest industrial area of Castilla-La Mancha and one of the largest in Spain. The aviation industry is one of the economic engines of the city. Albacete hosts the School of TLP NATO pilots, Los Llanos Air Base, Ala 14 and the Air Maestranza Albacete, in addition, the city houses the Air and Logistic Park of Albacete, home to major companies. Pascual Madoz in his famous Diccionario geográfico-estadístico-histórico de España y sus posesiones de Ultramar indicates that two hypotheses about the toponym of Albacete are probable. The second hypothesis states that its origin may be the Alaba of the Celtiberians, mentioned by Plinio y Ptolemy, which could result in Alba civitas and it is stamped with a Marquis crown, which is gold with stones and pearls, with eight rosettes. But the agreement contained a typo, and saying three towers well ordered in heraldry would mean two towers above and one below, or one above and two below, the descriptions should read three towers wrongly ordered.
The dimensions of the Shield are 40 cm high, excluding the Crown and 56 cm if included, with a width of 30 cm. The anthem was launched on September 8,1926, day of the Virgin of Los Llanos, in what was referred to as the Provincial Anthem feast, the Municipal Band of Albacete and Spanish Infantry Regiment, among others, performed at this event. On the night of San Juan in 1975, the song was re-released at the Teatro Circo de Albacete by the Albacete Municipal Band, Albacete is home to the High Court of Justice of Castilla-La Mancha, the highest court of the autonomous region. The president of the Superior Court is Vicente Manuel Rouco Rodríguez, the city hosts the Institute of Legal Medicine of Albacete and Guadalajara, whose scope corresponds to homonymous provinces
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company. Some wine companies own many wineries, besides wine making equipment, larger wineries may feature warehouses, bottling lines and large expanses of tanks known as tank farms. The oldest winery in the world found to date is a 6, 000-year-old winery in the Areni region of Armenia, wineries typically employ winemakers to produce various wines from grapes by following the winemaking process. This process involves the fermentation of fruit, as well as blending and aging of the juice, the grapes may be from vineyards owned by the winery or may be brought in from other locations. Many wineries give tours and have doors or tasting rooms where customers can taste wines before they make a purchase. Winery architecture is varied and rich and it is used by wineries as a way to promote their wines. The east coast of the United States has winemaking regions like New Yorks Finger Lakes region, Aquidneck Island, RI and Long Island, NY and Cape May, wineries do not have to be located adjacent to vineyards, grapes can be shipped anywhere.
In addition, people make out of other fruits and plants. For example, a winery in Hawaii produces pineapple wine, a class of winery license known as the farm winery allows farms to produce and sell wines on site. Farm wineries differ from commercial wineries in that the fruit which is the source of the wine is produced on the farm. States such as New York have given a permit to open a satellite store in a tourist area. New Yorks passing of the Farm Winery Act of 1976 set an example for other states to pass similar laws, Farm wineries usually operate at a smaller scale than commercial wineries. Farm wineries are a form of value added marketing, known as agritourism, a micro-winery is a small wine producer that does not have its own vineyard, and instead sources its grape product from outside suppliers. The concept is similar to a microbrewery, in small batches of product are made primarily for local consumption. The concept of the micro-winery is not as accepted as that of the microbrewery, however. A winery uses similar wine-making equipment as a commercial winery.
Glass carboys and sanitary plastic pails are often seen in the facilities of a micro-winery, New York State provides a specific micro-winery license that requires the microwinery to purchase local ingredients. Wilridge Winery was the first urban winery in Seattle, wine aficionados traditionally had to travel to remote areas to learn about winemaking firsthand and to taste the offerings of a wine producer in the setting in which they were made
The Primera División, commonly known as La Liga and as La Liga Santander for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional association football division of the Spanish football league system. A total of 60 teams have competed in La Liga since its inception, nine teams have been crowned champions, with Real Madrid winning the title a record 32 times and Barcelona 24 times. Real Madrid dominated the championship from the 1950s through the 1980s, from the 1990s onwards and Real Madrid both dominated, though La Liga saw other champions, including Atlético Madrid and Deportivo de La Coruña. In more recent years, Atlético Madrid has joined a coalition of now three teams dominating La Liga alongside Real Madrid and Barcelona. Its clubs have won the most UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup, and FIFA Club World Cup titles, and its players have accumulated the highest number of Ballon dOr awards. La Liga is one of the most popular sports leagues in the world. The competition format follows the usual double round-robin format, during the course of a season, which lasts from August to May, each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, for a total of 38 matchdays.
Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a loss, teams are ranked by total points, with the highest-ranked club at the end of the season crowned champion. A system of promotion and relegation exists between the Primera División and the Segunda División, the top teams in La Liga qualify for the UEFA Champions League. The first and third placed teams enter the group stage. Teams placed fifth and sixth play in the UEFA Europa League, if both teams in the cup final finish in the top six, an additional berth in the Europa League is given to the team that finishes in seventh. In April 1927, José María Acha, a director at Arenas Club de Getxo, first proposed the idea of a national league in Spain. After much debate about the size of the league and who would take part, Real Madrid, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad, Arenas Club de Getxo and Real Unión were all selected as previous winners of the Copa del Rey. Atlético Madrid and Europa qualified as Copa del Rey runners-up, only three of the founding clubs, Real Madrid and Athletic Bilbao, have never been relegated from the Primera División.
They were runners-up in 1932 and 1933, in 1935, Real Betis, known as Betis Balompié, won their only title to date. Primera División was suspended during the Spanish Civil War, in 1937, the teams in the Republican area of Spain, with the notable exception of the two Madrid clubs, competed in the Mediterranean League and Barcelona emerged as champions. Seventy years later, on 28 September 2007, Barcelona requested the RFEF to recognise that title as a Liga title and this action was taken after RFEF was asked to recognise Levante FCs Copa de la España Libre win as equivalent to Copa del Rey trophy. Nevertheless, the body of Spanish football has not made an outright decision yet
Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway