Albert Camus was a French philosopher and journalist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the second-youngest recipient in history. Camus was born in Algeria to French parents, he spent his childhood in a poor neighbourhood and studied philosophy at the University of Algiers. He was in Paris when the Germans invaded France during World War II. Camus tried to flee but joined the French Resistance where he served as editor-in-chief at Combat, an outlawed newspaper. After the war, he gave many lectures around the world, he had many extramarital affairs. Camus was politically active, he was part of the Left. Camus was a moralist and leaned towards anarcho-syndicalism, he was part of many organisations seeking European integration. During the Algerian War, he kept a neutral stance, advocating for a multicultural and pluralistic Algeria, a position that caused controversy and was rejected by most parties. Philosophically, Camus's views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism.
He is considered to be an existentialist though he rejected the term throughout his lifetime. Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in a working-class neighbourhood in Mondovi, in French Algeria, his mother, Catherine Hélène Sintès Camus, was of Spanish- descent. His father, Lucien Camus, a poor French-Algerian agricultural worker, died in the Battle of the Marne in 1914 during World War I. Camus never knew him. Camus, his mother and other relatives lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers, he was a second-generation French immigrant to Algeria. His paternal grandfather, along with many others of his generation, had moved to Africa for a better life during the first decades of the 19th century. Hence, he was called pied-noir,"black foot"—a slang term for French who were born in Algeria—and his binational identity and his poor background had a substantial effect on his life. Camus was a French citizen, in contrast to the Arab or Berberic inhabitants of Algeria who were denied the associated privileges this brought.
During his childhood, Camus developed a love for swimming. Under the influence of his teacher Louis Germain, Camus gained a scholarship in 1924 to continue his studies at a prestigious lyceum near Algiers. In 1930, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis; because it is a transmitted disease, he moved out of his home and stayed with his uncle Gustave Acault, a butcher, who influenced the young Camus. It was at that time that Camus turned to philosophy, with the mentoring of his philosophy teacher Jean Grenier, he was impressed by Friedrich Nietzsche. During that time, he was only able to study part-time. To earn money, he took odd jobs: as a private tutor, car parts clerk, assistant at the Meteorological Institute. In 1933, Camus enrolled at the University of Algiers and completed his licence de philosophie in 1936. Camus developed an interest in early Christian philosophers, but Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer had paved the way towards pessimism and atheism. Camus studied novelist-philosophers such as Stendhal, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz Kafka.
In 1933, he met Simone Hié, who would become his first wife. Camus played goalkeeper for the Racing Universitaire d'Alger junior team from 1928 to 1930; the sense of team spirit and common purpose appealed to Camus enormously. In match reports, he was praised for playing with passion and courage. Any football ambitions disappeared when he contracted tuberculosis at the age of 17. Camus drew parallels among football, human existence and personal identity. For him, the simplistic morality of football contradicted the complicated morality imposed by authorities such as the state and Church. In 1934, aged 20, Camus was in a relationship with Simone Hié. Simone suffered from an addiction to a drug she used to ease her menstrual pains, his uncle Gustave did not approve of the relationship, but Camus married Hié to help her fight her addiction. He subsequently discovered she was in a relationship with her doctor at the same time and the couple divorced. Camus was a womanizer throughout his life. Camus joined the French Communist Party in early 1935.
He saw it as a way to "fight inequalities between Europeans and'natives' in Algeria," though he was not a Marxist and had not read Das Kapital. He explained: "We might see communism as a springboard and asceticism that prepares the ground for more spiritual activities." Camus left the PCF a year later. In 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party was founded, Camus joined it after his mentor Grenier advised him to do so. Camus's main role within the PCA was to organise the Théâtre du Travail. Camus was close to the Parti du Peuple Algérien, a moderate anti-colonialist/nationalist party; as tensions in the interwar period escalated, the Stalinist PCA and PPA broke ties. Camus was expelled from the PCA for refusing to toe the party line; this series of events sharpened his belief in human dignity. Camus's mistrust of bureaucracies that aimed for efficiency instead of justice grew, he renamed his group Théâtre de l'Equipe. Some of his scripts were the basis for his novels. In 1938, Camus began working for the leftist newspaper Alger républicain as he had strong anti-fascis
William Hays was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a Union Army general during the American Civil War. Hays was born in Richmond, but moved to Nashville, Tennessee. Andrew Jackson appointed Hays to the United States Military Academy, where he graduated in 1840 alongside William T. Sherman, George H. Thomas, Richard S. Ewell, he was a brevet second lieutenant, was promoted to first lieutenant in 1847, serving at various posts in the northeastern states. He served throughout the Mexican–American War with the light artillery, alongside future Civil War artilleryman Henry J. Hunt, he was wounded at the Battle of Molino del Rey, was subsequently appointed a brevet captain for Contreras and Churubusco and major for Chapultepec. From 1853 until 1854, he was engaged in the Seminole Wars in Florida, was on routine frontier duty in 1856–60 in the 3rd and the 5th U. S. Artillery; as a lieutenant colonel, Hays commanded a brigade of horse artillery under Henry Hunt in 1861–62 in the Army of the Potomac, serving with distinction at the Battle of Seven Pines during the Peninsula Campaign.
He participated in the Battle of Antietam. His batteries were stationed on the heights east of Antietam Creek, providing long range fire against Confederate infantry positions between the East and West Woods, he commanded the artillery of the Right Grand Division at Fredericksburg. Hays was appointed brigadier general of volunteers in November 1862 and assigned command of an infantry brigade in Maj. Gen. William H. French's division in the II Corps, he was wounded and taken prisoner at Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863, along with all but one of his immediate staff. Hays was exchanged on May 15, 1863, sent to Fort Monroe in Virginia. Although without an official command, he rejoined the Army of the Potomac and accompanied it to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. During Pickett's Charge on July 3, Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock was wounded but refused to leave the field until the battle had been decided; when it became clear the Confederate charge had been defeated Hancock relinquished command temporarily to his 1st Division commander, Brig. Gen. John C.
Caldwell. That evening, was assigned to command the II Corps, he led the corps throughout the summer until permanent command was given to Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren in mid-September. In November, Hays was appointed provost marshal of the southern district of New York, was promoted to major in the regular army. At the expiration of his term in February 1865, Hays rejoined the Army of the Potomac at Petersburg and served again in the II Corps, this time commanding the 2nd Division, he was appointed a brevet brigadier general in the regular army on March 13, 1865, for gallant conduct, but on April 6 he was relieved of command for sleeping on duty and thus failing to prepare his troops for departure as they pursued Confederate forces. His brevets were revoked and Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow was assigned to lead the division. From that date, Hays commanded the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Potomac until he was mustered out of volunteer service in January 1866. Reverting to his permanent rank of major of the 5th U.
S. Artillery, Hays served on various posts, commanding Fort Independence in Boston Harbor from April 1873 until his death there two years later, he was buried in Yonkers, New York, but was re-interred at West Point Cemetery in 1894. List of American Civil War generals Clark and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Gettysburg: The Confederate High Tide. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985. ISBN 0-8094-4758-4. Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Pfanz, Harry W; the Battle of Gettysburg. National Park Service Civil War series. Fort Washington, PA: U. S. National Park Service and Eastern National, 1994. ISBN 0-915992-63-9. Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-395-86761-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G..
"article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton
Inskip is a small village in the Fylde area of Lancashire, England. It is part of the civil parish of Inskip-with-Sowerby; the village is close to the former RNAS Inskip airfield, which still serves the armed forces as a tri-service communication centre. It is home to one of the Royal Air Force Air Cadets training centres; the hamlet of Inskip Moss Side lies about a mile north and east of the village at grid reference SD452391. The first part of the name Inskip may be the Brittonic ïnïs meaning "island", in place names referring to dry land in a marshy flood-prone area. Suffixed may be the Brittonic *cib meaning any rounded receptacle with some topographic sense, Old English -cy:pe or Anglo-Latin cuppa, with the sense "fish-trap" recorded for both. Inskip was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Inscip, its area was estimated in that survey to be two carucates of land. From 1281, the village was owned by Richard Butler of Rawcliffe Hall, he received it from William de Carleton as a dowry of Alice.
The airfield was referred to as'HMS Nightjar' while it was a communications centre during World War I and World War II. Inskip's church is dedicated to St Peter, it was financed by the Earl of Derby and Archdeacon Hornby. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building; the location is served by the Preston Bus bus company with the 80 service. The bus runs from Preston bus station to Myerscough College every two hours; the service was operated by the Stagecoach in Preston. This service is frequented by students of Cardinal Newman College from Inskip and its surrounding areas as a means to and from college. Dr Albert George Long FRSE, was born and raised in Inskip. Listed buildings in Inskip-with-Sowerby
The Shingū ruins archaeological site containing a ruins of a village complex, inhabited from the late Jōmon period through the Kamakura period, located in what is now part of the city of Okazaki, Aichi in the Tōkai region of Japan and were collectively designated a National Historic Site of Japan in 1976. The site is located on a river terrace of the Yahagi River near its conjunction with the Oto River; the ruins cover a wide area of 40,000 square meters and has only been excavated. Thus far, the foundations for 12 pit dwellings from the Jōmon period, 37 clay-jar burials, six dirt burials and one square-sided tumulus from the Yayoi period, 11 pit dwellings from the Kofun period, 6 pit dwellings from the Nara period, 19 pit dwellings and one raised floor building form the Heian period have been discovered. Finds included a large amount of artifacts, with including earthenware and stoneware shards, ceremonial stone swords, clay figurines from the Yayoi period. Sue ware and pottery from the Kofun and Heian periods were found.
The ruins are valuable in that they present a record of continuous occupation from the Jōmon through Kamakura periods. The site was discovered in 1973. Excavations were carried out more than a dozen times from 1974 when the site was endangered by a nearby housing development, it is back-filled by one meter of earth to protect the ruins, but an archaeological park has been established with six reproductions of residences from the late Jōmon period, 30 earthenware tombs from the Yayoi period and one square tomb from the Kofun period. In the past, most of the excavated items were displayed at the Okazaki City Folk Museum, but are now stored at the Okazaki City Museum of Art; the park is located five minutes on foot from Higashi-Okazaki Station on the Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line. List of Historic Sites of Japan Aichi Prefecture Cultural Properties Okazaki Tourist Information site
Tullio Crali was an Italian artist associated with Futurism. A self-taught painter, he was a late adherent to the movement, not joining until 1929, he is noted for realistic paintings that combine "speed, aerial mechanisation and the mechanics of aerial warfare", though in a long career he painted in other styles as well. Crali was born in the Bay of Kotor on the coast of Montenegro, his family lived in Zara until 1922. At the age of fifteen, while a student at the local technical institute, Crali discovered Futurism, he took up painting, influenced by Enrico Prampolini. In 1928 Crali flew for the first time, his enthusiasm for flying and his experience as a pilot influenced his art. In 1929, through Sofronio Pocarini, he made contact with Marinetti, the founder of Futurism, joined the movement. In the same year aeropittura was launched in the manifesto, Perspectives of Flight, signed by Benedetta, Dottori, Marinetti, Prampolini and Guglielmo Sansoni; the manifesto stated that "The changing perspectives of flight constitute an new reality that has nothing in common with the reality traditionally constituted by a terrestrial perspective" and that "Painting from this new reality requires a profound contempt for detail and a need to synthesise and transfigure everything.”
Despite his relative youth, Crali played a significant part in aeropittura. His earliest aeropitture represent Aerial Squadron and Aerial Duel. In the 1930s, his paintings became realistic, intending to communicate the experience of flight to the viewer, his best-known work, Nose Dive on the City, shows an aerial dive from the pilot's point of view, the buildings below drawn in dizzying perspective. Crali exhibited in Padua. In 1932 Marinetti invited him to exhibit in Paris in the first aeropittura exhibition there, he participated in the Rome Quadrennial in 1935, 1939 and 1943 and the Venice Biennale of 1940. At that time Crali was researching signs and scenery, leading in 1933 to his participation in the film exhibition Futuristi Scenotecnica in Rome. In 1936 he exhibited with Dottori and Prampolini in the International Exhibition of Sports Art at the Berlin Olympics. Crali’s declamatory abilities and his friendship with Marinetti led him to organise Futurist evenings at Gorizia and Trieste, where he read the manifesto Plastic Illusionism of War and Protecting the Earth which he had co-authored with Marinetti.
He published a Manifesto of Musical Words - Alphabet in Freedom. Crali lived in Turin after the war. Despite the ending of the Futurist movement with the death of Marinetti in 1944 and its Fascist reputation, Crali remained attached to its ideals and aesthetic. Between 1950 and 1958 he lived in Paris, he moved to Milan in 1958. In Milan he began to collect and catalogue documents relating to his life and work, he donated his archive and several of his works to the Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto. In 1959 he published the first post-war Futurist manifesto Sassintesi. In it he advocated a new form of artistic expression using natural materials - pebbles and rocks formed of various minerals. “The inherent qualities of colour, translucence, etc. were to suggest and determine the idea of the artist, while their appearance and positioning produced a harmonious composition that relied much on the stones' natural symbiosis with the cosmos.” His sassintesi were exhibited in Milan in 1961.
He tried to revive aeropittura in the late 1960s in a manifesto Orbital Art. His painting Frecco Tricolori depicts jet fighter planes, he continued to paint, sculpt and lecture throughout the'sixties,'seventies and into the'eighties. At his own wish, Crali was buried at Macerata. Galleria d’arte moderna Udine biography of Crali Osborn, B. Tullio Crali: The Ultimate Futurist Aeropainter at the Wayback Machine Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporeana di Trento e Rovera
Vladimir Košak was a Croatian economist, politician and NDH diplomat, hanged for war crimes after World War II. Košak was born in Velika Gorica, he graduated with a doctorate in law Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, after which he received another doctorate in economics from the University of Frankfurt in Germany. After completing his education, Košak returned to Zagreb, where he worked as a secretary of the Commerce-Industrial Chamber. Soon he became president of the Pension Fund of Private Officers, after which he became Chief Director of Pohit, the largest industrial holding in Croatia at the time. On 1 July 1936, Košak joined the fledgling Ustaše and participated in starting of newspaper Hrvatski narod. Košak was a signatory of the proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia on 10 April 1941. Two days he was named the personal proxy of the Minister of Armed Forces, Vojskovođa Slavko Kvaternik, he was named Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs. In the Croatian State Government, Košak was a secretary in the Ministry of the People's Economy, after government reorganization on 30 June 1941, he became the State Treasurer.
He was president of the Croatian Economy Delegation during the negotiations with Italy in June 1941 and Co-chairman of the Croatian-Italian Economy Commission. After an incident involving the smuggling of gold, Ivo Kolak, cabinet chief of Mladen Lorković, was executed while Lorković was removed from office. Košak was forced to resign and on 1 April 1943 he was relieved of his ministerial duties. From his resignation as minister until 30 March 1944, he continued to serve Croatia in a diplomatic forum as ambassador to Hungary in Budapest. After that he became ambassador to the Third Reich in Berlin. In July 1944 he was named State Minister. Košak was a close associate of Lorković and was one of his best men, alongside Ante Vokić, at Lorković's wedding to Nada von Ghyczy in August 1944. Ante Pavelić intended to relieve him of all duties because he harbored suspicions that Košak was involved in the Lorković-Vokić coup, a coup in which Lorković and Vokić, along with many other influential politicians and military officers, intended to change side and join the Allies.
Košak was protected by Siegfried Kasche, German ambassador to Croatia, was able to retain his title as ambassador to Germany. Following Pavelić's advice, Košak remained in Berlin after Hitler's death, intending to stay with the short-lived Flensburg Government, he was arrested by the British in Flensburg in May 1945. In February 1946 he was extradited to Yugoslavia and sentenced to death on 6 June 1947 for treason and war crimes. Notes BibliographyDizdar, Zdravko. Tko je tko u NDH. Minerva. ISBN 953-6377-03-9. Hrnčević, Josip. Svjedočanstva. Globus. Krizman, Bogdan. Ante Pavelić i ustaše. Globus. Nikolić, Vinko. Hrvatska revija: jubilarni zbornik 1951-1975. Hrvatska revija. +