Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. His work is known for its influence on the philosophy of science, he is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = m c 2, dubbed "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field; this led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. He subsequently realized that the principle of relativity could be extended to gravitational fields, published a paper on general relativity in 1916 introducing his theory of gravitation.

He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation, the basis of laser, which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe. Einstein moved to Switzerland in 1895 and renounced his German citizenship in 1896. After being stateless for more than five years, he acquired Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for the rest of his life. Except for one year in Prague, he lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, he received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school in Zürich in 1900. Between 1902 and 1909 he was employed in Bern as a patent examiner at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office. In 1905, called his annus mirabilis, he published four groundbreaking papers, which attracted the attention of the academic world.

That year, at the age of 26, he was awarded a Ph. D. by the University of Zurich. He taught theoretical physics for one year at the University of Bern, for two years at the University of Zurich, after one year at the Charles University in Prague he returned to his alma mater ETH Zurich between 1912 and 1914, before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences. In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power; because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany. He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting FDR to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research; this led to the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allies, but he denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon, he signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons.

He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. He published more than 150 non-scientific works, his intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius". Eugene Wigner compared him to his contemporaries, writing that "Einstein's understanding was deeper than Jancsi von Neumann's, his mind was both more penetrating and more original". Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879, his parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, Pauline Koch. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current; the Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire seven years later.

In 1894, Hermann and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current standard to the more efficient alternating current standard. The loss forced the sale of the Munich factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and a few months to Pavia; when the family moved to Pavia, Einstein 15, stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method, he wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894, he traveled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field".

Einstein always excelled at math and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers. The twelve-year-old Einstein taught himsel

Palace Office (Oman)

The Palace Office transliterated: maktab al qasr is one of the most senior and therefore powerful ministries in the Sultanate of Oman. It is a government body that has most influence in national security and intelligence issues and the minister in charge has been the de facto national security advisor to the Sultan; the Palace Office acts as a foreign liaison focus on all international intelligence and security matters. The minister holding the post has the full title Minister of the Palace Office and Head of the Office of the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces; the Palace Office Minister serves as the chair of the Defence Council. The Defence Council is an extra-parliamentary body tasked with coordinating the actions of the country's various security and armed forces; the current Minister of the Palace Office is General Sultan bin Mohammed al Nua'mani. Nasser bin Hamoud al Kindi took over the latter post; the Palace Office is located in Qurum. Its nearest government agency neighbor being the Internal Security Service based in Qurum.

Although the Palace Office as is may not have been established until the 1980s there is evidence that British advisors had begun the work of setting the office up as early as 1972. Influential characters such as Brigadier Sir Timothy Landon and Sheilagh Bailey were critical in developing the early functionality of what would become the Palace Office, it was important that the small nucleus of trusted advisors made arrangements to secure the ruler of Oman in the 1970s and establish contacts with neighboring states to ensure their cooperation. The functions of the Minister of the Palace Office are: To head the office of the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Be a lead member of the Sultanate's Defense Committee. Oversee the functions of special security capabilities within the Sultanate Act as external liaison to international intelligence and security agencies. Act with the Royal Oman Police and ISS to form and implement anti-corruption policy in the Sultanate, it seems certain that the main National Security Challenges affecting Oman are internal rather than external and an attempted coup d'etat in 2005, quashed and street unrest in the spring of 2011 and in 2012, all point to a simmering unrest with the status quo.

In early March 2011 HM Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said decided to replace two key ministers who were seen by many as not keeping in touch with young Omanis not benefiting from Oman's national advances. The long-standing favorite advisor of the Sultan General Ali bin Majid al Maamari was replaced by the unknown and younger General Sultan bin Mohammed al Nua'mani; the current Minister's remit appears unchanged. The Sultanate has experienced challenges in maintaining its neutrality in the conflict in neighboring Yemen, it has been accused by its GCC partners of not being genuinely neutral and favoring the Houthi rebels. HE General Ali bin Majid al Maamari Cabinet of Oman 2011 Omani protests Human rights in Oman Internal Security Service This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website

ABC Movie of the Week

The ABC Movie of the Week was a weekly television anthology series established by Barbara Seiden and Chase Mellen III for the ABC network featuring made-for-TV movies, that aired on the ABC network in various permutations from 1969 to 1975. The Love Boat was first aired as a MotW pilot. In the 1960s, movie studios viewed television as a second-rate medium but as a threat to their theatrical revenue, so they charged high fees for the privilege to broadcast their films; the networks experimented with having films made for TV to lower expenses. NBC created the first weekly umbrella for such films with their World Premiere Movie in 1966, running in a two-hour time slot; until the late 1960s, ABC ran a distant third behind rivals CBS and NBC, leading to jokes about its acronym meaning "Almost Broadcasting Company" or coming in fourth among the three networks. Desperation and a looser corporate structure allowed ABC to consider plans that the other two networks would not. Barry Diller a junior executive at ABC and a co-founder of the Fox network, is cited as the creator of the Movie of the Week, but the concept was originated by producer Roy Huggins.

Huggins reasoned that many older theatrical films ran shorter than 90 minutes so requiring a 120-minute time slot was unnecessary. His proposal was rejected by all three networks but became the subject of a cover story in Variety magazine. ABC's interest was renewed but they lacked confidence that Huggins could produce an entire season of telefilms by himself; as the Variety article had placed the concept into the public domain, ABC continued to develop it without Huggins' permission or involvement. They approached Universal, which demanded a larger budget than ABC wanted to spend, as well as the exclusive right to produce all future TV movies for ABC, conditions that pushed ABC to control production on their own, assigning them to various studios and production companies. ABC consoled Huggins by allowing him to produce several films, including The Young Country, precursor to Alias Smith and Jones; the shorter format allowed a smaller budget than previous two-hour films. It featured the work of producers like Aaron Spelling and David Wolper, was produced by different production companies such as Bing Crosby Productions, Spelling-Goldberg Productions, Thomas-Spelling Productions and the network's own ABC Circle Films.

The MotW provided ABC with a ratings hit and, along with Monday Night Football, helped establish the network as a legitimate competitor to rivals CBS and NBC. The films themselves varied in quality and were escapist or sensationalistic in nature, but some were critically well received. For example, based on a Richard Matheson short story from Playboy, was director Steven Spielberg's first feature film, catapulting his career and enabling him to move from television to theatrical films. ABC earned four Emmys, a Peabody Award and citations from the NAACP and American Cancer Society for an airing of Brian's Song in 1972; the 1971-72 season of the series finished as the fifth highest rated series of the year. The series was documented by Michael Karol in his 2005 book, The ABC Movie of the Week Companion: A Loving Tribute to the Classic Series, updated in 2008, by Michael McKenna in The ABC Movie of the Week: Big Movies for the Small Screen; the MotW aired on Tuesday nights at 8:30 pm Eastern/7:30 pm Central.

Established series The Mod Squad acted as a lead-in from 7:30 to 8:30, bringing the younger demographic. The shorter running time of the film freed the 10 p.m. time slot for a full 60-minute program Marcus Welby, M. D. during the first season. Starting earlier at 8:30 could prevent viewers from switching to competing movies at 9:00. Beginning with the 1971 season, ABC added a second MotW on Saturday night and adjusted the titles of the shows to the Movie of the Week and Movie of the Weekend; the following season, the Saturday installment was moved to Wednesday night, the titles were adjusted to Tuesday Movie of the Week and Wednesday Movie of the Week. During the 1973-74 season, ABC added another movie on Saturday nights to their schedule, this time titled the ABC Suspense Movie, consisting of thriller and horror type films; the title sequence was designed by Harry Marks and animated by Douglas Trumbull using the slit-scan process that he had created for 2001: A Space Odyssey. The accompanying theme music was an orchestral version of "Nikki", a song composed by Burt Bacharach and named for his daughter.

The theme was performed by Harry Betts. Over the music was narration voiced by Dick Tufeld. "The Movie of the Week. Presenting the world premiere of an original motion picture produced for ABC." That would be followed by a promotional teaser for the movie. The opening for the Saturday Movie of the Weekend featured footage of a silhouetted "rotating cameraman" operating a 35 mm movie camera; this footage would be incorporated into the opening of ABC's New York City television station WABC-TV's various movie umbrellas beginning around 1972-73, including and their weekday afternoon movie showcase The 4:30 Movie. The series was used as a platform to show pilots for possible series for the network, it allowed the network to air pilots that it had commissioned and paid for but had not ordered as regular series. As well, pilots, sold