click links in text for more info

Albert, Duke of Prussia

Albert of Prussia was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Albert was the first European ruler to establish Lutheranism, thus Protestantism, as the official state religion of his lands, he proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage, ruling the Prussian lands for nearly six decades. A member of the Brandenburg-Ansbach branch of the House of Hohenzollern, Albert became Grand Master, where his skill in political administration and leadership succeeded in reversing the decline of the Teutonic Order, but Albert, sympathetic to the demands of Martin Luther, rebelled against the Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire by converting the Teutonic state into a Protestant and hereditary realm, the Duchy of Prussia, for which he paid homage to his uncle, Sigismund I, King of Poland.

That arrangement was confirmed by the Treaty of Kraków in 1525. Albert pledged a personal oath to the King and in return was invested with the duchy for himself and his heirs. Albert's rule in Prussia was prosperous. Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the confiscation of the lands and treasures of the Catholic Church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and provide for the expenses of the newly established Prussian court, he was active in imperial politics, joining the League of Torgau in 1526, acted in unison with the Protestants in plotting to overthrow Emperor Charles V after the issue of the Augsburg Interim in May 1548. Albert established schools in every town and founded Königsberg University in 1544, he promoted culture and arts, patronising the works of Caspar Hennenberger. During the final years of his rule, Albert was forced to raise taxes instead of further confiscating now-depleted church lands, causing peasant rebellion; the intrigues of the court favourites Johann Funck and Paul Skalić led to various religious and political disputes.

Albert spent his final years deprived of power and died at Tapiau on 20 March 1568. His son, Albert Frederick, succeeded him as Duke of Prussia. Albert's dissolution of the Teutonic State caused the founding of the Duchy of Prussia, paving the way for the rise of the House of Hohenzollern. Albert was born in Ansbach in Franconia as the third son of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, his mother was Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, his wife Elisabeth of Austria. He was raised for a career in the Church and spent some time at the court of Hermann IV of Hesse, Elector of Cologne, who appointed him canon of the Cologne Cathedral. Not only was he quite religious, his career was forwarded by the Church and institutions of the Catholic clerics supported his early advancement. Turning to a more active life, Albert accompanied Emperor Maximilian I to Italy in 1508 and after his return spent some time in the Kingdom of Hungary. Duke Frederick of Saxony, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, died in December 1510.

Albert was chosen as his successor early in 1511 in the hope that his relationship to his maternal uncle, Sigismund I the Old, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, would facilitate a settlement of the disputes over eastern Prussia, held by the order under Polish suzerainty since the Second Peace of Thorn. The new Grand Master, aware of his duties to the empire and to the papacy, refused to submit to the crown of Poland; as war over the order's existence appeared inevitable, Albert made strenuous efforts to secure allies and carried on protracted negotiations with Emperor Maximilian I. The ill-feeling, influenced by the ravages of members of the Order in Poland, culminated in a war which began in December 1519 and devastated Prussia. Albert was granted a four-year truce early in 1521; the dispute was referred to Emperor Charles V and other princes, but as no settlement was reached Albert continued his efforts to obtain help in view of a renewal of the war. For this purpose he visited the Diet of Nuremberg in 1522, where he made the acquaintance of the Reformer Andreas Osiander, by whose influence Albert was won over to Protestantism.

The Grand Master journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to abandon the rules of his order, to marry, to convert Prussia into a hereditary duchy for himself. This proposal, understandably appealing to Albert, had been discussed by some of his relatives. Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, Margrave George of Brandenburg-Ansbach, laid the scheme before their uncle, Sigismund I the Old of Poland. After some delay Sigismund assented to the offer, with the provision that Prussia should be treated as a Polish fiefdom; the Estates of the land met at Königsberg and took the oath of allegiance to the new duke, who used his full powers to promote the doctrines of Luther. This transition did not, take place without protest. Summoned before the imperial court of

Community policing

Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on building ties and working with members of the communities. A formal definition states: Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems. —Bertus Ferreira The central goal of community policing is for the police to build relationships with the community through interactions with local agencies and members of the public, creating partnerships and strategies for reducing crime and disorder. Although community policing targets low-level crime and disorder, the broken windows theory proposes that this can reduce more serious crime as well. Community policing is related to problem-oriented policing and intelligence-led policing, contrasts with reactive policing strategies which were predominant in the late 20th century.

It does not eliminate the need for reactive policing, although successful prevention can reduce the need for the latter. Many police forces have teams that focus on community policing, such as Neighbourhood Policing Teams in the United Kingdom, which are separate from the more centralized units that respond to emergencies; the overall assessment of community-oriented policing is positive, as both officers and community members attest to its effectiveness in reducing crime and raising the sense of security in a community. Some authors have traced the core values of community policing to certain original Peelian Principles, most notably John Alderson, the former Chief Constable of Devon and Cornwall Police; these included the ideas that the police needed to seek "the co-operation of the public" and prioritise crime prevention. The term "community policing" came into use in the late 20th century and only as a response to a preceding philosophy of police organization. In the early 20th century, the rise of automobiles, telecommunications and suburbanization transformed how the police operated.

Police forces moved to using a reactive strategy versus a proactive approach, focusing on answering emergency calls as as possible and relying on motor vehicle patrols to deter crime. Some police forces such as the Chicago Police Department began rotating officers between different neighborhoods as a measure to prevent corruption, and, as a result, foot patrols became rare; these changes altered the nature of police presence in many neighborhoods. By the 1960s, many countries such as the United States were looking for ways to repair relations between police forces and racial minorities. For example, in 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed a Blue Ribbon committee to study the apparent distrust with the police by many community members along racial lines; the resulting report, the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice suggested the development of a new type of police officer which would act as a community liaison and work to build bridges between law enforcement and minority populations.

Furthermore, the Kansas City preventive patrol experiment provided evidence that aimless motor patrols were not an effective deterrent to crime. By 1981, a study by the US-based Police Foundation suggested that police officers spent so much time on response duties and in cars that they had become isolated from their communities. In response to some of these problems, many police departments in the United States began experimenting with what would become known as "community policing". Research by Michigan criminal justice academics and practitioners started being published as early as the 1980s; as a professor of criminal justice, Bob Trajanowcz in the late 1990s influenced many future law enforcement leaders on how to implement elements of community policing One experiment in Flint, involved foot patrol officers be assigned to a specific geographic area to help reduce crime in hot spots. Community-oriented policing was promoted by the Clinton Administration; the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act established the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services within the Justice Department and provided funding to promote community policing.

Kenneth Peak has argued that community policing in the United States has evolved through three generations: innovation and institutionalization. The innovation period occurred following the civil unrest of the 1960s, in large part as an attempt to identify alternatives to the reactive methods developed in mid-century; this era was saw the development of such programs as the broken windows theory and problem-oriented policing. The diffusion era followed, in which larger departments began to integrate aspects of community policing through grants that initiated specialized units. Lastly, the institutionalization era introduced mass application of community policing programs, in not only large departments but smaller and more rural ones. Many community-oriented police structures focus on assigning officers to a specific area called a “beat”, those officers become familiar with that area through a process of “beat profiling.” The officers are taught how to design specific patrol strategies to deal with the types of crime that are experienced in that beat.

These ideas are implemented in a multi-pronged approach using a variety of aspects, such as broadening the duties of the police officer and individualizing the practices to the community they're policing.

Paradise Lake (Washington)

Paradise Lake is a small freshwater lake in the north of King County, Washington, USA, located two miles east of Woodinville. The lake has no public access boat launch, it feeds into Bear Creek. Fish in the lake include cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, sockeye salmon as well as rock bass, walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, northern pike and yellow perch. A fishing license is required; the lake was used to raise non-native bullfrogs for the restaurant industry, a high population of bullfrogs remains. The lake is home to a rare species of mollusk, Valvata mergella, collected by W. J. Eyerdam in 1941, B. R. Bales in 1958, T. J. Frest and E. J. Johannes in 1995. Water quality in the lake was classified as eutrophic by the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks in 2003; the water was monitored by volunteers between 1996 and 2008. The water temperature was found to vary between 4 °C and 22 °C and thermal stratification during the summer was found to be stable. Two significant peaks in the algae population were detected, predominantly Dinobryon and other chrysophytes, in late May and in late September.

Other species detected include the diatom Asterionella formosa. Phosphorus content was found to be higher in the depths through sedimentary release

Air France Flight 152

Air France Flight 152 was a scheduled international passenger flight which made an emergency water landing in the Mediterranean Sea, off Fethiye, South-Western Turkey on 3 August 1953. The aircraft sank over an hour after ditching. Four passengers died, out of 34 passengers; the flight originated from Paris and was destined for Tehran, including stopovers in Rome and Beirut, with the accident occurring on the Rome-Beirut leg of the journey. The aircraft serving the flight, a Lockheed L-749A Constellation experienced a propeller blade failure resulting in strong vibrations causing the No.3 engine to detach in-flight. The aircraft, Lockheed L-749A Constellation, which first flew in 1950, had flown for a total of 10,058 hours and was powered by four Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone radial engines; the flight was piloted by captain Raymond Terry, first officer Jacques Steens. The remaining six crew included radio operator René Debiais, flight engineers Christian Dihau and André Lemaire, flight attendants Hazera, François Yvon Tinevez and Simone Rospars.

Terry had 5,300 flying hours, co-pilot Debiais 5,500 hours and flight attendant Rospars 7,373 hours of flying experience. The scheduled flight AF152 departed from Orly Airport in Paris, France at 18:38 hours on 2 August 1953, destination Tehran, with two planned stopovers in Rome, Beirut. At 21:25 hours, the airliner landed at Roma-Ciampino Airport and took off at 22:32 hours with 34 passengers including an infant on board for the next stopover at Beirut International Airport; the planned flight path was over Catanzaro, Athens and Nicosia. The flight time for the leg was calculated as 52 minutes. At 02:10 hours on 3 August, while cruising at an altitude of 17,500 ft about 50 mi off Rhodes, the No.3 engine began to vibrate violently. At 02:15 h, a radio message was sent to Nicosia giving the aircraft's position flying over the coastline of Rhodes; the No.3 engine soon detached from its mounts and damaged the rear of the fuselage before dropping away. Ongoing vibrations subsequently led to the loss of control on the No.4 engine.

As the aircraft began losing altitude, the flight crew transmitted a three minute long distress signal at 02:22h and decided to make an emergency water landing, avoiding a risky landing in mountainous terrain. They chose a site off the coast of Fethiye in South-Western Turkey after spotting the flashing light of the Kızılada Lighthouse. During the descent the flight attendants informed the passengers about the situation, calmed them down and instructed them to put on life jackets. At 02:28, the aircraft ditched into the calm sea flawlessly, about 2 km off Kızılada in the Gulf of Fethiye 10 km from Fethiye; the passengers and the crew promptly evacuated the airplane using the four emergency exits, remained on the wings of the floating aircraft for over an hour before it sank. The lighthouse keeper Durmuş Arıkan noticed the airliner's ditching, neither he nor his supervisor could sight it in the pitch-dark night. Only sometime with the beginning of twilight, could they see the aircraft and the victims on the sea surface.

They rushed to the accident site by boat, rescuing some passengers, including flight attendant Rospars, who held a five-month old infant girl Roxane on her lap, the baby's mother, to the island shore. Meanwhile, crew members and some passengers tried to swim the distance to the island in order to call for relief. Alerted by the lighthouse keeper, customs officers and fishermen sailed towards the scene, picking survivors on the water. Four elderly passengers of the 42 people on board of the airliner died by drowning; the survivors received clothing, warm food and shelter from residents during their stay in Fethiye. At 04:30 h the same day, Beirut alerted Air France by telegram of Flight 152s failure to arrive, asked for a search and rescue operation. At 10:30 h the stopover office of Air France in Athens asked Orly Airport for news about F-BAZS. At 17:30 hours, a telegram from the airliner's captain, sent from Fethiye, arrived at Air France stating that 38 people survived the accident. After being informed of the accident, seven officials of the French aviation accident investigation agency Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile arrived at the accident site the next day at 17:00 h.

The investigation lasted eight months. The cause of the propeller blade fracture could not be determined." Didier Daurat, Director of Orly Operations Centre, was tasked with shedding light on the cause of propeller blade's failure. The crew, the passengers and the investigators were transported to Rhodes, from where they were flown to Paris four days after the accident; as a consequence of the accident, it was made obligatory to carry liferafts on all flights. In 2013, 60 years after the accident, an underwater search operation was undertaken in the Gulf of Fethiye, which led to finding of an aircraft engine, but not the airliner itself. A documentary film about this search was aired by İZ TV; the wreckage of the aircraft was discovered by the Turkish Navy in 2018

SeqA protein

In molecular biology the SeqA protein is found in bacteria and archaea. The function of this protein is important in DNA replication; the protein negatively regulates the initiation of DNA replication at the origin of replication, in Escherichia coli, OriC. Additionally the protein plays a further role in sequestration; the importance of this protein is vital, without its help in DNA replication, cell division and other crucial processes could not occur. This protein domain is thought to be part of a much larger protein complex which includes other proteins such as SeqB. DNA replication is an energy consuming process and hence in bacteria the process only occurs at a specific checkpoint in the cell cycle; the binding of SeqA protein to hemimethylated GATC sequences is important in the negative modulation of chromosomal initiation at oriC, in the formation of SeqA foci necessary for Escherichia coli chromosome segregation. SeqA tetramers are able to multimerize in a reversible, concentration-dependent manner.

Apart from its function in the control of DNA replication, SeqA may be a specific transcription factor. Additionally, SeqA is thought to have a role in chromosome organisation and gene regulation. Most of the SeqA in the cell is found bound at the replication fork; the N-terminal domain folds into one beta-strand. This protein domain is vital in assisting multimerisation; the C-terminal protein domain has an important role in binding to DNA. It binds to methylated and hemimethylated GATC sequences at oriC; the structure of the C-terminal domain consists of seven alpha-helices and a three-stranded beta-sheet


Marxism–Leninism–Maoism is a political philosophy that builds upon Marxism–Leninism and Maoism. Its proponents refer to Marxism–Leninism–Maoism as Maoism and Maoism as Mao Zedong Thought referred to as Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought, the Chinese adaption of Marxism–Leninism, it was first formalized by the Peruvian communist party Shining Path in 1982. The synthesis of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism did not occur during the life of Mao Zedong. From the 1960s, groups that called themselves Maoist or which upheld Maoism were not unified around a common understanding of Maoism and had instead their own particular interpretations of the political, philosophical and military works of Mao; as a unified, coherent higher stage of Marxism, Marxism–Leninism–Maoism was not synthesized until the 1980s through the experience of the people's war waged by the Shining Path. This led the Shining Path to posit Marxism–Leninism–Maoism as the newest development of Marxism. Marxism–Leninism–Maoism has grown and developed serving as an animating force of revolutionary movements in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador, India and the Philippines.

It has led to efforts being undertaken towards the constitution or reconstitution of communist parties in countries such as Austria, Germany and the United States. The theory of New Democracy holds that the national-bourgeois in semi-feudal and semi-colonial countries has a dual character in that although it is an exploitative capitalist force, it can but not always side with the proletariat against colonialism and the comprador-bourgeoisie; the role of the national-bourgeoisie as a progressive asset in the proletarian struggle to overthrow imperialism is of course never guaranteed and will turn on the proletariat when the anti-imperialist situation progresses. The Balli Kombëtar in Albania in 1943 and the Kuomintang in China in the 1920s are examples of this; these national bourgeois forces temporarily allied with the proletariat of their countries for the overthrow of imperialism but turned on the proletariat once they felt their long-term existence in the new society would be threatened.

Much like the New Economic Policy in Russia, New Democracy is conceived of as a necessary stage for the long-term development of socialism, or in this case for the construction and consolidation of socialism in the first place. It holds that the national-bourgeois in the New Democratic stage must always be under the command of the proletariat and they must be dispensed with as soon as the national situation allows for an outright dictatorship of the proletariat. Building on the theory of the vanguard party by Vladimir Lenin, the theory of the mass line outlines a strategy for the revolutionary leadership of the masses, consolidation of the dictatorship of the proletariat and strengthening of the party and for the building of socialism; the mass line can be summarized by the phrase "from the masses, to the masses". It has three components or stages: Gathering the diverse ideas of the masses. Processing or concentrating these ideas from the perspective of revolutionary Marxism, in light of the long-term, ultimate interests of the masses and in light of a scientific analysis of the objective situation.

Returning these concentrated ideas to the masses in the form of a political line which will advance the mass struggle toward revolution. These three steps should be applied over and over again, reiteratively uplifting practice and knowledge to higher and higher stages. Marxist–Leninist–Maoists uphold Mao Zedong's philosophical works his work on dialectics in On Contradiction and on epistemology in On Practice. People's war is strategy for revolution which holds the following tenets: Any attempt to begin fighting with the bourgeoisie on its own terms, using the same tactics and strategies as they do would be crushed, it can not be predicted. Thus the subjective conditions—i.e. Class consciousness—must be built long in advance. Seizure of state power does not happen in one fell swoop. A situation of dual power through the course of protracted people's war arises when the proletarian vanguard controls sections of the country at the same time as the bourgeoisie; the party cannot hope to lead the proletariat in a seizure of power if it itself has no military experience.

Thus military experience—i.e. Experience gained through fighting if on a limited scale—must be gained long in advance of a seizure of power. In addition to being a necessary development towards the dictatorship of the proletariat, dual power is invaluable in providing this military experience. In a joint document released in 1998, several Marxist–Leninist–Maoist communist parties affirmed the difference between the specific strategic line of protracted people's war and the more general and universally applicable people's war. Protracted people's war is identified as being a specific application of the concept of people's war to countries with a large population or majority of peasantry and inv