World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Lamington National Park
The Lamington National Park is a national park, lying on the Lamington Plateau of the McPherson Range on the Queensland/New South Wales border in Australia. From Southport on the Gold Coast the park is 85 kilometres to the southwest and Brisbane is 110 kilometres north; the 20,600 hectares Lamington National Park is known for its natural environment, birdlife, ancient trees, walking tracks and mountain views. Protected areas to the east in Springbrook National Park and south along the Tweed Range in the Border Ranges National Park around Mount Warning in New South Wales conserve similar landscapes; the park is part of the Shield Volcano Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The park is part of the Scenic Rim Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of several species of threatened birds. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Lamington National Park was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".
Most of the park is situated 900 metres above sea level only 30 kilometres from the Pacific's ocean shores. The plateaus and cliffs in Lamington and Springbrook National Parks are the northern and north western remnants of the huge 23-million-year-old Tweed Volcano, centered around Mount Warning. Elevation in the south of the park is above 1,000 metres in some parts; the land declines to under 700 metres in the north. Some of the mountains in the park include Mount Hobwee, Mount Widgee, Mount Toolona, Mount Cominan, Mount Roberts and Mount Bithongabel, containing much of Australia's few cloud forests; the Nerang River, Albert River and Coomera River all have their source in Lamington National Park. Eastern parts of the park feature high cliffs; the park is within the City of Gold Scenic Rim Region local government areas. Southern Lamington and sections of O'Reilly, Binna Burra and Natural Bridge are protected with Lamington National Park. For at least 6000 years, Aboriginal people visited these mountains.
The Wangerriburras and Nerangballum tribes claimed home to the plateau territory. 900 years ago the indigenous population began to decline. Bushrangers Cave, close to Mount Hobwee and is 60 metres long, was once an aboriginal camp; this site shows Aboriginal occupation going back 10,000 years. Captain Patrick Logan and Allan Cunningham were the first European explorers in the area; the timber cutters soon followed, including the Lahey family who owned one of Queensland's largest timber mills at the time. In 1863 a survey of the Queensland/New South Wales border was conducted; the task was carried out by Francis Edward Roberts and Isaiah Rowland, both surveyors, who had to define the border along the highest points in dense rainforest where there were few clear lines of sight. Robert Collins campaigned for the protection of the area from logging from the 1890s. Collins entered state parliament and saw a bill passed that preserved state forests and national parks but he died before the McPherson Range was protected.
It was another local, Romeo Lahey who recognised the value of preserving the forests. He campaigned to make it one of the first protected areas in Queensland; the O’Reilly family established a guesthouse near the park in 1926, now named O'Reilly's Rainforest Retreat, founding members of the National Parks Association of Queensland built Binna Burra Lodge next to the park in the 1930s. Lamington National Park was established in 1915; the park was named after Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1902. In 1937, Bernard O'Reilly became a hero when he rescued the survivors from the Airlines of Australia Stinson Model A airliner City of Brisbane, which had crashed in the remote Lamington wilderness. In typical Australian bushman fashion he embarked on his rescue mission taking only onions and bread to eat. Only a small portion of the original wreck remains today, 10 km south of the O'Reilly's guesthouse. Rugged mountain scenery, caves, wildflower heaths, tall open forests, varied wildlife and some of the best bushwalking in Queensland are protected in Lamington National Park.
One of Queensland’s best-loved parks, Lamington is the core of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves Australia World Heritage Area along the adjoining Border Ranges National Park in New South Wales. David Attenborough visited and filmed the park while making the 1979 television series Life on Earth in which beech trees and bowerbirds were featured; the national park protects one of the most diverse areas of vegetation in the country. The park’s lush rainforests include one of the largest upland subtropical rainforest remnants in the world and the most northern Antarctic beech cool temperate rainforests in Australia; the roots of the oldest Antarctic beech trees are over 5,000 years old. Around Mount Widgee numbers of Antarctic beech appear to be increasing; the park protects one of the country's largest remaining forests of hoop pine which are found on the drier slopes. Below 880 metres the white booyong and black booyong are found. In higher elevations the yellow carabeen, red carabeen, pigeonberry ash and soft corkwood trees predominate.
Many of Lamington's plants are found nowhere else on earth, such as O’Reilly's pittosporum, the Lamington peach myrtle, the Mt Merino eyebright and everlasting daisy which are subalpine relics from the last ice age. In 2006 it was realised that an old collection of the eastern underg
Yatala is a suburb in the outer northern area of City of Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. Surrounding suburbs of Yatala include Beenleigh and Stapylton. Yatala and adjoining suburbs are located near the confluence of the Albert River, at the northern end of the suburb. A property on the Albert River was acquired by a South Australian who named the property after Yatala Harbor near Port Augusta, South Australia; the word is presumed to be from the Kaurna Aboriginal word'yertalla', meaning water running by the side of a river. As a place name it referred to the inundation of the usually-dry plain either side of Dry Creek in South Australia after heavy rain. Since 2006 development has been occurring within the suburb, with over 300 businesses now established within its boundaries; this type of urban development is predicted to encompass all the semi-rural land separating the Brisbane Metropolitan Area and Gold Coast City. There is 6 kilometres of this land remaining between the two cities. In 1988, Bernie Powers operating as Power's Brewery opened a new brewery in Yatala on a site bounded by Cuthbert Drive to the east, Darlington Drive to the north and Pearson Road to the west.
Powers entered a joint venture with Carlton & United Breweries in 1992 and sold to them in 1993. For CUB, it provided a modern efficient plant on a large site, ideal for their northern brewing operations. By 2010, CUB had expanded by the plant to over 20 times its original size, enabling it to produce one quarter of Australia's beer. Yatala is the base for Supercar team Matt Stone Racing, was the base for Stone Brothers Racing and Erebus Motorsport. Kanga Loaders, a heavy machinery manufacturer, are headquatered in Yatala. Yatala is home to the Yatala Pie Shop which claims to have been "a landmark in the Yatala area" for "more than 130 years" as of 2011; the restaurant is considered a common stop-over for travellers between the Gold Coast. There are no permanent public libraries in the vicinity of Yatala, however the Gold Coast City Council operates a mobile library which visits the nearby suburb of Ormeau. Yatala is linked to both Beenleigh and Ormeau railway stations by bus routes 728 and 729, operated by Surfside Buslines.
Yatala Pie Shop - 48 Old Pacific Hwy, Yatala QLD 4207, 3287 2468 Mainmark Ground Engineering - Computer Rd, Yatala QLD 4207, 1800 623 312 GCI Group - 47 Business St, Yatala QLD 4207, 3807 0300 Addlife Timber Australia - 33 Binary St, Yatala QLD 4207, 3382 9400 Cronos Steel Processing - 22 Computer Rd, Yatala QLD 4207, 3804 5233 Hock Your Ride - 3/2 Elderslie Rd, Yatala QLD 4207, 3801 8808 Zinfra - 29 Commerce Circuit, Yatala QLD 4207, 3498 7600
Wonglepong is a rural locality in the Scenic Rim Region of Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 Australian Census Wonglepong recorded a population of 367. Wonglepong straddles a valley upstream from. Development is centered along Beaudesert Nerang Road. In the east the slopes of the valley rise towards the Tamborine Mountain plateau; the name Wonglepong was the name of the local railway station name from 1927. Wonglepong is believed to be an Aboriginal name meaning either forgotten sound or referring to some feature of Mount Tamborine. There was a station at Wonglepong along the Canungra railway line, which operated from 1915 to 1955. Wonglepong has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 2779 Beaudesert-Nerang Road: Wonglepong QCWA Hall The Wonglepong branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the Wonglepong QCWA Hall at 2779 Beaudesert Nerang Road. Media related to Wonglepong, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
City of Gold Coast
The City of Gold Coast is the local government area spanning the Gold Coast, Queensland and surrounding areas. Based on resident population in the 2016 census, it is the second largest local government area in Australia, its council maintains a staff of over 2,500. It was established in 1948, but has existed in its present form since 2008. By the late 1870s, the Government of Queensland had become preoccupied with the idea of getting local residents to pay through rates for local services, which had become a massive cost to the colony and were undermaintained in many areas; the McIlwraith government initiated the Divisional Boards Act 1879 which created a system of elected divisional boards covering most of Queensland. It was assented by the Governor on 2 October 1879, on 11 November 1879, the Governor gazetted a list of 74 divisions which would come into existence. Four of these—Nerang, Coomera and Waterford—were in the Gold Coast region. Southport was developed as both an administrative centre as well as a holiday destination with hotels and guesthouses to cater for visitors.
Town dwellers had different needs to the rural landholders so Southport ratepayers lobbied the colonial government to create a separate Divisional Board so that rates monies raised by Southport landholders could be spent on town improvements. This resulted in the establishment of the Southport Division on 14 July 1883 by an amalgamation of part of Nerang Division and part of Coomera Division. On 31 March 1903, following the enactment of the Local Authorities Act 1902, the divisions became shires. On 12 June 1914, the Town of Coolangatta was created from part of the Shire of Nerang, on 12 April 1918, Southport became a Town. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council created the Town of South Coast by amalgamating Town of Southport, Town of Coolangatta and coastal sections of the Shire of Nerang, creating a narrow coastal strip; the same Order abolished all of the earlier Shires and amalgamated most of their area into the new Shire of Albert, with the rest becoming part of the Shire of Beaudesert.
The Order came into effect on 10 June 1949. On 23 October 1958, the Town of the South Coast adopted the name of Town of Gold Coast, on 16 May 1959, the Town was proclaimed as the City of Gold Coast by the Governor of Queensland, having met the requirements for city status. Most of what is now regarded as the Gold Coast urban area was at that time located within the Shire of Albert, which had its administrative offices in Nerang-Southport Road, Nerang. On 19 March 1992, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its report External Boundaries of Local Authorities, recommended a number of changes to local government boundaries and the amalgamation of some local governments. Although their recommendations only included boundary adjustments between the Gold Coast City and Albert Shire, the outcome following much public debate was a decision by the Queensland Government to absorb Albert Shire into Gold Coast City; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994, resulting in the amalgamation of the Shire of Albert into Gold Coast City at the 1995 local government elections.
In 2007, as part of a report recommending massive amalgamation of local government in Queensland, the Local Government Reform Commission recommended that the Beenleigh-Eagleby region on the Gold Coast's northern border be transferred to Logan City, on the basis that a common community of interest existed and that planning of the South East Queensland urban footprint would be made more efficient by the change. The area to be excised was estimated by the Commission to have an area of 49 km2 and a population of 40,148; the change took effect at 15 March 2008 local government elections. The Gold Coast has many heritage-listed sites, including those at: Currumbin Main Beach Pimpama Numinbah Valley South Stradbroke Island Southport Springbrook Surfers Paradise Tallebudgera Willow Vale Gold Coast City has been divided into 14 divisions, each electing one councillor at elections held every four years; the most recent local government election was on 19 March 2016. Additionally, a mayor is elected by the entire City.
The present mayor is Cr Tom Tate, with Cr Donna Gates as Deputy Mayor. Populations are provided below for the Gold Albert entities; as Albert included the entire Logan City area prior to 1978, figures are only provided from the 1976 census. The first municipal library on the Gold Coast opened in the Southport Town Hall on 30 April 1958. Prior to this, a series of School of arts and private circulating libraries had supported the communities' and visitors' recreational and educational reading needs; the City of Gold Coast has 12 libraries at Broadbeach, Burleigh Heads, Burleigh Waters, Elanora, Nerang, Palm Beach, Runaway Bay and Upper Coomera. There is a special needs library within a Local Studies Library; the council operate a mobile library service. In 2018, the mobile library provides a fortnight service to Alberton, Benowa, Cedar Creek, Currumbin Valley, Jacobs Well, Ormeau, Paradise Point, Tugun, Tallabudgera Valley, Woongoolba; the Gold Coast City Library is a member of the Queensland Public Libraries Association.
Gold Coast University Hospital Tugun Desalination Plant Raising of Hinze Dam Southport Broadwater Pa
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a