Louis-Philippe Brodeur, baptised Louis-Joseph-Alexandre Brodeur was a Canadian journalist, politician, federal Cabinet minister, Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada, puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. Born in Beloeil, Quebec, he was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1891 election as Liberal Member of Parliament for Rouville, Quebec, he represented the riding continuously until his retirement prior to the 1911 election. Brodeur came from a Rouges family, his father fought in the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837, his maternal grandfather was killed in the Rebellion's Battle of Saint-Charles. As a young man, Brodeur studied law, graduating in 1884 with an LL. B. from the Université Laval. He worked as a young lawyer with Honoré Mercier, before establishing his own law firm of Dandurand and Brodeuer with Raoul Dandurand, he engaged in journalism for Liberal newspapers such as la Patrie and L'Électeur before becoming editor of Le Soir. He was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons at the age of 29.
After the Liberals won the 1896 election, Brodeur was appointed deputy speaker. He became Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada following the 1900 election, he was appointed as a Queen's Counsel in 1899. In 1904, he was appointed to the Laurier Cabinet as Minister of Inland Revenue where he introduced anti-trust legislation to protect tobacco farmers from the monopolistic practices of the American Tobacco Company. In 1906, he was promoted to Minister of Marine and Fisheries and reorganized the Montreal Harbours Commission and instituted reforms in the department to reduce patronage and corruption. Brodeur was a member of the Canadian delegation to the 1907 Imperial Conference in London, helped negotiate a trade treaty with France. In 1910, he became Minister of the Naval Service and was responsible for introducing legislation to create the Canadian Navy; this signified a move towards Canadian independence from Britain. It was opposed by the Conservative Party, which preferred Canada's participation in the British Navy.
By the end of his term, the new Navy consisted of two cruisers, one on each coast. The policy of creating a Canadian Navy was opposed by French-Canadian nationalists such as Henri Bourassa who feared that the Canadian Navy would only be used as a device to engage Canada in British wars. Prior to the 1911 election, Brodeur retired from politics and was appointed by Laurier to a seat on the Supreme Court of Canada, he retired from the court in 1923 to accept an appointment as the 13th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. He died on New Year's Day 1924 in Quebec City. Louis-Philippe Brodeur married Emma Brillon, daughter of J. R. Brillon, of Belœil, P. Q. in June 1887. Their son, attained the rank of Rear Admiral in the Royal Canadian Navy; the École Victor-Brodeur in Esquimalt, British Columbia, is named after him. Victor's son Nigel attained the rank of Vice Admiral. Castonguay, René. "Brodeur, Louis-Philippe". In Cook, Ramsay. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV. University of Toronto Press. Supreme Court of Canada biography Louis-Philippe Brodeur – Parliament of Canada biography
Quebec City Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country; the Algonquian people had named the area Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows", because the Saint Lawrence River narrows proximate to the promontory of Quebec and its Cape Diamant. Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement here in 1608, adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America; the ramparts surrounding Old Quebec are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico. This area was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec"; the city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac hotel that dominates the skyline and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence.
The National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French. In English, the city and the province are distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, the accent is omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are distinguished by the presence or absence of a definite article in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer Jacques Cartier with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter; the fort was in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life; the name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's Francophone population; the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led during the Anglo-French War. Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had ended, worked to have the lands returned to France; as part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763.
It was the site of three battles during Seven Years' War: a French victory. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763. At the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants; the town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city m
Arthur Cyrille Albert Malouin was a Canadian lawyer and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. Born in Quebec City, Canada East, the son of Jacques Malouin and Marie-Angélique Suzor, he received a Bachelor of Law degree from Université Laval in 1882, he was practised law in Quebec City. In an 1898 by-election, he was acclaimed to the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal for the riding of Quebec-Centre, he was re-elected in 1900 and 1904. In 1905, he was appointed a Puisne Judge of Arthabasca District. On January 30, 1924, he was appointed to the Supreme Court but served only until October 1, 1924. Albert Malouin – Parliament of Canada biography Supreme Court of Canada biography
Université Laval is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Canada. The University was founded by royal charter issued by Queen Victoria in 1852, with roots in the founding of the Séminaire de Québec in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, making it the oldest centre of higher education in Canada and the first North American institution to offer higher education in French; the university, whose campus was erected from the 1950s onward in the suburban borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge, is ranked among the top ten Canadian universities in terms of research funding and holds four Canada Excellence Research Chairs. The university began as the Séminaire de Québec, founded in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, a member of the House of Laval and the first Bishop of New France. During the French Regime the institution trained priests to serve in New France. After the Conquest of 1760, the British expanded education in Canada to include the liberal arts. French Canadians had at the time no opportunity to pursue higher education, Bishop Bourget of Montreal suggested expanding the Séminaire de Québec into Université Laval.
Louis Casault, a priest who taught physics at the Séminaire de Québec, went to Europe to seek a royal charter and study the best university systems there. The Séminaire de Québec was granted a royal charter on December 8, 1852, by Queen Victoria, at the request of Lord Elgin, creating Université Laval with "the rights and privileges of a university"; the charter was signed in 1852. Pope Benedict XV approved the plan and authorized the institution to establish chairs of theology and confer degrees. In 1878, the university opened a second campus in Montreal, which became the Université de Montréal on May 8, 1919, by a writ of Pope Benedict XV. In 1971, a second charter transferred all authority to the Université Laval council. By 1925, the university had outgrown its location; the Old City was crowded, making it difficult to add new buildings to the campus. The university moved to Sainte-Foy in the 1950s, which at the time was a semi-rural community west of the Quebec city centre; the School of Architecture returned to the old building in 1989.
Université Laval is governed by a board of a faculty senate. This structure was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to serve as a link between the two bodies and lead the institution. In the early part of the 20th century, the need for higher education expanded beyond the classical fields of theology and medicine, the university introduced science and social-science departments such as forestry and household science. In addition, graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced."Laval", a waltz by French-Canadian ragtime composer, Wilfrid Beaudry, was dedicated to the students at Laval University and the University of Montreal.
The music for piano was published in Québec by J. Beaudry, circa 1906; the university opened its department of social and economic sciences in 1938, signalling a change of approach that continued into the 1960s, based on an idea of higher education as the key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and society. The royal charter that founded Université Laval in 1852 was designated a National Historic Event in 1972. After it was granted a university charter, several buildings were built in Old Quebec, including the School of Chemistry, the addition on Ste. Famille Street, the Mining School, the cafeteria building, all by architect Joseph Simeon Bergeron. However, the neighborhood was crowded and activities moved in nearby Sainte-Foy, more spacious. Today's campus covers 1.2 km2 and has over 30 buildings, including many iconic exemplars of modern architecture. Its earliest buildings and landscapes were designed by Edouard Fiset from the 1950s, of its lands, 56 percent are wooded areas and sports fields.
Pratically all buildings are linked by 10 km of underground walkways, which are useful in the winter and whose walls are covered by murals painted by student associations and student visitors over the years, as well as graffiti. The campus is home to the Roger-Van den Hende botanical garden which contains some 67 species of deciduous and coniferous trees and 60 different species of birds; the Louis-Jacques-Casault building hosts the regional branch of the National Archives of Quebec. The sport building is said to be the largest sport complex in eastern Canada, it is adjacent to the covered TELUS stadium. Apart from the school of architecture, located in Old Quebec since 1988, the only out of campus facilities are the school of visual arts in the downtown neighborhood of Saint-Roch's, the experimental Montmorency forest; as of 2002, Université Laval offered over 350 programs to more than 38,000 students. The university attracts more than 2,500 foreign students annually, has 1,000 students drawn from Canadian provinces outside of Quebec.
Many students come to the university for the Français pour non-francophones program that offers instruction in French as a second language to students from Canada and around the world
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth prime minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930 and 1935–1948, he is best known for his leadership of Canada throughout the Second World War when he mobilized Canadian money and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining morale on the home front. A Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history. Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition, played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state. King acceded to the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1919. Taking the helm of a party bitterly torn apart during the First World War, he reconciled factions, unifying the Liberal Party and leading it to victory in the 1921 election, his party was out of office during the harshest days of the Great Depression in Canada, 1930–35.
He handled complex relations with the Prairie Provinces, while his top aides Ernest Lapointe and Louis St. Laurent skillfully met the demands of French Canadians. During the Second World War, he avoided the battles over conscription and ethnicity that had divided Canada so in the First World War. Though few major policy innovations took place during his premiership, he was able to synthesize and pass a number of measures that had reached a level of broad national support. Scholars attribute King's long tenure as party leader to his wide range of skills that were appropriate to Canada's needs, he understood the workings of labour. Keenly sensitive to the nuances of public policy, he was a workaholic with a shrewd and penetrating intelligence and a profound understanding of the complexities of Canadian society. A modernizing technocrat who regarded managerial mediation as essential to an industrial society, he wanted his Liberal Party to represent liberal corporatism to create social harmony. King worked to bring compromise and harmony to many competing and feuding elements, using politics and government action as his instrument.
He led his party for 29 years, established Canada's international reputation as a middle power committed to world order. King's biographers agree on the personal characteristics, he lacked the charisma of such contemporaries as Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, or Charles de Gaulle. He lacked a commanding oratorical skill. Cold and tactless in human relations, he had many political allies but few close personal friends, he never lacked a hostess whose charm could substitute for his chill. He kept secret his beliefs in spiritualism and use of mediums to stay in contact with departed associates and with his mother, allowed his intense spirituality to distort his understanding of Adolf Hitler throughout the late 1930s. A survey of scholars in 1997 by Maclean's magazine ranked King first among all Canada's prime ministers, ahead of Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir Wilfrid Laurier; as historian Jack Granatstein notes, "the scholars expressed little admiration for King the man but offered unbounded admiration for his political skills and attention to Canadian unity."
On the other hand, political scientist Ian Stewart in 2007 found that Liberal activists have but a dim memory of him. King was born in Ontario, to John King and Isabel Grace Mackenzie, his maternal grandfather was William Lyon Mackenzie, first mayor of Toronto and leader of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. His father was a lawyer, a professor at Osgoode Hall Law School. King had three siblings, he attended Berlin High School. Tutors were hired to teach him more politics, math and French, his father was a lawyer with a struggling practice in a small city, never enjoyed financial security. His parents lived a life of shabby gentility, employing servants and tutors they could scarcely afford, although their financial situation improved somewhat following a move to Toronto around 1890, where King lived with them for several years in a duplex located on Beverley Street while studying at the University of Toronto. King became a lifelong practising Presbyterian with a dedication to applying Christian virtues to social issues in the style of the Social Gospel.
He never favoured socialism. King earned five university degrees, he obtained three degrees from the University of Toronto: B. A. 1895, LL. B. 1896 and M. A. 1897. B. in 1896 from Osgoode Hall Law School. While studying in Toronto he met a wide circle of friends, he was an early member and officer of the Kappa Alpha Society, which included a number of these individuals. It encouraged debate on political ideas, he met Arthur Meighen, a future political rival. King was concerned with issues of social welfare and was influenced by the settlement house movement pioneered by Toynbee Hall in London, England, he played a central role in fomenting a students' strike at the university in 1895. He was in close touch, behind the scenes, with Vice-Chancellor William Mulock, for whom the strike provided a chance to embarrass his rivals Chancellor Edward Blake and President Jam