Margaret of Sicily
Margaret of Sicily was a Princess of Sicily and Germany, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen. By marriage she was Countess Palatine of Saxony, she was the daughter of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily and Germany, by his third wife, Isabella of England. Her paternal grandparents were Holy Roman Emperor and Constance of Sicily, her maternal grandparents were John of Isabella of Angoulême. The date of her birth is difficult to ascertain because there is controversy over the exact number of children borne by her mother; some sources say that she was the first or second child, born by the end of 1237. Historians accept the latter date. Shortly after her birth, Margaret was betrothed to Albert "the Degenerate", eldest son and heir of Henry III "the Illustrious", Margrave of Meissen; the marriage took place in the bride receiving Pleissnerland as her dowry. The couple settled at his residence in Eckartsberga and moved to Wartburg, where she bore five children: three sons and two daughters.
Through her second son Frederick – Margrave of Meissen – Margaret was the direct ancestor of the Electors and Kings of Saxony and English Queen consorts Margaret of Anjou and Anne of Cleves. In 1265 her husband received the titles of Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony after the abdication of his father, who retained control of Meissen. After the execution of her nephew Conradin, Margaret, as the next legitimate relative, became the rightful Queen of Sicily and the general heiress of the Hohenstaufen claims over the Duchy of Swabia and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, her son Frederick assumed by some time this titles on her right. After discovering the adultery of her husband with Kunigunde of Eisenberg, Margaret left Wartburg; the flight took place on 24 June 1270. Margaret was supported there by the citizens, she died there six weeks later. Margaret and Albert had five children: Henry, inherited the Pleissnerland in 1274. Frederick, Margrave of Meissen. Theodoric, called Dietzmann, Margrave of Lusatia.
Margaret. Agnes of Meissen, married before 21 July 1282 to Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
Henry III, Margrave of Meissen
Henry III, called Henry the Illustrious from the House of Wettin was Margrave of Meissen and last Margrave of Lusatia from 1221 until his death. Born at the Albrechtsburg residence in Meissen, Henry was the youngest son of Margrave Theodoric I, Margrave of Meissen and his wife Jutta, daughter of Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia. In 1221 he succeeded his father as Margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, at first under guardianship of his maternal uncle, Landgrave Louis IV of Thuringia, after his death in 1227, under that of Duke Albert I of Saxony. In 1230 he was proclaimed an adult. Henry had his first combat experience in sometime around 1234, while on crusade in Prussia, fighting against the Pomesanians, his pilgrimage and company is well-documented by Peter of Dusburg, it resulted in the construction of Balga castle, an important administrative centre for the Teutonic Knights. In 1245 after many years of conflict with the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg, he was forced to cede the fortresses of Köpenick and Mittenwalde north of Lower Lusatia.
In 1249 however, the Silesian duke Bolesław II the Bald granted him the eastern area around Schiedlo Castle at the Oder river, where Henry founded the town of Fürstenberg. In the struggle between the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX, Henry took the side of the Emperor. In consideration, Frederick II in 1242 promised him the heritage of Henry Raspe as Landgrave of Thuringia and Count palatine of Saxony. In 1243 the Emperor betrothed his daughter Margaret of Sicily to Henry's son Albert II. Henry remained a loyal supporter of the Hohenstaufens and not before the departure of Frederick's son Conrad IV from Germany did he recognise the antiking William of Holland. After the death of Henry Raspe in 1247, he enforced his rights in Thuringia by military means in the War of the Thuringian Succession against the claims raised by Sophie of Thuringia, daughter of late Landgrave Louis IV, her husband Duke Henry II of Brabant, as well as by Prince Siegfried I of Anhalt-Zerbst. After a long drawn-out war he detached the Landgraviate of Hesse in the west and gave it to Sophie's younger son Henry, but kept Thuringia, which he granted to his son Albert II together with the Palatinate of Saxony.
The Thuringian acquisition increased the Wettin territorial possessions, which now reached from the Silesian border at the Bóbr river in the east up to the Werra in the west, from the border with Bohemia along the Erzgebirge in the south to the Harz range in the north. From 1273 Henry was an important support to the newly elected Rex Romanorum Rudolph of Habsburg in his struggle against rivaling King Ottokar II of Bohemia. Against Bohemia he won, among other places and Purschenstein Castle near Neuhausen, He was known throughout the whole empire as a glittering prince, famous as a patron of the arts and a model knight, as a significant minnesinger and composer. Henry was patron of many tournaments and singing competitions, in which he took part himself, commissioned the famous Christherre-Chronik, he set to music hymns to be sung by express permission of the pope. In 1234 Henry married Constance of the daughter of Duke Leopold VI of Austria. Together they had two sons: Albert II, Margrave of Meissen Theodoric of Landsberg As early as 1265 he attached the Imperial Pleissnerland around Altenburg, the dowry of his daughter-in-law Margaret, to the Landgraviate of Thuringia and gave both to his elder son Albert II, otherwise Albert the Degenerate.
For his younger son Theodoric, Henry had created – though without imperial consent – the smaller Margraviate of Landsberg in the western part of the Lusatian lands around Leipzig. Henry kept for himself only the Margraviate of Meissen, the remaining Lower Lusatian lands, a formal power of oversight. Only domestic disorders, caused by the unworthiness of his son Albert, clouded the years of his reign and indeed, long after his death in 1288, led to the loss of Lusatia and Thuringia. After the death of Constance in 1243 Henry took as his second wife Agnes, a daughter of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, in his third marriage the daughter of a ministerialis, or serving knight, Elisabeth von Maltitz, who bore him Friedrich Clem and Hermann the Long
Constance of Austria, Margravine of Meissen
Constance of Babenberg, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Margravine of Meissen from 1234 until her death, by her marriage with Margrave Henry the Illustrious. Constance was a younger daughter of Duke Leopold VI of Austria and his wife, the Byzantine princess Theodora Angelina, daughter of Emperor Isaac II Angelos. In 1225 her elder sister Margaret married the 14-year-old Henry, King-elect of Germany and eldest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II. Upon her father's death in 1230, the Babenberg duchies of Austria and Styria passed to her brother Frederick the Quarrelsome. On 1 May 1234 Constance married the Wettin margrave Henry the Illustrious; the wedding took place in an open field near Vienna rather than in the newly erected Hofburg residence of the Babenbergs. It is believed that the conversion of the castle had not been completed, or it was too small. There are three sources for information about the wedding itself. Two of them report that the wedding happened in other words, in Stadlau.
The third source reports that the wedding took place in aput Ringlense, a name which has fallen into disuse and was used instead of today's Floridsdorf. The two sources reporting the location as Stadlau published a list of wedding guests. Present at the wedding were King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia and Prince Béla IV of Hungary, the Archbishop of Salzburg as well as the bishops of Passau, Bamberg and Seckau; the secular princes were represented by Margrave Přemysl of Moravia, Duke Albert of Saxony, Duke Carinthia, the Carinthian duke Bernhard von Spanheim, the Landgrave of Thuringia. This guest list suggests the importance of the Babenberg dukes within the Holy Roman Empire. Constance bequeathed a True Cross relic to the Dresden parish, housed by a chapel which became known as the Kreuzkirche, her husband, who had inherited both the Margraviate of Meissen and the March of Lusatia from his father, the late Margrave Theodoric I, participated in a Prussian Crusade of the Teutonic Order soon after their wedding.
In 1239 he entered into the Magdeburg Wars with the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg. He remained a loyal supporter of Emperor Frederick II, who betrothed his daughter Margaret of Sicily with Henry's and Constance's first-born son Albert. After Constance's death in 1243, Margrave Henry secondly married Agnes of Bohemia, a daughter of King Wenceslaus I; when Constance's brother Duke Frederick was killed in the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River, he claimed the Austrian duchy for himself. Henry and Constance had two sons: Margrave of Meissen Theodoric of Landsberg. In 1910, a street in Donaustadt, was named after her: Konstanziagasse
Albert the Bear
Albert the Bear was the first Margrave of Brandenburg from 1157 to his death and was Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142. Albert was the only son of Otto, Count of Ballenstedt, Eilika, daughter of Magnus Billung, Duke of Saxony, he inherited the valuable estates in northern Saxony of his father in 1123, on his mother's death, in 1142, succeeded to one-half of the lands of the house of Billung. Albert was a loyal vassal of his relation, Lothar I, Duke of Saxony, from whom, about 1123, he received the Margraviate of Lusatia, to the east. Albert's entanglements in Saxony stemmed from his desire to expand his inherited estates there. After the death of his brother-in-law, Henry II, Margrave of the Nordmark, who controlled a small area on the Elbe called the Saxon Northern March, in 1128, disappointed at not receiving this fief himself, attacked Udo V, Count of Stade, the heir, was deprived of Lusatia by Lothar. Udo, was said to have been assassinated by servants of Albert on 15 March 1130 near Aschersleben.
In spite of this, he went to Italy in 1132 in the train of the king, his services there were rewarded in 1134 by the investiture of the Northern March, again without a ruler. In 1138 Conrad III, the Hohenstaufen King of the Germans, deprived Albert's cousin and nemesis, Henry the Proud of his Saxon duchy, awarded to Albert if he could take it. After some initial success in his efforts to take possession, Albert was driven from Saxony, from his Northern march by a combined force of Henry and Jaxa of Köpenick, compelled to take refuge in south Germany; when peace was made with Henry in 1142, Albert renounced the Saxon duchy and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde. It was at this time that Albert was made Archchamberlain of the Empire, an office which afterwards gave the Margraves of Brandenburg the rights of a prince-elector. Once he was established in the Northern March, Albert's covetous eye lay on the thinly populated lands to the north and east. For three years he was occupied in campaigns against the Slavic Wends, who as pagans were considered fair game, whose subjugation to Christianity was the aim of the Wendish Crusade of 1147 in which Albert took part.
Albert was a part of the army. And at the end of the war, recovered Havelberg, lost since 983. Diplomatic measures were more successful, by an arrangement made with the last of the Wendish princes of Brandenburg, Pribislav of the Hevelli, Albert secured this district when the prince died in 1150. Taking the title "Margrave in Brandenburg", he pressed the "crusade" against the Wends, extended the area of his mark, encouraged German migration, established bishoprics under his protection, so became the founder of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1157, which his heirs — the House of Ascania — held until the line died out in 1320. In 1158 a feud with Henry's son, Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, was interrupted by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On his return in 1160, he, with the consent of his sons. In 1162 Albert accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to Italy, where he distinguished himself at the storming of Milan. In 1164 Albert joined a league of princes formed against Henry the Lion, peace being made in 1169, Albert divided his territories among his six sons.
He died on 13 November 1170 in Stendal, was buried at Ballenstedt. Albert's personal qualities won for him the cognomen of the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country since," says Carlyle, who called Albert "a restless, much-managing, wide-warring man." He is called by writers "the Handsome." Albert was married in 1124 to Sophie of Winzenburg and they had the following children: Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg Count Hermann I of Orlamünde Siegfried, Bishop of Brandenburg from 1173–1180, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, the first ranked prince, from 1180–1184 Heinrich, a canon in Magdeburg Count Albert of Ballenstedt Count Dietrich of Werben Count Bernhard of Anhalt, Duke of Saxony from 1180-1212 as Bernard III Hedwig, married to Otto II, Margrave of Meissen Daughter, married c. 1152 to Vladislav of Bohemia Adelheid, a nun in Lamspringe Gertrude, married in 1155 to Duke Diepold of Moravia Sybille, Abbess of Quedlinburg Eilika Thomas Carlyle, History of Friedrich ii Chapter iv: Albert the Bear The History Files: Rulers of Brandenburg
Adolf of Germany
Adolf was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of Germany from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire to be deposed without a papal excommunication. Adolf died shortly afterwards in the Battle of Göllheim fighting against his successor Albert of Habsburg, he was the second in the succession of so-called count-kings of several rivalling comital houses striving after the Roman-German royal dignity. His last agnatic dynastic descendant was William IV of Luxembourg. Adolf was the reigning count of a small German state, he was the son of Walram II, Count of Nassau and Adelheid of Katzenelnbogen. Adolf’s brother was Dieter of Nassau, appointed Archbishop of Trier in 1300. Adolf was married in 1270 to Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg and they had eight children. Agnes of Isenburg-Limburg, the sister of Imagina, was married to Henry of Westerburg, the brother of Siegfried II of Westerburg, the Archbishop of Cologne.
In 1276 or 1277, Adolf followed his father as Count of Nassau. From his father, he inherited the family’s lands south of the Lahn River in the Taunus Mountains; these included Wiesbaden and Idstein, as fiefdoms, the Vogtship in Weilburg under the Bishopric of Worms. He shared ownership of the family homelands around the castles of Nassau and Laurenburg. Around 1280, Adolf became involved in the Nassau-Eppstein Feud with the Lords of Eppstein, in which the city of Wiesbaden was devastated and Sonnenberg Castle destroyed; the feud was settled in 1283, after which the castle were rebuilt. Sonnenberg, along with Idstein, became Adolf’s residence, he built its fortifications. Through his uncle, Eberhard I of Katzenelnbogen, Adolf came to the court of King Rudolf I of Habsburg. King Rudolf awarded him with the Burghauptmannamt of Kalsmunt Castle in Wetzlar and a year that of Gutenfels Castle near Kaub. Before his election, Adolf’s political activities had been limited to his role as Bundesgenosse of the Archbishop of Cologne.
Adolf had no particular office, but became known through his involvement with the Archbishops of Cologne and Mainz in the politics of the Middle Rhine and Mainz areas. He spoke German and Latin, rare at that time for nobles. After his election, King Adolf of Nassau would only be in his home country, having transferred the government there to his burgmen. On 17 January 1294, he purchased Weilburg for 400 pounds from the Bishopric of Worms, he granted Weilburg town privileges on 29 December 1295. He established the Clarisse abbey of Klarenthal near Wiesbaden in 1296. Rudolf I of Habsburg died on 15 July 1291. For many years before his death, Rudolf had tried to secure the election of his eldest son Albert as his successor, he was thwarted, however, by the opposition of the Archbishop of Cologne, Siegfried II of Westerburg, the King of Bohemia, Wenceslaus II. Only the Count Palatine Louis II of Upper Bavaria "the Rigorous" promised to choose Albert. Wenceslaus, despite Rudolf's recognition of his electoral vote, refused to support Albert because he would not cede Carinthia to him.
He took the side of the nobles in the core Habsburg areas of Swabia and in their newly acquired territories in Austria, with whom Albert was unpopular. Wenceslaus was supported by Duke Otto III of Lower Bavaria, whose family were traditional enemies of the Habsburgs. Wenceslaus succeeded in bringing the Electors of Brandenburg and Saxony over to his side: Albert II of Saxony signed an elector pact on 29 November 1291 that he would vote the same as Wenceslaus. Archbishop Siegfried believed that the Emperor should not receive the crown as an inheritance from his father, but should be selected by the College of Electors, he convinced the Archbishop of Mainz, Gerard II of Eppstein, to select a king who would principally serve their interests. Gerard in turn recruited the new Archbishop of Trier, Bohemund I. Thereupon, the Count Palatine was forced to submit to the majority of the College of Electors. Siegfried therefore proposed to the Elector College to select Adolf of Nassau as king, they were ready to elect him, provided he make extensive concessions to the Electors and follow their political demands.
A few days before the election, on 27 April 1292, the first of the electors, Archbishop Siegfried issued the Treaty of Andernach, stating that for Adolf to be chosen king he must promise a long list of acknowledgments of possession, pledges of imperial cities and castles, a sum of 25,000 marks in silver. Furthermore, Adolf promised assistance against listed opponents, but the general promise that he would not admit any enemy of Siegfried II into his council. After the election, Adolf had to give the archbishop sufficient collateral for the fulfilment of the promise; the last clause is evidence of the fact that the end of the 13th century, the coronation of the king as the constitutive moment of his rule was still critical. Adolf promised the archbishop to ask him first for his coronation when he had raised the agreed-upon collateral; the other electors extracted similar concessions from Adolf, but only after the election. Among the most far-reaching were the concessions to King Wenceslaus of Bohemia on 30 June 1292.
Adolf promised Wenceslaus to remove the two duchie
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg
The Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was a medieval duchy of the Holy Roman Empire centered at Wittenberg, which emerged after the dissolution of the stem duchy of Saxony. The Ascanian dukes prevailed in obtaining the Saxon electoral dignity until their duchy was elevated to the Electorate of Saxony by the Golden Bull of 1356; the Eastphalian count Otto of Ballenstedt, ancestor of the House of Ascania, had married Eilika, a daughter of Duke Magnus of Saxony from the House of Billung. As the Billung male line became extinct upon Magnus's death in 1106, Otto hoped to succeed him, however King Henry V of Germany enfeoffed Count Lothair of Supplinburg. During the following long-term dispute between Henry and Lothair, Otto was able to gain the title of a Saxon duke, though only for a short time in 1122. Lothair was elected King of the Romans in 1125 and in 1134 he vested Otto's son Albert the Bear with the Saxon Northern March. Upon his death in 1137, Albert once again strived for the Saxon duchy, which however fell to Lothair's son-in-law Henry the Proud from the Bavarian House of Welf.
Albert concluded a deal with the rising House of Hohenstaufen: He backed the succession of Conrad of Hohenstaufen as German king, who in turn deprived his Welf rival Henry the Proud of the Saxonian Duchy in 1138 and gave it to Albert. However, his rule was contested by the local nobility and in 1142 Albert had to resign as duke in favour of Henry the Proud's son Henry the Lion. Albert took part in the Wendish Crusade of 1147 and in 1157 established the Margraviate of Brandenburg, he died in 1170. The third chance for the Ascanians came, when in 1180 ambitious Henry the Lion was deposed as Saxon Duke by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick partitioned Saxony among his allies into more than a dozen immediate territories. Among the supporters, Archbishop Philip of Cologne received the largest share as the newly created Duchy of Westphalia; the Saxon ducal title at least passed to late Albert's youngest son, Count Bernhard of Ballenstedt, who only ruled over small Eastphalian fringes of the old duchy.
Duke Bernard died in 1212 and his two surviving sons divided the Saxon heritage: the elder Henry took the old Ascanian allodial possessions around Ballenstedt where he established the Ascanian County of Anhalt, while his younger brother Albert I inherited the title of a Duke of Saxony and retained three territorially unconnected Eastphalian estates on the Elbe river around the towns of Wittenberg and Belzig as well as the northern lordship of Lauenburg with Amt Neuhaus and Land Hadeln at the Elbe estuary. After Albert I's death in 1260 his two heirs, John I and his younger brother Albert II ruled jointly. In 1269, 1272 and 1282 they divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas, thus preparing a partition, whereby Albert II, Burgrave of Magdeburg since 1269, concentrated on the Wittenberg territory, he consolidated his position by marrying Agnes, daughter of Rudolph of Habsburg, whom he elected King of the Romans in 1273. After Duke John I had resigned in 1282 in favour of his three minor sons Eric I, John II and Albert III, followed by his death three years the three brothers and their uncle Albert II continued the joint rule as Saxon dukes.
Upon the death of Margrave Henry III of Meissen in 1288, Duke Albert II applied at his father-in-law King Rudolph I for the enfeoffment of his son and heir Rudolph with the Saxon County palatine on the Unstrut river, which ensued a long lasting dispute with the eager clan of the House of Wettin. Albert's attempts to secure the succession in the lands of the extinct Counts of Brehna were more successful: when their fiefs were reverted to the Empire in 1290, the king enfeoffed his son Rudolph. After King Rudolph had died, Albert II with his nephews still minor on 27 April 1292 wielded the Saxon electoral vote, electing Adolph of Nassau, the brother-in-law of Archbishop Siegfried II of Cologne; the bishop together with King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia had succeeded in bringing Albert II in favour of electing Adolph: he had signed an elector pact on 29 November 1291 that he would vote the same as Wenceslaus. In 1295 Albert II could again enlarge his Saxon territory; the last document, mentioning the joint government of Albert II with his nephews as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295.
The definite partitioning of the Duchy of Saxony into Saxe-Lauenburg, jointly ruled by the brothers Albert III, Eric I and John II and Saxe-Wittenberg, ruled by Albert II took place before 20 September 1296. The Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, the Land of Hadeln are mentioned as the separate territory of the brothers. Duke Albert II received the Wittenberg lands around the eponymous city and Gommern, he thus became the founder of the Ascanian line of Saxe-Wittenberg. When Rudolph succeeded his father Albert II as Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg in 1298, he and the Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg rivallingly claimed the Saxon electoral privilege. Upon the assassination of his brother-in-law King Albert I in 1308, he voted for Count Henry of Luxembourg. In 1314 both duchies participated in the double election of the German kings, Frederick III, the Fair from the House of Habsburg and his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV, the Bavarian. Louis received five of the seven votes, to wit Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King John of Bohemia, Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg, claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power, Archbishop Peter of Mainz, Albert's Ascanian cousin Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg.