Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily. Frederick's reign saw the Holy Roman Empire achieve its greatest territorial extent, his political and cultural ambitions were enormous as he ruled a vast area beginning with Sicily and stretching through Italy all the way north to Germany. As the Crusades progressed, he styled himself its king. However, the Papacy became his enemy, it prevailed. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman emperors of antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; as such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily, his other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade.
At war with the papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily to the south, he was excommunicated four times and vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and after. Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was an avid patron of the arts, he played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, beginning around 1220, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian; the poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language. He was the first king to formally outlaw trial by ordeal, which had come to be viewed as superstitious. After his death his line did not survive, the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Furthermore, the Holy Roman Empire entered a long period of decline from which it did not recover until the reign of Charles V, 250 years later.
Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Donald Detwiler, who wrote: A man of extraordinary culture and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi, by Nietzsche the first European, by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI, he was known as the puer Apuliae. Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin such as son of a butcher. Frederick was baptised in Assisi. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans, his rights in Germany were disputed by Henry's brother Philip of Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy, traveling towards Germany, when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto.
Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, where he was crowned king on 17 May 1198, at just three years of age. Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, she established herself as regent. In Frederick's name she dissolved Sicily's ties to Germany and the Empire, created by her marriage, sending home his German counsellors and renouncing his claims to the German throne and empire. Upon Constance's death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Frederick's guardian. Frederick's tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III. Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henry's brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself and soon after invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year seized the young Frederick, he thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, who kept Frederick under his control in the royal palace of Palermo until 1206.
Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, where local barons and adventurers had usurped most of the authority. Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209. In southern Italy, Otto became the champion of those noblemen and barons who feared Frederick's strong measures to check their power, such as the dismissal of the pro-noble Walter of Palearia; the new emperor invaded Italy. In response, Innocent sided against Otto, in September 1211 at the Diet of Nuremberg Frederick was elected in absentia as German King by a rebellious faction backed by the pope. Innocent excommunicated Otto, forced to return to Germany. Frederick sailed to Gaeta with a small following, he agreed with the pope on a future separation between the Sicilian and Imperial titles, named his wife Constance as regent. Passing through Lombardy and Engadin, he reached Konstanz in September 1212, preceding Otto by a few hours.
Frederick was crowned as king on 9 December 1212 in Mainz. Frederick's authority in Germany rem
House of Zähringen
The House of Zähringen was a dynasty of Swabian nobility. Their name is derived from Zähringen castle near Freiburg im Breisgau; the Zähringer in the 12th century used the title of Duke of Zähringen, in compensation for having conceded the title of Duke of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098. The "Duchy of Zähringen" by definition consisted of the territories and fiefs held by the Zähringer, it was not seen as a duchy in equal standing with the old stem duchies; the Zähringer attempted to expand their territories in Swabia and Burgundy into a recognized duchy, but their expansion was halted in the 1130s due to their feud with the Welfs. They were granted the special title of Rector of Burgundy in 1127, they continued to use both titles until their extinction in 1218. Pursuing their territorial ambitions, they founded numerous cities and monasteries, on either side of the Black Forest as well as in the western Swiss plateau. After their extinction, parts of their territories reverted to the crown, other parts were divided between the houses of Kyburg, Urach and Fürstenberg.
The title of "Duke of Zähringen" was revived in the 19th century by the House of Baden, which shares descent from Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia with the House of Zähringen. The earliest known ancestor of the family was one Berthold, Count in the Breisgau, first mentioned in 962. In view of his name, he may have been related to the Alemannic Ahalolfing dynasty. Berthold's great-grandson, the Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, held several lordships in the Breisgau, in Thurgau and Baar. By his mother, he was related to the rising Hohenstaufen family. Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled, as upon Henry's death, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden to the position of Duke of Swabia in 1057. In compensation, Berthold was made Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona in 1061. However, this dignity was only a titular one, Berthold subsequently lost it when, in the course of the Investiture Controversy, he joined the rising of his former rival Rudolf of Rheinfelden against German king Henry IV in 1073.
Berthold's son Berthold II, who like his father fought against Henry IV, inherited a lot of the lands of Rudolf's son Count Berthold of Rheinfelden in 1090. Berthold II is so named both as head of the House of Zähringen. Berthold II did use the "Zähringen" name, although he moved his main residence from Zähringen Castle to the newly-built Freiburg Castle in 1091. In 1092, Berthold II was elected Duke of Swabia against Frederick I of Hohenstaufen. In 1098, he reconciled with Frederick, renounced all claims to Swabia and instead concentrated on his possessions in the Breisgau region, assuming the title of Duke of Zähringen, he was succeeded in turn by Berthold III and Conrad. In 1127, upon the assassination of his nephew Count William III, Conrad claimed the inheritance of the County of Burgundy against Count Renaud III of Mâcon. Renaud prevailed, though he had to cede large parts of the eastern Transjuranian lands to Conrad, who thereupon was appointed by Emperor Lothair III as a "rector" of the Imperial Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy.
This office was confirmed in 1152 and held by the Zähringen dukes until 1218, hence they are sometimes called "Dukes of Burgundy", although the existing Duchy of Burgundy was not an Imperial but a French fief. Duke Berthold IV, who followed his father Conrad and founded the Swiss city of Fryburg in 1157, spent much of his time in Italy in the train of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his son and successor, Berthold V, showed his prowess by reducing the Burgundian nobles to order. This latter duke was the founder of the city of Bern, when he died in February 1218, the ducal line of the Zähringen family became extinct. Among other titles, the Zähringen family acted as Reichsvogt of the Zürichgau area. After the extinction of the ducal line in 1218, much of their extensive territory in the Breisgau and modern-day Switzerland returned to the crown, except for their allodial titles, which were divided between the counts of Urach and the counts of Kyburg, both descended from the sisters of Berthold V.
Less than fifty years the Kyburgs died out and large portions of their domains were inherited by the House of Habsburg. Bern achieved the status of a free imperial city, whereas other cities such as Fribourg-Freiburg only obtained the same status in history. Berthold I held the comital titles of Breisgau, Thurgau, as well as being reeve in Stein am Rhein; the county of Thurgau was lost in c. 1077. Berthold II, founder of the House of Zähringen proper, in 1098 received Zähringen castle and the jurisdiction over Zürich. Ownership of the county of Rheinfelden and of Burgdorf dates to c. 1198. The "rectorate" of the county of Burgundy was granted in 1127. Ownership of Burgundy was contested, Zähringer de facto rule was limited to the parts of Upper Burgundy east of the Jura and north of Lake Geneva; the territories south of Lake Geneva were conceded to the Savoy an
Habsburg is a municipality in the district of Brugg in canton of Aargau in Switzerland. It lies about three kilometres southwest of the town of the capital of the district of Brugg. Habsburg is named after Habsburg Castle, built around 1020-1030 for Count Radbot of the nearby county of Klettgau in the Duchy of Swabia, which Habsburg was a part of at the time. While Bronze Age and Roman era artifacts have been discovered, a village named Habsburg isn't mentioned until 1027, as Habesbur or Habeburch; this reference comes from a copy of the original 1027 document. In 1114 it was mentioned Hauesborc; the documentation of the village in 1027 is contemporary with Count Radbot's construction of Habsburg Castle. It is believed; some historians and linguists believe the name may come from the Middle High German word'hab / hap' meaning ford, as it is located near a ford of the Aar River. Habsburg Castle became the originating family seat of the House of Habsburg, which went on to become one of the leading royal dynasties in Europe.
Habsburg Castle remained the property of the House of Habsburg until 1415, when Duke Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets lost the canton of Aargau to the Swiss Confederacy. The area around the Habsburg Castle and the modern municipality, was covered by forests that were only cleared around 1500, nearly half a millennium after Habsburg Castle was first constructed. Religiously, it was always part of the parish of Windisch; the community grew slowly. In 1529 there were only four houses in the village, the school was first built in 1747; the economy was exclusively agriculture until 1800 when a small plaster industry came to the village. In 1818, the schoolhouse was built, while in 1896 a fire pond were added; the municipal water supply was built in 1908 and in 1916 the village was connected to the electric grid. By 1960 the population decreased due from the remote location, but it grew again after 1971. Since 1984, there has been a Postauto bus to Habsburg. Habsburg has an area, as of 2009, of 2.23 square kilometers.
Of this area, 0.67 square kilometers or 30.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.36 square kilometers or 61.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.2 square kilometers or 9.0% is settled. Of the built up area and buildings made up 5.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.7%. 61.0% of the total land area is forested. Of the agricultural land, 25.6% is used for growing crops and 3.6% is pastures. The municipality is located in the Brugg district, it consists of the haufendorf village of Habsburg below Habsburg Castle. It is located above the Aare valley, directly east of the Wüpelsbergs, on which the castle is located; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is a depiction of Habsburg Castle, more described as Azure on a Mount Vert a House Azure roofed Gules with a square Tower masoned Sable or Azure, on a Mount Vert the Habsburg Silver roofed Gules Habsburg has a population of 433 As of June 2009, 6.5% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 6.8%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most French being third. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Habsburg is. Of the adult population, 51 people or 11.9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 55 people or 12.9% are between 30 and 39, 90 people or 21.1% are between 40 and 49, 69 people or 16.2% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 37 people or 8.7% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 29 people or 6.8% are between 70 and 79, there are 5 people or 1.2% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 2 people or 0.5% who are 90 and older. As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.54, about equal to the cantonal average of 0.57 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m2 as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms and habitable cellars and attics. About 62.3 % of the total households were in other words did not pay rent. As of 2000, there were 9 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household, 50 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, 79 homes with 5 or more persons in the household.
The average number of people per household was 2.56 individuals. In 2008 there were 90 single family homes out of a total of 171 apartments. There were a total of 1 empty apartments for a 0.6% vacancy rate. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 2.4 new units per 1000 residents. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 42.1% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP and the Green Party; the entire Swiss population is well educated. In Habsburg about 88.1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Of the school age population, there are 20 students attending primary school in the municipality; the historical population is given in the following table: Habsburg Castl
The Barons' Crusade called the Crusade of 1239, was in territorial terms the most successful crusade since the First. Called by Pope Gregory IX, the Barons' Crusade broadly spanned from 1234-1241 and embodied the highest point of papal endeavor "to make crusading a universal Christian undertaking." Gregory called for a crusade in France and Hungary with different degrees of success. Although the crusaders did not achieve any glorious military victories, they used diplomacy to play the two warring factions of the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty against one another for more concessions than Frederick II gained during the more well-known Sixth Crusade. For a few years, the Barons' Crusade returned the Kingdom of Jerusalem to its largest size since 1187; this crusade to the Holy Land is sometimes discussed as two separate crusades: that of King Theobald I of Navarre, which began in 1239. Additionally, the Barons' Crusade is described in tandem with Baldwin of Courtenay's concurrent trip to Constantinople and capture of Tzurulum with a separate, smaller force of crusaders.
This is because Gregory IX attempted to redirect the target his new crusade from liberating the Holy Land from Muslims to protecting the Latin Empire of Constantinople from heretical Christians. Despite plentiful primary sources, scholarship until has been limited, due at least in part to the lack of major military engagements. Although Gregory IX went further than any other pope to create an ideal of Christian unity in the process of organizing the crusade, in practice the crusade's divided leadership did not reveal a unified Christian action or identity in response to taking a cross. At the end of the Sixth Crusade in February 1229, Frederick II and Al-Kamil signed a 10-year truce. Using diplomacy alone and without major military confrontation, Frederick was given control of Jerusalem, Sidon and Bethlehem. However, the treaty was set to expire in 1239, which endangered Christian control of the territories. Additionally, the Sixth Crusade was wildly unpopular among the native Christian leaders because the excommunicated Frederick left them defenseless, allied with their Muslim enemies, attempted to gain control over the Holy Land for the House of Hohenstaufen rather than restore the territories to the local barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Therefore, in 1234, Pope Gregory IX proclaimed that a new crusade should arrive in the Holy Land by 1239 to ensure Christian control. In his effort to unite the Christians to defend the crusaders' territorial control in the Holy Land, Gregory issued the papal bull Rachel suum videns, used by mendicant friars to promote the crusade in every corner of Christendom. Rachel suum videns reinforced the usage of a vow of redemption policy initiated by previous Pope Innocent III in his bull Quia maior during his campaign for the Fifth Crusade. However, Innocent did not ask all Christians to redeem their vows. To make this crusade universal, Gregory obliged all Christians to attend crusade sermons, aiming to pray for the successful outcome and donate for the enterprise a large sum of money, one penny weekly for a decade; the preaching campaign had different success. While Italy and Spain were mildly enthusiastic about Gregory's crusade, in Hungary, a few nobles and ecclesiastical officials became more engaged into the campaign.
English and French knights and nobles also supported the pope's enterprise. About a year in December 1235, Gregory began numerous attempts to then redirect this planned crusade away from the Holy Land to instead combat the spread of Christian heresy in Latin Greece, his attempt to divert the crusade to assist the Latin Empire of Constantinople was unsuccessful. The Latin emperor, John of Brienne, the most vigorous papal supporter out of the other rulers, permitted in Constantinople the presence of a Latin patriarch, which promised a possibility of unifying both Greek and Latin churches; the Hungarian military elite headed by its king Bela I relinquished to go to Constantinople to fight the invading schismatics John III Doukas Vatatzes of Nicaes and Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria. In the summer of 1239, Hungarian king Bela allowed the heir to the Latin empire, Baldwin of Courtenay to cross the Hungarian border but declined to join Baldwin on his way to Constantinople. Pope Gregory wrote a letter to the Dominicans' prior in Hungary asking him to preach the cross within the empire and exchange the vows for Jerusalem given by crusaders on those to Constantinople in return for indulgence.
The pope promised indulgence to every soldier as well as to anyone who contributed money to the crusade. In February 1241, Gregory ordered to redirect the revenues collected in Hungary for a new military campaign against Frederic II, the German emperor. Baldwin of Courtenay, arrived in Constantinople first while nobility. In 1235, Gregory called upon French crusaders to fight in Constantinople instead of the Holy Land. On December 16, the pope ordered the Franciscan William of Cordelle to preach for crusade in Latin Greece. Theobald of Champagne responded to the call due to his need for papal support, but he ended up refusing to commute his vow for Jerusalem. In December 1238, Theobald received funding from Gregory for his crusade to Jerusalem; the disjointed groups of French barons traveled separately to the Holy Land, where they faced military defeat followed by diplomatic success. The English barons, including brothers-in-law Richard o
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title.
The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph became King of Germany in 1273, the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs and their descendants ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria.
It was succeeded by the Vaudémont branch of the House of Lorraine, descendants of Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, because it was confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918; the Lorraine branch continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.
Their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Germany, kings of the Romans) Rulers of Austria Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives, his grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosg
Staufen im Breisgau
Staufen im Breisgau is a German town in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district of Baden-Württemberg. It has a population of 7,600 inhabitants; the city of Staufen im Breisgau lies in the Land district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. The City of Staufen has 7700 inhabitants and forms, together with the community of Münstertal, Black Forest, a community administrative unit, it is noted in history and culture for its association with Dr Faustus who, according to one source, the Zimmern Chronicle, died in or near Staufen around 1540. Staufen lies at the foot of the Black Forest at the exit from the Münstertal; the Black Forest valley of Neumagen goes here directly over into the Rhine plain. The piedmont of the Black Forest is less distinct. North of the valley exit, the steeply rising old castle ruins dominates. Staufen lies on the border between two natural and economic areas: the Rhine plain up to the piedmont with its cultivation of grain and vegetables. Since 2008, the centre of the city has reported to have risen some 12 centimetres, after sinking a few millimeters.
This has caused considerable damage to buildings in the city centre, including the historical town hall. The cause for this geological change has been identified as a drilling operation conducted in the summer and autumn of 2007 to provide geothermal heating to the city hall; the drilling perforated an anhydrite layer and caused high-pressure groundwater to come into contact with the anhydrite, which began to expand. By 2010, some sections of town had risen by 30 centimetres. In July 2013, no end to the rising process was in sight. Data from the TerraSAR-X radar satellite before and after the changes have confirmed the localised nature of the situation. "A geochemical process called. This is a transformation of the mineral anhydrite into gypsum. A pre-condition for this transformation is that the anhydrite is in contact with water, stored in its crystalline structure". Staufen is located next to the Münstertal railway which runs from Bad Krozingen to Münstertal, Black Forest; the railway was electrified in 2013 and is operated by the Südwestdeutsche Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft.
Official website Staufen:images