Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not related to any other language. First attested in the 15th century, it is the last Indo-European branch to appear in written records; this is one of the reasons why its still-unknown origin has long been a matter of dispute among linguists and historians. Albanian is considered to be the descendant of one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity. For more historical and geographical reasons than linguistic ones, there are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the Albanian language may have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect spoken in much the same region in classical times. Alternative hypotheses hold that Albanian may have descended from Thracian or Daco-Moesian, other ancient languages spoken farther east than Illyrian. Not enough is known of these languages to prove or disprove the various hypotheses.
The two main Albanian dialects and Tosk, are distinguished by phonological differences, are mutually intelligible, with Gheg spoken to the north and Tosk spoken to the south of the Shkumbin river. Their characteristics in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages, have led to the conclusion that the dialectal split occurred after Christianisation of the region and at the time of the Slavic migration to the Balkans, with the historic boundary between Gheg and Tosk being the Shkumbin which straddled the Jireček line. Standard Albanian is a standardised form of spoken Albanian based on the Tosk dialect, it is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro and Serbia. Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia, Italy as well as in Romania and Ukraine. Two varieties of the Tosk dialect, Arvanitika in Greece and Arbëresh in southern Italy, preserved archaic elements of the language.
The language is spoken by 6 million people in the Balkans in Albania, North Macedonia, Serbia and Greece. However, due to old communities in Italy and the large Albanian diaspora, the worldwide total of speakers is much higher than in Southern Europe and numbers 7.5 million. The Albanian language is the official language of Albania and Kosovo, co-official in North Macedonia. Albanian is a recognised minority language in Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and in Serbia. Albanian is spoken by a minority in Greece in the Thesprotia and Preveza regional units and in a few villages in Ioannina and Florina regional units in Greece, it is spoken by 450,000 Albanian immigrants in Greece. Albanian is the third most spoken language in Italy; this is due to a substantial Albanian immigration to Italy. Italy has a historical Albanian minority of about 500,000, scattered across southern Italy, known as Arbëreshë. 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Germany and Austria. These are refugees from Kosovo who migrated during the Kosovo War.
In Switzerland, the Albanian language is the sixth most spoken language with 176,293 native speakers. Albanian became an official language in North Macedonia on 15 January 2019. There are large numbers of Albanian speakers in the United States, Chile and Canada; some of the first ethnic Albanians to arrive in the United States were Arbëreshë. Arbëreshe have a strong sense of identity, are unique in that they speak an archaic dialect of Tosk Albanian called Arbëreshë. In North America there are 250,000 Albanian speakers, it is spoken in the eastern area of the United States in cities like New York City, New Jersey, Chicago and Detroit, as well as in parts of the states of Ohio and Connecticut. Greater New Orleans has a large Arbëresh community. Oftentimes, wherever there are Italians, there are a few Arbëreshe mixed with them. Arbëreshe Americans, therefore are indistinguishable from Italian Americans due to being assimilated into the Italian American community. In Argentina there are nearly 40,000 Albanian speakers in Buenos Aires.
1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry and culture. There are other estimates, that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. However, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the Albanian language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day. In Egypt there are around 18,000 Albanians Tosk speakers. Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. In addition to the dynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. In addition to the recent emigrants, there are older diasporic communities around the world. Albanian is spoken by Albanian diaspora communities residing in Australia and New Zealand; the Albanian language has two distinct dialects, Tosk, spoken in the south, Gheg spoken in the north.
Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect. The Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Gheg is d
Glorian Publishing is a non-profit organization translating and publishing the Gnostic books of Samael Aun Weor. Since 2001, Glorian has published books, established a series of websites, operates Gnostic Radio, a free internet radio service. Glorian is operated by volunteers and funded by donations. "In reality, the Glorian is none other than the Ray. Thus, the Glorian is substance; the Glorian is the Great Breath, profoundly unknowable to itself. It is a breath from one of the many breaths from the Great Breath; the Glorian is the “Atmic Thread” of the Hindus. It is the our own individual Ray, the whole of our real Being made in glory; the soul aspires for union with his Innermost, the Innermost aspires for union with his Glorian." Thelema is the English transliteration of the ancient Greek noun θέλημα: "will", from the verb ἐθέλω: to will, purpose. While many contemporary movements associate this term with Aleister Crowley, the use of the term Thelema is derived from the Lord's Prayer: "Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.".
"Thelema" is the motto of the Gnostic Movement. Astrotheurgy: Includes complete editions of The Zodiacal Course, Esoteric Treatise of Hermetic Astrology and The Manual of Practical Magic. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-06-5 The Aquarian Message. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-31-7 Aztec Christic Magic. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-27-0 Cosmic Teachings of a Lama. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-21-8 The Doomed Aryan Race. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-30-0 Dream Yoga. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-14-0 The Elimination of Satan's Tail. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-17-1 Esoteric Course of Alchemical Kabbalah. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-20-1 Fundamental Notions of Endocrinology and Criminology. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-11-9 Gazing at the Mystery. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-25-6 Gnostic Anthropology. By Samael Aun Weor. ISBN 978-1-934206-16-4 Gnostic Kabbalah 1: The World of Klipoth. ISBN 978-1-934206-09-6 The Gnostic Magic of the Runes.
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Gaariwala / Gariwala is a 2015 Bangladeshi Bengali film directed by Ashraf Shishir. The film participated in 78 international film festivals in 26 countries of 6 continents and won several international awards including NEZ International Film Festival in Kolkata, India. At Texas film festival the film won seven awards. Rokeya Prachi Raisul Islam Asad Masum Aziz Imran Imu Arnab Kundu Maruf The film released on 4 November 2015 and received positive reviews. Official Selection, 20th Kolkata International Film Festival 2014, India Finalist, 13th Ischia Film Festival, Italy Finalist, 10th Marbella International Film Festival, Spain Finalist, Moondance International Film Festival, Colorado, US Official Selection, Cinekid Festival-2015, The Netherlands Finalist, 4th Delhi International Film Festival 2015, Delhi Finalist, 9th Annual Red Rock Film Festival, Utah, US Country Selection, 9th Asia Pacific Screen Awards 2015, Australia Finalist, 2nd International Film Festival of Prayag-2016, India Winner of Film Development Grant from the Government of Bangladesh, 2012-2014 Winner of National Award for Best Film from the Government of Bangladesh, 2014 Best Story, 2nd International Film Festival of Prayag-2016, India Film program at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston