Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree with a high grade point average. A distinction is made between graduate schools and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, speech-language pathology, or law; the distinction between graduate schools and professional schools is not absolute, as various professional schools offer graduate degrees and vice versa. Many universities award graduate degrees. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and used elsewhere, "postgraduate education" is used in English-speaking countries to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree; those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students", or in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training, the degrees may consist of coursework, without an original research or thesis component; the term "graduate school" is North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not refer to medical school, only refers to law school or business school. Graduate students in the humanities and social sciences receive funding from the school and/or a teaching assistant position or other job. Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction is offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level.
At the Ph. D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions denote other divisions. Graduate degrees in Brazil are called "postgraduate" degrees, can be taken only after an undergraduate education has been concluded". Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area, take from 1 to 2 years to complete. Sometimes it can be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and a MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more to Business and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Stricto sensu graduate degrees: degrees for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Masters: 2 years for completion. Serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market, or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree, meaning that a Lato Sensu Degree is insufficient to start a doctoral program. Doctors / PhD: 3–4 years for completion. Used as a stepping stone for academic life. In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures; the Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies. Its mandate is to promote and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision and professional development.
Admission to a master's program requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades ranging from B+ and higher, recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are requir
History of the University of Florida
The history of the University of Florida is tied to the history of public education in the state of Florida. The University of Florida originated as several distinct institutions that were consolidated to create a single state-supported university by the Buckman Act of 1905; the earliest of these was the East Florida Seminary, one of two seminaries of higher learning established by the Florida Legislature. The East Florida Seminary opened in 1853, becoming the first state-supported institution of higher learning in the state of Florida; the East Florida Seminary operated in Ocala until the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. It closed for the duration of the war, reopened in Gainesville in 1866, absorbing the Gainesville Academy; the other primary predecessor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City in 1884 by Jordan Probst. Florida Agricultural College became the first land-grant college in the state, the small college emphasized the scientific training of agricultural and mechanical specialists.
In 1903, the Florida Legislature changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida", in recognition of the legislature's desire to expand the curriculum beyond the college's original agricultural and engineering educational missions. In 1905 the Buckman Act restructured higher education in Florida, the state's six standing institutions were reorganized into three schools segregated by race and gender; the act mandated the merger of four of these institutions – the East Florida Seminary, the University of Florida at Lake City, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School in St. Petersburg, the South Florida Military College in Bartow – into the University of the State of Florida, a university for white males; the school began accepting some white women starting in 1924, became coeducational as a result of the influx of new students brought in by the GI Bill after World War II. It became racially integrated in 1958. Into the 21st century the school grew in size and increased in academic prominence, becoming a member of the Association of American Universities in 1985.
It is now known as The University of Florida. In 1823, the peon Territorial Legislature and the United States Congress began to plan a system of higher education for Florida; as early as 1836, Congress authorized the establishment of a "University of Florida," and the first constitution of Florida Territory in 1838 guaranteed that seminaries of higher learning be created. It was not until the 1850s, that the Florida Legislature took steps towards implementing these plans. In 1851, the legislature voted to allow the establishment of two seminaries on either side of the Suwannee River: West Florida Seminary and East Florida Seminary; the latter became the first of the institutions that were merged to create what is now known as the University of Florida. On January 6, 1853, Florida governor Thomas Brown signed the legislation that provided public support for the seminaries. Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to seek state support under the legislation, established the East Florida Seminary in Ocala, Florida.
This was the first state-supported institution of higher learning in the state of Florida. The seminary closed in 1861 due to the Civil War, remained so for the duration of the war. In 1866, James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a Florida State Senator from Alachua County, offered his Gainesville Academy and all associated property to the state in exchange for the seminary relocating there. Roper had founded the Academy in downtown Gainesville in 1858; the state accepted his offer, parts of the seminary campus would be incorporated into the campus of the future University of Florida. Epworth Hall, the main building of the East Florida Seminary, still stands in downtown Gainesville, though it is not within the university's present campus boundaries. In 1884, Jordan Probst established what became the other major predecessor to the University of Florida, Florida Agricultural College, in Lake City. Florida Agricultural College became the first land-grant college in the state, the small college emphasized the scientific training of agricultural and mechanical specialists.
In 1903, the Florida Legislature changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida," in recognition of the legislature's desire to expand the curriculum beyond the college's original agricultural and engineering educational missions. Florida's 1868 constitution required the establishment of a state-sponsored university; the state's first attempts to establish a multi-college university were in Tallahassee, where the West Florida Seminary was located. In 1883, a charter passed which merged the West Florida Seminary and the Tallahassee College of Medicine and Surgery into the Florida University, the first such institution in the state; the West Florida Seminary became the university's Literary College, containing several "schools" or departments. The university charter recognized three further colleges to be established at a time: a Law College, a Theological Institute, a Polytechnic and Normal Institute; the Florida Legislature recognized the institution in 1885 under the name "University of Florida", but it refused to supply any additional funding.
Without state financial support the university venture struggled, the medical college relocated to Jacksonville that year. The Tallahassee institution never adopted the "university" title. Florida Agricul
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
History of Florida State University
The history of Florida State University dates to the 19th century and is intertwined with the history of education in the state of Florida and in the city of Tallahassee. Florida State University, known colloquially as Florida State and FSU, is one of the oldest and largest of the institutions in the State University System of Florida, it traces its origins to the West Florida Seminary, one of two state-funded seminaries the Florida Legislature voted to establish in 1851. The West Florida Seminary known as the Florida State Seminary, opened for classes in Tallahassee in 1857, absorbing the Florida Institute, established as an inducement for the state to place the seminary in the city; the former Florida Institute property, located where the historic Westcott Building now stands, is the oldest continuously used site of higher education in Florida. The area west of the state Capitol and ominously known as Gallows Hill, a place for public executions in early Tallahassee. In 1858 the seminary absorbed the Tallahassee Female Academy, established in 1843, became coeducational.
In 1863, during the American Civil War, Florida's Confederate government added a military school to the institution, changed its name to the Florida Military and Collegiate Institute. The school fielded student soldiers into an organized unit of the institution, which helped repel a Union attack on Tallahassee at the Battle of Natural Bridge. In 1883, it became part of the Florida University, the first state-supported university to be founded in Florida; the university project struggled with a lack of legislative support, the seminary soon returned to its old name, but focused on modern-style secondary education. In 1905 the Buckman Act restructured higher education in Florida, the school was reorganized as a college for white women, the Florida State College for Women. After World War II, the school was made coeducational once again to help accommodate the influx of students entering college under the G. I. Bill, was renamed Florida State University, it became racially integrated in 1963, was noted as a center of student activism during the 1960s.
Through the 20th and 21st centuries Florida State University has grown in both size and academic prominence, with a particular focus on graduate and doctoral research. In 1823 the United States Congress determined that the Florida Territory shall receive two seminaries of learning, one on each side of the Suwannee River. By 1838, the first constitution of the Florida Territory embraced and permanently guaranteed a system of general education and higher education. Throughout the history of Tallahassee strong energy and focus toward education originated with leaders and members of the First Presbyterian Church, located near Florida State University; the First Presbyterian Church building was built before 1838 and is the oldest public building in Tallahassee. For a century the First Presbyterian Church of Tallahassee would have a strong symbiotic relationship with the origin and development of the educational institution known today as Florida State University. City officials of Tallahassee, took steps to establish a school for boys as early as 1827 with the establishment of the Leon Academy.
The Leon Academy was advertised in the Pensacola Gazette of March 9, 1827 as being under the supervision of Presbyterian Rev. Henry M. White, A. M. By early 1831 the Leon Academy was under the control of the Tallahassee City Council; the Leon Academy was incorporated by an act of the Territorial Legislative Council on February 12, 1831 under the control of seven trustees. The Leon Academy suffered from lack of financial resources as well as high administrative turnover and in September 1836 was operated by John M. Brook of Virginia as a "private Seminary for boys", while the trustees continued to control and manage the property. By 1840 the Leon Academy ceased operations as a public school; the trustees, turned to the Territorial Legislature once again, who passed an "Act in Relation to the Trustees of Leon Academy" in 1840 wherein the Treasurer of the Territory was directed to pay funds to the trustees to "assist said Trustees in building an Academy". On March 9, 1840 the Leon Academy had been refreshed with some Territory support.
The trustees solicited Territory support on the basis the Leon Academy would serve both male and female students. There is disagreement among scholars if the male-only Leon Academy is the forerunner of the West Florida Seminary. A point of agreement between the scholars is that the same leading citizens of Tallahassee were interested in both institutions; the Leon Academy was replaced by schools for males and females in a system established by Reverend Joshua Phelps and Elder David C. Wilson, both of the First Presbyterian Church. Princeton University-educated Reverend William Neil and his wife Eliza Neil operated the academies for males and females, which were merged in 1846 into a new version of the Leon Academy for Males and Females; the Leon Academy split into the Tallahassee Female Academy known as the Leon Female Academy for females. While organized public education for males faltered between 1840 and 1850, education for females was intact and unusually complete. By January 1850 municipal elections in Tallahassee called for a city-supported school for males and the Tallahassee City Council, assumed financial responsibility for the Florida Institute the same year.
On January 24, 1851 the Florida Legislature voted to establish West Florida Seminary, which became Florida State University and East Florida Seminary which became the University of Florida. The 1851 law specified the organization and governing boards of the schools, including terms of office for those boards, spe
Fredric G. Levin College of Law
The Fredric G. Levin College of Law is the law school of the University of Florida located in Gainesville, Florida; the Levin College of Law offers a full-time program leading to a Juris Doctor degree. It offers advanced law degrees, including Master of Laws degree programs in taxation, international taxation, comparative law, land use, environmental law, in addition to a Doctor of Juridical Science in taxation. According to the 2020 U. S. News & World Report law school rankings, the Levin College of Law ranks 31st overall among American law schools and 12th among public law schools, it places third in tax law among all law schools and first among public law schools. The U. S. News & World Report ranks the Levin College of Law as the best law school in the state of Florida, its 2018 entering class consist of 248 students, has a median undergraduate GPA of 3.72 and a median Law School Admission Test score of 163. Its 25th/75th percentile LSAT scores and GPA were 3.33 / 3.84, respectively. In 2009, the College adjusted the size of its incoming class from around 400 to 300 students, in response to the competitive job market resulting from the recent national recession, to improve the resources and services offered to each student.
31.5% of the incoming class are racially or ethnically diverse students, 48% are women. The college only offers admission for the fall semester. Required first-year courses are torts, criminal law, legal research and writing, constitutional law, civil procedure, introduction to lawyering, appellate advocacy. Students are required to take legal drafting and are recommended to take courses in evidence and trusts, trial practice. Students can choose to pursue their J. D. in conjunction with another graduate degree, including a master's degree, Doctor of Philosophy, or Doctor of Medicine in one of the university's dual-degree programs. Students can complete specific requirements in addition to those required for the J. D. and earn a certificate indicating specialization in estate planning and trusts, family law, criminal law, intellectual property law and land use law, or international and comparative law. The College offers nine-month programs leading to the LL. M. degree in taxation or international taxation as well as in U.
S. law, land use, environmental law. The LL. M. in international taxation is open to graduates of both U. S. and foreign law schools. In a typical year, about 75 students are enrolled in the tax LL. M programs; the College of Law offers an S. J. D in taxation; the Levin College of Law hosts six university-wide academic centers. In 1988, Law School professors Sharon Rush and Kenneth Nunn founded the Center for the Study of Race and Race Relations. Staff directors and professors from across the university advise the center and collaborate with law professors to research the intersection of race and the law; the Levin College of Law hosts the Center for Government Responsibility, the state's oldest legal and public policy research institute. Former dean and emeritus professor Jon Mills founded the center in 1972 to study Richard Nixon's cut in funding to public housing and civil rights programs; the Levin College of Law hosts centers on Criminal Justice and Families, Estate Planning. The College of Law was founded in 1909.
It was first housed in Thomas Hall, in Bryan Hall from 1914 to 1969. The college desegregated on September 15, 1958, with the admission of its first African-American student, its faculty was desegregated shortly thereafter. In 1969, the college moved to its current location in Holland Hall, named after the former Florida Governor, U. S. Senator, alumnus Spessard L. Holland. Holland Hall is located in the northwest section of the university's campus. In 1984, Bruton-Geer Hall, named after the parents of alumnus Judge James D. Bruton and his wife Quintilla Geer Bruton, was added to the law school complex; the College of Law was renamed the Levin College of Law in 1999 after prominent Pensacola trial lawyer and alumnus Fredric G. Levin, who donated $10 million to the college, a sum, matched by a $10 million grant from the state of Florida to create a $20 million endowment; the College of Law underwent a major renovation between 2004 and 2005, creating new academic space and expanding the law library, named the Lawton Chiles Legal Information Center after the former Florida Governor, U.
S. Senator, alumnus Lawton Chiles. In September 2012, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas spoke at the College of Law. A new courtroom facility was completed in 2009; the facility, made possible by an additional $2 million donation from the Levin family, is named the Martin Levin Advocacy Center in honor of UF Law alumnus Martin H. Levin, son of Fred Levin; the facility is 20,000 gross square feet, two stories tall, includes a state of the art courtroom. The new courtroom is designed to incorporate new technology to allow students to understand the role of technology in modern practice. Construction began on the second phase of the building in the Fall 2010 and was completed in Fall 2011; the second floor includes offices and meeting/seminar rooms. According to University of Florida's official 2018 ABA-required disclosures: 75.3% of the Class of 2017 obtained full-time, long-term JD-required bar-passage required employment nine months after graduation, excluding 0.6% employed as solo practitioners.
In addition, 10.2% obtained full-time, long-term employment where a J. D. is an advantage. M. program, ranked third in the country b