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Albert II, Margrave of Meissen

Albert II, the Degenerate was a Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony. He was a member of the House of Wettin, he was the eldest son of Henry III, Margrave of Meissen by Constantia of Austria. In 1265 Margrave Henry III granted the Landgraviate of Thuringia and the Palatinate to Albert and the Margraviate of Landsberg in the Osterland to his younger brother Dietrich. Henry III kept for himself the Margraviates of Lusatia as a formal power over his sons. In June 1255 Albert married Margaret of Sicily, the daughter of Emperor Frederick II, King of Sicily, Isabella of England. Margaret known as Margaret of Schwaben was a sister of Henry Otto known as Carlotto; as a dowry the Pleissnerland was pledged to the House of Wettin. Albert and Margaret had five children: Henry, Lord of Pleissnerland, inherited the Pleissnerland in 1274. Frederick, Margrave of Meissen. Dietrich, called Diezmann, Margrave of Lusatia. Margaret. Agnes, married before 21 July 1282 to Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen.

After what was at first a happy rule and marriage, Albert turned away from Margaret and began a passionate love affair with Kunigunde of Eisenberg. She bore him two children: a daughter, Elisabeth in 1269, a son, Albert in 1270; when she discovered the adultery and the illegitimate births, Margaret left Wartburg on 24 June 1270 and went to Frankfurt am Main where she died on 8 August of the same year. The two younger sons and Diezmann were looked after by their uncle, Theodoric of Landsberg. Henry, the oldest, disappeared in Silesia in 1282. Albert legitimised their children; when Albert intended to leave the Landgraviate of Thuringia to Apitz and compensate his sons from his first marriage with only the Osterland and the County Palatine of Saxony, they began a war against their father. Frederick was locked up in Wartburg castle. During this time, in 1284, their uncle Theodoric of Landsberg died, four years in 1288, Henry the Illustrious, Albert's father died; these deaths heightened. At the death of his father, Albert became Margrave of Meissen, while his nephew Frederick Tuta - son of Theodoric of Landsberg - inherited the Margraviate of Lusatia, sold off by Albert's son Diezmann in 1303.

Shortly after, Frederick captured his father Albert in battle. By the Treaty of Rochlitz, Albert obtained his freedom after the renunciation of large parts of his lands, he retained Meissen for himself, but sold it to Frederick Tuta. When, after his death his cousins Frederick and Diezmann arbitrarily took possession of his lands, Albert - suffering financial difficulties - was compelled to sell Thuringia in 1293 to the German King Adolf of Nassau. In the sale, Albert included Meissen and Osterland as his fiefs, despite the fact they were in the hands of his sons. Thanks to this, Adolf's successor Albert I of Habsburg was able to take possession of these lands, claiming that the contract of sale was legitimate and lawful. Kunigunde of Eisenberg died on 31 October 1286. Four years on 1 October 1290, Albert married thirdly Elisabeth of Orlamünde, heiress of Nordhalben and widow of Hartmann XI of Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk; the same year, Albert's son by Kunigunde, was formally legitimized by the Emperor and created Herr of Tenneberg.

He wished to make Apitz his successor in Thuringia. On 11 April 1291 Apitz's younger full-sister, married Henry III of Frankenstein. Elisabeth died on 28 September 1293. Three years Apitz married a sister of his brother-in-law Henry III also called Elisabeth; this marriage, like his sister's, was childless. Four years Albert's eldest surviving son, married Elisabeth of Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, daughter of his stepmother. Five years Apitz of Tenneberg died, aged thirty-five; the death of his favorite son was a terrible blow to Albert. He never recovered from the loss. Two years in 1307, Albert resigned the Landgraviate of Thuringia and the County Palatine of Saxony to his son Frederick in exchange for an annuity, he died seven years in Erfurt, aged seventy-four. List of Margraves of Meißen Wettin

Karnataka ethnic groups

Karnataka is a state in the southern part of India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the north-west, Maharashtra to the north and Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the south-east, Kerala to the south-west; the state covers 5.83 % of the total geographical area of India. It comprises 30 districts. Kannada is spoken by 65 % of the population. Various ethnic groups with origins in other parts of India have unique customs and use languages at home other than Kannada, adding to the cultural diversity of the state. Other ethnic minorities in the state in 1991 were Telugu people, Tamil people, Marathi people, Hindi, Konkani people, Malayalis and Gujarati people. Kannadigas form the dominant ethnic group in Karnataka, making up to 72% of the total population of the state, they are the native speakers of the Kannada language. Kannada is one of the official languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.

Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the Ministry of Culture, the Government of India recognised Kannada as a classical language. Tuluvas are the native speakers of Tulu language, they form the dominant ethnic community in the Kanara region of Karnataka. Yakshagana, Buta Kola and Aati kalenja are the distinctive features of Tuluva culture. Tuluvas follow a matrilineal system of inheritance known as Aliyasantana which has given them a unique cultural status; as per the 1991 census, Tuluvas formed 2.38% of the total population of the state. The speakers of Konkani language are settled in the districts of Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada. In Karwar Taluk alone, Konkani language is spoken by about 78% of the population. Significant population of Konkani people has settled in Belgaum and Bangalore; as per the 1991 census, speakers of Konkani form 1.78% of the total population of the state. In Karnataka, which has the largest number of Konkanis, leading organizations and activists have demanded that Kannada script be made the medium of instruction for Konkani in local schools instead of Devanagari.

Most Konkani-speaking people of the state are bilingual in Tulu. Kodava people are the native speakers of Kodava language and are of a martial race settled in the district of Kodagu; as per the 1991 census, the speakers of Kodava Takk make up up to 0.25% of the total population of the state. According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy, apart from Kodavas, 18 other ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including Heggade, Koyava, kudiya and Meda. Though the language has no script German linguist Gregg M. Cox developed a new writing system for the language known as the Coorgi-Cox alphabet, used by a number of individuals in Kodagu. In Karnataka, Urdu is spoken in the form of Dakhni, as in the other states of Deccan. People speaking Urdu as their mother tongue form the second largest ethnic group in Karnataka, the majority of whom are Muslims.. Places in Karnataka like Gulbarga and Bijapur during the Sultanate period served as the centres of Dakhni literature from 14th - 17th century.

These literary activities led to the development of Urdu during the late Mughal period after the conquest of Bijapur in 1686 CE. The concentration of speakers of Urdu shows an uneven distribution over different districts in Karnataka; the difference in the numerical strength of Urdu speakers varies from a few hundred to thousands. 57.5% of the total Urdu population in Karnataka are bilingual. Kannada is the most preferred language among the Urdu speakers of Karnataka. About 43.5% of the total Urdu population has bilingualism in Kannada. Marathi people are the native speakers of the Marathi language, which serves as the official language of the adjoining state of Maharashtra. Marathi speakers are found in the districts of Belgaum and Bidar and as per the 1991 census form 2.95% of the total population of the state. The migration of Marathi-speakers to Karnataka date from the 17th century when the Maratha Empire was established. Belgaum city was incorporated into the newly formed Mysore state with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, which reorganised India's states along linguistic lines, despite having a significant Marathi-speaking population.

There are considerable number of Marathi-speakers in Bangalore city. As per the 1991 census, speakers of Telugu formed the third largest ethnic group in Karnataka; the speakers of Telugu language form the native ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the neighbouring states of Karnataka. Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states spoken by 88.5% of the population. Telugu is the third most spoken language in India; the Indian government designated Telugu as a classical and ancient language on 1 November 2008. Telugu and Kannada share a long relationship, both having a similar culture. There has been a large migration of Telugu-speakers to Karnataka since the days of the Vijayanagara Empire although the state of Karnataka was only formed after Independence. Most of the districts in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka border were always a mix of Telugu and Kannada populations who were bilingual similar to

Bardon Mill

Bardon Mill is a village in Northumberland, England. It is situated to the west of Haydon Hexham, on the River Tyne South. Bardon Mill is in the parliamentary constituency of Hexham, Guy Opperman of the Conservative Party is the Member of Parliament. For the European Parliament its residents vote to elect MEP's for the North East England constituency. For Local Government purposes it belongs to Northumberland County Council a unitary authority; the only commercial pottery in the UK licensed to produce salt glaze pottery is Errington Reay. Rail The village is served by Bardon Mill railway station on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway known as the Tyne Valley Line; the station is on the south side of the village close by the River South Tyne. The line was opened in 1838, links the city of Newcastle in Tyne and Wear with Carlisle in Cumbria; the line follows the course of the River Tyne through Northumberland. Passenger services on the Tyne Valley Line are operated by Abellio ScotRail; the line is heavily used for freight.

BusThe Arriva North East 685 bus which runs between Newcastle and Carlisle serves Bardon Mill. RoadThe village is served by the A69 road, a major road running east–west across the Pennines, linking Newcastle upon Tyne with Carlisle in Cumbria; the local pub in Bardon Mill is the Bowes Hotel. The church services alternate weekly between Beltingham and Henshaw churches, both of which are close to the village. There is a active Women's Institute. A leek club show is held every year, the produce from, auctioned along with donations the day after the show. Funds are donated to local charities; every October there is the Bardon Mill and Roman Empire conkers championships held on the village green. Local community projects are asked to run a stall at the event to raise funds for their own or community projects; these include Growability at Ridley Hall, who provide work experience for adults with learning disabilities and mental health needs. A little over a mile to the south-west, Willimoteswick Manor is a 16th-century fortified manor house rebuilt in 1900.

Just over a mile east of Bardon Mill is Allen Banks. Ridley Hall was the ancestral home of a branch of the late Queen Mother's family. Weddings and other functions are held there including a Burns Night Ceilidh, organised by the local church; the churches for the area are in Henshaw. Allen Banks, the estate belonging to the hall, were donated to the National Trust and includes 500 acres of riverbank and woodland walks, affording some of the best views in the area. Northumberland National Park is located within a couple of miles of Bardon Mill; the Northern end of the North Pennines is just a mile or so from here. Vindolanda Roman settlement is in the parish just over 1 mile north of the A69, it is a world-renowned site and the location of the finding of the Vindolanda tablets, the oldest'postcards' in the world. Some of these are to be found in the museum at Vindolanda along with a great many Roman finds from the days of the emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's Wall is a World Heritage Site. Many people come from all over the world to see the Wall and the forts along it, the best preserved of, Housesteads located 3 miles from the village.

There is a popular Hadrian's Wall Path 83 miles trail and Hadrian's Cycleway which comes into the village. Lilian Bowes-Lyon, grew up at Ridley Hall, near Bardon Mill, she wrote many poems including Allendale Dog and Northumbrian farm. She was a cousin of the Queen Mother. A nearby farm is reputed to be haunted by the ghost of a robber, murdered there in the 14th century, its last alleged sighting was in 1933. Media related to Bardon Mill at Wikimedia Commons Bardon Mill & Henshaw Parish Website

Scott Hoch

Scott Mabon Hoch is an American professional golfer, who represented his country in the Ryder Cup in 1997 and 2002. Hoch was born in North Carolina. While attending Needham B. Broughton High School, he won the 1973 NCHSAA Men's Golf State Championship, he was a member of the golf team at Wake Forest University before graduating in 1978. In 1978 Hoch reached the final of the U. S. Amateur, losing 4 to John Cook, he played on the winning U. S. team in the 1978 Eisenhower Trophy and the 1979 Walker Cup. His achievements in 1978 led to an invitation to the 1979 Masters Tournament where he finished tied for 34th place, the second amateur behind Bobby Clampett, he turned professional in 1979 after competing in the U. S. Amateur. Hoch has won several tournaments, including the Western Open, the Ford Championship at Doral, the Heineken Dutch Open and the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic, he won the Vardon Trophy for lowest scoring average in 1986. He has featured in the top 20 of the Official World Golf Ranking. Hoch is known for missing a two-foot-long putt that would have won the 1989 Masters Tournament on the first playoff hole, which he lost to Nick Faldo on the next hole.

At the 1987 PGA Championship, Hoch three-putted the 18th hole on Sunday from inside of ten feet. A two-putt would have secured a playoff spot for him. Hoch is well known for his infamous quote regarding playing in The Open Championship at the "home of golf" at St Andrews. Hoch referred to this course, considered hallowed ground by most golfers around the world, as "the worst piece of mess" he had seen. Due to his Open Championship criticism Hoch has been characterized as an "ugly American." However he has played extensively abroad and done well, with three victories on the Japan Golf Tour, a victory at European Tour's 1995 Dutch Open, multiple victories on the Korean Tour. He has runner-up finishes at the 1987 Dunlop Phoenix Tournament, 1994 Casio World Open on the Japan Golf Tour, 1995 New Zealand Open on the Australasian Tour, the 1996 Dutch Open. Hoch is the rare American golfer. Before his participation in the 2002 event he described the Ryder Cup as "overrated" and thought that the competition had gotten too "inflammatory."In 1982, Hoch said that he feared he was going to die after an intruder came into his hotel room in Tucson, held him and his wife, Sally, at gunpoint, tied them up for an hour.

In 1989, Hoch said that he was "really hurt" after being named "Least Popular Golfer" in a poll of Tour players conducted by the Dallas Times Herald. In May 2007, Hoch won the FedEx Kinko's Classic. In February 2008, he won his third events in consecutive weeks. At the age of 63 became the oldest winner on the Champions Tour, it was his first win on tour in 11 years. 1977 Northeast Amateur PGA Tour playoff record 1982 Taiheiyo Club Masters, Casio World Open 1986 Casio World Open 1986 Chrysler Team Championship 1990 Korea Open 1991 Korea Open 2008 Merrill Lynch Shootout PGA Tour Champions playoff record WD = Withdrew CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Most consecutive cuts made – 10 Longest streak of top-10s – 2 CUT = missed the halfway cut WD = withdrew "T" indicates a tie for a place Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 1978 Walker Cup: 1979 Professional Presidents Cup: 1994, 1996, 1998 Ryder Cup: 1997, 2002 UBS Cup: 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins Scott Hoch at the PGA Tour official site Scott Hoch at the European Tour official site Scott Hoch at the Japan Golf Tour official site Scott Hoch at the Official World Golf Ranking official site

Cap snatching

The first step of transcription for some negative, single-stranded RNA viruses is cap snatching, in which the first 10 to 20 residues of a host cell RNA are removed and used as the 5′ cap and primer to initiate the synthesis of the nascent viral mRNA. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can proceed to replicate the negative-sense genome from the positive-sense template. Cap-snatching explains why some viral mRNA have 5’ terminal extensions of 10-20 nucleotides that are not encoded for in the genome. Examples of viruses that engage in cap-snatching include influenza viruses, Lassa virus, hantaan virus and rift valley fever virus. Most viruses snatch 15-20 nucleotides except for the families Arenaviridae and Nairoviridae and the genus Thogotovirus which use a shorter strand. In the influenza virus, cap snatching occurs in the nucleus of the cell; the cap snatching endonuclease function is contained in the PA subunit of the RNA polymerase. In arenaviridae and bunyavirales, cap-snatching takes place in the cytoplasm.

Cap-snatching occurs in three general steps: 1) The viral RdRp or N protein binds to the host mRNA 5’-methylated cap-1 or cap-2 structure. 2) Viral endonuclease cleaves mRNA several nucleotides downstream of the cap. 3) Capped RNA utilized as a primer to initiate viral mRNA synthesis carried out by the RdRp. Cap snatching is best described in influenza viruses influenza A. In Orthomyxoviridae, the viral family of influenza, the RdRp is divided into three subunits: PA, PB1 and P2. PB1 first binds the 5’ end of the viral RNA, activating PB2 and causing the 3’ end of the vRNA to form a double-stranded zone with the 5’ end; the PB2 proceeds to bind cellular mRNA at the N7-methyl guanosine capped 5’ end. The PA subunit subsequently cleaves the sequence 10-13 nucleotides from the cap structure via endonuclease activity at the N terminus; the exact cleavage location is dependent both on the distance between the PB2 and the PA of the RdRp and the sequence of the mRNA. The PB1 subunit, which contains the polymerase activity adds on two new nucleotides.

The cap snatched primer moves through the product exit tunnel in the PB1 domain to serve as the primer for transcription. The vRNA 3’-UCGUUUU nucleotides are not bound to the polymerase but rather are free for complementary binding with the capped RNA primer to confer stability. Transcription begins with G or C residue on the 3’ end of the capped primer; the PB1 subunit completes chain elongation in the canonical 5’ to 3’ direction, releasing the cap, but keeping the 5’ end bound. The viral 3’ poly-A tail is added at the end of transcription by polymerase stuttering from the steric hinderance of the vRNA loop; the resulting viral mRNA looks is identical to host mRNA, allowing endogenous cellular machinery to carry out processing and nuclear export. The de-capped host mRNAs are targeted degradation, which lead to the downregulation of cellular mRNA. Influenza RdRp interacts with the cell Polymerase II C terminal domain, which promotes viral transcription by changing the conformation of the RdRp.

Additionally, by reducing Pol II abundance, influenza can begin to shut off critical host transcription. Cap snatching is not used during replication. Instead, the RdRp performs a “prime and realign” step ensure that the genome is copied. In this mechanism, the RdRp sets down a primer internally the vRNA is realigned to continue replication. Influenza’s PB2 cap-binding domain has a unique fold, but it uses aromatic stacking to execute m7G cap-binding similar to other cap-binding proteins. PA is a member of the PDXK nuclease family. However, it has a peculiar active site histidine residue which ligates the Mn2+ ion used for cleavage. In October 2018, the United States FDA approved baloxavir marboxil for treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza, marking the first new influenza anti-viral drug class in over two decades; the drug utilizes knowledge about cap snatching by targeting and inhibiting the endonuclease function of the PA subunit, which will prevent the virus from initiating transcription.

Baloxavir marboxil is effective against both influenza A and B. The Arenaviridae family and Bunyavirales order are segmented negative, single-stranded RNA viruses. A verified Mn2+ dependent endonuclease is located at the N-terminus of the L protein. TN-terminal domain is conserved between various families. However, the cap-binding domain is not confirmed for every virus family, but it is believed to be located in the L or nucleocapsid protein. In the bunyavirales, endonuclease cleavage and nucleotide motif preferences vary between families and species; this variation occurs because of a need to some base pairing with the 3’ end of the viral genome. The nucleoprotein structure in Lassa virus contains a second nuclease. Researchers propose that it is involved in attenuating interferon response, but it contains a dTTP-binding site which may be used for cap-snatching. In this model, the L and N proteins cooperate in the cap-snatching process; the two-domain model has been prosed for hantaviruses, but the N protein in the rift valley fever virus does not possess the same features.

Cap snatching has been investigated in depth for the hantaviridae family. There is evidence that the N protein binds to the 5’ cap and protects them from degradation by cellular machinery; the N protein accumulates in cytoplasmic cellular processing bodies, sequestering the protected 5’ caps as a pool of available primers for t

Stephanie Allain

Stephanie Allain is an American producer of independent movies in Hollywood, California. Stephanie Allain was born in New Orleans to an African-American father Dr. Charles Allain, a biochemist, a white mother Gwen Allain Miller, an educator, her family moved near Los Angeles, California, in 1965, Allain attended the University of California, Santa Cruz, graduating with a B. A. in English and Creative Writing. She began her film career in 1985 at Creative Artists Agency, first as a script reader as a staff reader; as a story analyst, she worked for 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. and in 1989, at Columbia Pictures. There, Allain was one of twelve readers at the studio, one of only two African-American readers, she rose through the ranks to become Senior Vice President of Production and was influential in encouraging and developing an African-American filmmaking community in Hollywood in the 1990s. During her tenure at Columbia, Allain launched the careers of several young filmmakers including John Singleton, Robert Rodriguez and Darnell Martin.

She pitched to Columbia's executives Singleton's Boyz n the Hood. The controversial film would become a critical and commercial hit, garnering Singleton two Academy Award nominations. Among the films under her supervision were Poetic Justice, I Like It Like That, The Craft. Of her time at Columbia, Allain had this to say: In 1996, Allain left Columbia Pictures to become President of Jim Henson Pictures. During her 4 years there, she produced Caroline Thompson's Buddy, as well as Henson brand movies, Muppets from Space and The Adventures of Elmo in Grouchland. After her stint at Henson, Allain joined 3Arts Entertainment, where she developed projects for clients and produced Reggie Rock Bythewood's Biker Boyz. In 2003, Allain founded Homegrown Films. Teaming with John Singleton, Craig Brewer's Hustle & Flow was produced. Hustle & Flow was sold to MTV/Paramount for a 9 million dollars and went on to win the Audience Award at Sundance in 2005, an Academy Award for Best Original Song and earned a Best Actor nomination for Terrence Howard.

In 2006, Allain and Homegrown Films produced another first time director, music video director, Sanaa Hamri's Something New, starring Sanaa Lathan and Simon Baker. She worked again with producer John Singleton, partnering with Craig Brewer and his Southern Cross the Dog production company based at Paramount Pictures. Paramount Vantage released their latest film, Black Snake Moan, starring Samuel L. Jackson, Christina Ricci and Justin Timberlake on February 23, 2007, she was the Festival Director for the LA Film Festival from 2011 to 2016. She was married to Mitch Marcus from 1988 to 1999, she is married to Tony Award-nominated and Grammy Award-winning composer Stephen Bray, composer and lyricist of the Broadway version of the Alice Walker book The Color Purple. Allain has three children. All films, she was producer; as an actressThanks Camera and electrical department Stephanie Allain on IMDb Stephanie Allain on Yahoo!movies "Brought Street Culture to Columbia, Made Muppet Movies, Began Homegrown Films" "INTERVIEW: TERENCE HOWARD AND STEPHANIE ALLAIN" "Jive Magazine Interview"